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THE 


TECHNOLOGIST. 


A MONTHLY RECORD OF 


Serena $j$i*fc to grt, $pwmfatta, anfo Cttlto. 


EDITED BT 


PETER LUND SIMMONDS, 


Author of "The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom," " A 


Dictionary of Trade Products," " The Curiosities of Food,''' 


" Waste Products, and Undeveloped Substances," 


&C. &C. &G. 


Volume IV. 


LONDON : 


KENT & CO., PATE EN OS TEE E W. 


MDCCCLXIV. 



-f, 



INTED BY M'GOWAN AND DAXKB, GREAT WINI'MILL STREET, HATMARKET. 



July 1, 1864.] THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Notes on the Properties op Wood. By Joseph Justen ... 1 

The Paper Manufacture. By Benjamin Lambert 13 

The Veronica Quinquefolia as a Bemedy for Scrofula. By William 

K. Prince .22 

Petroleum and Photogen. By W. Procter, M.D., F.C.S. ... 24 
On the Owala or Opochala of Western Africa and its Seeds. By 

John R. Jackson . 32 

The Tallow Tree (Stillingia Sebifera) and* the Pela, or Insect 

Wax of China. By D. J. Macgowan, M.D. (With Illustrations.) . 33 
On the Trade in Cork Bark. By the Editor ...... 42 

The Hard Woods of Commerce. By P. L. Simmonds . . ..49 

The Application of Alfa or Esparto to the Manufacture of Paper. 

• By Jules Barse 59 

On the Different Species of Ilex employed in the Preparation of 

the ' Yerba de Mate,' or Paraguay Tea. By John Miers, F.R.S., 

F.L.S., &c. . . 70 

Substitutes for Wax. By Barnard S. Proctor ..... 76 

Algerian Products. By Paul Madinier 73 

Rise and Progress of the Hosiery Manufacture. By William Felkin 81 
Stained Glass and Glass used for Decoration. By Apsley Pellatt . 90 

Explosibility of Coal Oils. By T. Allen 97 

Phosphate Nodules. By the Rev. George Henslow HI 

The Edible Fishes of Massachusetts. By David Humphreys Storer, M.D. 116 
Glass for Household Use and Fancy Purposes. By Apsley Pellatt . 120 
On Improvements in Machinery and Apparatus for Cleansing and 

Purifying Casks. By Robert Davison, C.E. . . ... .124 

Chemical Manufactures on the Tyne. By Messrs. J. C. Stevenson, 

R. C. Clapham, and T. Richardson 127, 175 

The Toot-Poison of New Zealand. By W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D. and 

F.R.S.Edin., F.L.S., &c 136 

A Visit to a Bone Boiling Factory. By N. B. Burgh, C.E. . . 13~ 
On the Engineering Manufactures of the Tyne and Neighbouring 

Districts. By Percy Westmacott, C.E., and J. F. Spencer . . 145 
The Productive Resources of Cyprus. By Mr. White, British Vice- 

Consul 15S 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. [July 1, 1864. 



IV CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

On the Manufacture of Aluminium. By Isaac Lowthian Bell . . 166 

The Trade of Marseilles. By Mr. Consul Mark 168 

On the Defects and Want of Strength of certain Modern Papers. 

By Dr. Van den Corput 182 

Gold in Western Africa. _ By Captain F. Burton 187 

Chemical Technology. By Professor James C. Booth . . . .193 

The China-Stone and China-Clats of Cornwall. By H. M. Stoker . 198 
On the Utility of the Natural Sciences. By W. S. W. Ruschen- 

berger, M.D. 210 

Chinese Horology, with Suggestions on the Form of Clocks adapted 

for the Chinese Market. By D. J. Macgowan, M.D. . . . 217 

The Cultivation of the Olive. By David Shepherd .... 225 
The Ichthyology of Nova Scotia, — The Common Herring. By J. 

Matthew Jones, F.L.S., and J. Bernard Gilpin, M.D 231 

Notes and Queries on Asiatic Copals. By M. C. Cooke . . . 241 

History of the Soda Manufacture. By William Gossage, F.C.S. . 246 

The Vegetable Ivory of Commerce. By the Editor \ . . . 259 

The Tanning Trade of Newcastle and Gateshead. By T. C. Angus 261 
Notes on some of the Edlble Fruits of the West Indies. By J. R. 

Jackson 264 

The Collection and Manufacture of Lac in the Nagpore Territory. 

By Ramasawmy Moodliar . . ' . 269 

The Commercial Products of the Fisheries in the Indian Ocean 

and the Eastern Seas. By the Editor . . ... 270 

China Green. By Professor H. Dussauce 277 

On Japanese Paper. By P. L. Simmonds ...... 278 

The Economic Products of the Palmyra Palm. By William Ferguson 281 



The Technology of some of the Products of the Distillation of 

Coal. By William Procter, M.D., F.C.S 289 

Oils and Fats. By Campbell Morfit 298 

Cinchona Culture and Botanical Operations ln Jamaica. By 

Nathaniel Wilson, Island Botanist 301 

Industrial Museums in their Relation to Commercial Enterprise. 

By the late Professor George Wilson 304 

Culture and Trade ln Sumach. By the Editor 324 

The Wild Rice op North America (Zizania Aquatica) . . .326 

The Trade ln Logwood. By the Editor 328 

Thb Paper-Tree of Siam (Ton-Khai), TrojMs Aspera, W. By Sir 

Robert H. Schomburgk, Ph.D., F.R.S., &c 337 

Some Economic Uses of Nuts and Seeds. By the Editor . . .339 
Asafcetlda in Affghanistan. A Supplementary Note. By M. C. 

Cooke 346 

Sericulture in Oudh. By Dr. E. Bonavia, Secretary of the Agri-Horti- 
cultural Society of Oudh 348 

On a Means of rendering Ostensible the Specific Weight of 

Woods, &c. By Professor J. Arnaudon 365 

On Malabar Cardamoms. By the Editor 369 

The Gems of Australia. By Dr. Bleasdale 372 

On Indian Fibres suited for the Paper-Maker. By the Editor . 377 
The Beech Morels of the Southern Hemisphere. ( With Illustrations.) 

By M. C. Cooke 385 



July 1, 1864.] THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



CONTENTS. V 

PAGE 

French Colonial Products in the Palais de L' Industrie, Paris. By- 
Edmund Goeze 392 

The Timber Trees of Cetlon. By W. Ferguson, F.L.S. . . 403,481 

The Extension of Tea Plantations in India 414 

The Manufacture of Vegetable Oils 425 

Woods of the Philippine Islands 427 

Laboratory Notes. Museum of Irish Industry, Dublin . . 429, 591 
On Granite and its Uses. By the late Professor George Wilson . 433, 495 
On the Straw Plait Trrde. By A. J. Tansley . . . 448 

A Visit to the Works of the Patent Plumbago Crucible Company. 

By J. C. Brough 464 

Notes on Some African Vegetable Products. By John R. Jackson . 471 
Industrial Museum, Leeds .......... 477 

History of the Gold Discoveries of New Zealand .... 510 

Compressed Asphalte 524 

Products of Distillation of Coal ........ 527 

Scientific Notes 47, 331, 384, 432, 479 

Manufacture of Paper Hangings 529 

Vegetable Materia Medica sold in the Bazaars of Baghdad, with 

Supplementary Notes. By M. C. Cooke ...... 537 

Pearl Fishery of Ceylon 546 

Silk Trade of Beyrout . 548 

Trade of Central Asia 550 



July 1, 1864] 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



INDEX. 



Abelmoscliu3 moschatus . 


344 


Alkali or soda ash, made on the 


Abhul 


538 


Tyne .... 


. 131 


Abrus precatorius seed 


340 


Aluminium, manufacture of . 166 


Absinth 


544 


Aluminium, manufacture of . 166 


Acacia eburnea 




410 


Algerian products . 


. 78 


Acacia leucophlea 




410 


Alum made on the Tyne . 


. 176 


Acacia tomeutosa 




410 


Algeria, textile plants of 


. 394 


Acmena zeylanica 




412 


Alligator apple . 


. 264 


Acacia catechu . 


. 


410 


Albizzia odoratissima 


. 410 


Acacia Lebbek. 




397 


Albizzia procera 


. 410 


Acacia pods, various, used for 




Alangi maram . 


. 413 


washing .... 


342 


Alintatas . 




Achyranthes aspera seeds. 


342 


Alamgium Lamarkiu 


.' 413 


Acrocomia sclerocarpa 


344 


Albizzia Lebbek 


. 410 


Actinodaphne speciosa 


489 


Algerian products . 


. 78 


Adansouia digitata fibre . 


477 


Aloes 


. 545 


Adansouia digatata . . 344 


404 


Alubo gaha 


. 412 


Adenanthera pavonina seeds . 


340 


Almonds . 


. 544 


Adenanthera pavonina . 


410 


Aln Bukhara . 


. 538 


Adenanthera bicolor. 


410 


Allaeanthus zeylanicus 


. 490 


Aetamba-gaha . 


408 


Allan-dugas 


. 490 


iEgle Marmelos 


406 


Alsiodaphne semicarpifoli 


L 


Mta. woeroela .... 


407 


Alstonia scholaris 


. 485 


iEtteriya 


406 


American marmalade 


. 267 


iEschynomene aspera 


409 


Amarana . 


. 410 


iEschynomene Indica 


409 


Ammoniacum . 


. 546 


^Ihoela . . . , . 


410 


Amygdalus communis 


. 540 


jEtdemata . 


487 


Amianthus for pottery 


. 334 


iEegiciras majus 


481 


Anchovy pear . 


• 267 


African vegetable products 


471 


Andara wood . 


. 406 


African Teak, weight of . 


3 


Ankenda . 


. 408 


Afsur 


538 


Anacardium occidentale 


. 409 


Afyun 


539 


Andara . 


. 410 


Ahoo-geha . 


413 


Ani-mulle 


• 410 


Ailanthus malabaricus 


408 


Anseri luneti . 


. 428 


Alfa for paper .... 


59 


Animal charcoal making 


• 140 


Alkali, its uses 


10 


Anisophyllea zeylanica 


• 412 


Alkali manufactures on the 




Anstrutheria zeylanica 


. 413 


Tyne . 




127 


Anamon patula 


. 492 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



[July 1, 1864. 





PAGE 


Antiaris innoxia 


490 


Anthemis nobilis 


538 


Anethura sowa 


539 


Anise seed .... 


538 


Apollonias zeylanica 


489 


Aporosa Lindeana . 


493 


Arachides -"seeds, imported at 




Marseilles .... 


170 


Arrowroot, wild of India . 


333 


Araucaria iaibricata seeds edible 


346 


Araucaria Bidwilli cones . 


345 


Aridde 


409 


Aralu-gaha .... 


411 


Areca horrida .... 


494 


Artocarpus Lakoocha 


490 


Artocarpus nobilis . 


490 


Areca catecbu . . . 493 


541 


Artocarpus integrifolia 


490 


Artocarpus incisa 


490 


Aralia papyrifera 


413 


Asafoetida in Affglianistan 


346 


Aspbalte, compressed 


524 


Ash wood, weight of 


3 


Asafoetida, mode of obtaining 




the gum resin 


347 


Asiatic copals .... 


241 


Astrocaryum vulgare 


398 


Atalanka monophylla 


406 


Asafoetida .... 


542 


Ashbek 


538 


Asarabac ..... 


538 


Asarum Europceum . 


538 




414 


Australian gems 


372 


Aviceimia officinalis . 


487 


Avocada pear .... 


266 


Azaderachta indica . 


408 


Ageram, a saponaceous plants 




of Algeria 


395 


Bauxite 


167 


Bassia butyracea 


398 


Bassia gabonensis . 


398 


Bastaid cedar .... 


404 


Barringtonia speciosa fruit 


344 


Bamboo, uses of 


336 


Badula 


409 


Bauhiuia tomentosa. 


410 


Bak-mu-gaha .... 


413 


Batha-Domba .... 


412 


Barringtonia acutangahu . 


412 


Barricara seeds. 


341 


Basil, sweet .... 


541 


Badiyan rumi .... 


538 


Babunej 


538 


Bamboo ..... 


494 


Bassia Parkii .... 


475 


Bassia latifolia. 


482 


Balanophora Indica . 


493 


Bassia lougifolia 


482 


Baobab pulp .... 


475 



Betel nuts .... 541 
Beech morels .... 385 
Belli-pata . . . .403 

Bertero's beech morel . . 388 
Bead tree oil . . . . 398 
Bermuda fibres . . . 334 

Berrya Am mo n ilia . . .404 
Benzoin ..... 544 

Beli 406 

Beiiya 411 

Bicarbonate of soda, made on the 

Tyne 131 

Biscuit of soft china, composi- 
tion for ■ 203 
Biotechnics .... 197 
Bignonia salina . . . 486 
Bladder nuts . . . .340 
Black and white shark fins for 

food ... . 272 

Black Dammar . . 243 

Black paper of Siam, how made 339 
Blackwiellia ceylanica . . 409 
Black cumin seed . . . 542 
Black pepper . . . .541 
Bleaching powder . . .135 
Blood plum of Sierra Leone . 475 
Bompland, on species of ilex . 74 
Bone boiling factory, description 

of 139 

Bourbon coffee .... 401 
Boxwood, aceo of .50 

Botany, utility of . . .211 
Bomhyx mylitta . . .350 
Bombay duck, a dried fish . 273 
Bonita fish . . . .273 
Borassus fiabelliformis, products 

of 281 

Bones, quantity imported. . 139 
Bones, uses of . , . . 140 
Bone black . . . .140 

Bones, products and uses of . 139 
Bonduc nuts . . . .341 
Boohoragas .... 405 
Bo-kaera-gas .... 408 
Bolongita wood . . . 427 

Borassus fiabelliformis . . 494 

Bookaenda . . . .492 
Bombay lettuce-tree . . 487 

Boosini ..... 487 
Boina nut .... 474 
Borassus ^Echiopicum . . 476 
Boehmeria malabarica . . 490 
Boswellia thurifera . . . 541 

Bo-gaba 491 

Brazil and Braziletto woods . 54 
Brazilian rosewood ... 56 
Brahmins' beads . . 339 

Brabejum stellatifolium . . 345 
Briedelia retusa . . . 492 
Brine, utilization of . . . 479 
Broussoneti kaminoki . . 278 



July 1, 1864.] 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



PAGE 

Brown ware, composition of . 204 
Bean bracelets .... 343 

Brialiya 405 

Buck shot . . . .341 
Buchanania latifolia kernels . 344 
Butea frondosa . . . 409 

Burntu gas . . . .408 
Bulu-gaha .... 411 
Bunya Bunya . . . .345 
Burtak, salted spiced fish. . 273 

Caryolobis Indica . . . 405 
Calamus rotang . . . 494 
Casuarina equisetifolia . . 493 
Caryota urens .... 493 
Callicarpe tomentosa . ; 487 
Carapa toloucana . . . 475 
Calosanthes Indica . • . 486 

Calamander wood . . . 482 

Carthamus tinctorius . .538 
Capsicum frutesceus . . 541 
Castor oil ... . 540 

Carrot seed .... 539 
Camomile flowers . . . 538 
Ceelodine polycarpa . . . 473 
Calabashes . . . .344 
Caladium giganteum, silky fibre 

of 400 

Calamander wood . . .54 
Calamansay . . . .428 

Calantas 427 

Calastrus rhombifolius, used for 

turnery at the Cape . . 53 
Callistem on salignus . . 53 
Callitris quadrivalvis . . 393 
Calophyllum inophyllum . . 407 
Calyophyllum tomentosum . 407 
Calophyllum Burmanni . . 407 
Calumbit. ... . .427 

Camaynam .... 428 

Camayon 427 

Campeachy wood . . . 329 

Camphor 542 

Campnospermum zeylanicum . 409 
Cauaiium commune fruit . . 345 
Canarium strictum . . . 243 
Canarium zeylanicum . . 409 
Canary wood .... 54 
Canna Indica seed . . . 341 
Canthium didymum . .414 

Carallia integerrima . . . 413 
Carbolic acid .... 293 
Cardamoms of Malabar . . 369 
Cardamom seed . . . 541 
Carica papaya . . . .268 
Carobs, or locust beans, export 

of from Cyprus . . .161 
Carraway seeds . . .541 

Carrot seeds . . - .342 
Carya arborea .... 412 
Cashmere silkworm . . 356, 36S 



Cassia fistula . . .410. 

Cassia fiorida . 

Cassia timoriensis . 

Castanospermum Australe 

Castanea Indica 

Cask-cleaning machinery . 

Casuarina equisetifolia bark 

Casuarina strata 

Casuarina suberosa . 

Catay boxwood of Paraguay 

Catophyllum Moonii 

Caustic soda, made on the Tyne 

Ceylon timber trees . . 403, 

Cedrela odorato 

Cement manufacture on the Tyne 

Cerbera Ahouai nuts 

Central Asia, trade of 

Celtis dysodoxylon . . . 

Celtis Wightii . 

Cerbera odolam 

Ceratonia siliqua seeds 

Chemical manufactures on the 
Tyne .... 127, 

Chemical technology 

China clays of Cornwall . 

Chinese horology 

China green .... 

China, hard ... 

Chinchona culture in Jamaica . 

Chinese dwarf bamboo 

Chilian pine seeds . 

China silkworm 

China stone .... 

Chilian beech morel . 

Chick stone .... 

Cherry and other stones carved 

Chickrassia tabularis 

Chloroxylon swietenia 

Chrysalids of cocoons, eaten by 
the Hovas .... 

Chionathus zeylanica 

Chaitocarpus castanocarpus 

Cinchona culture in Jamaica 

Cichorium intybus . 

Cinnamon 

Cinnamomum zeylanicum. 

Cichorium endivia . 

Cliff, a name for French lime- 
stone 

Cleghorn on India tea planta- 
tions 

Cloves ..... 

Cleidion Javanicum . 

Coal-oils, on explosibility of 

Cork bark, trade in . 

Copals, Asiatic 

Commercial products of Indian 
fisheries .... 

Coprolitcs .... 

Corks, manufactured, number of, 
imported yearly , 



PAGE 

542 
410 
410 
345 
345 
124 
400 
51 
51 
366 
407 
131 
481 
427 
180 
341 
545 
491 
491 
485 
342 

175 
193 
198 
217 
277 
203 
301 
495 
347 
365 
2C3 
391 
341 
343 
408 
408 

480 
484 
492 
301 
532 
540 
488 
539 

135 

414 

543 

492 

97 

42 

241 



111 
46 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



[July 1, 1864. 



Copper from roasted pyrites . 48 
Coal products .... 527 
Coryplia umbraculifera . . 34o 
Cocus wood .... 54 
Coromandel wood . . .54 
Commanderia, wine of Cyprus . 161 
Coal naphtha . . . .290 
Coffee imported into Marseilles 169 
Cocoa and palm oil imported at 

Marseilles . . . .170 
Cotton seed imported at Mar- 
seilles 170 

Cocoons, weight of, imported at 

Marseilles .... 171 
Copals of Asia . . . .241 
Coriaria ruscifolia . . .138 
Coix lachryma .... 341 
Cocoa-nut shells, uses of . . 343 
Conocarpus latifolia . . • 41 1 

Cochlosperrnum planchoni . 473 
Coal analyses .... 429 
Combretium decandrum . . 411 
Cocculus indicus . . .545 
Colchicum . . . .545 
Coriander seed . . . . 544 
Colocynth .... 541 
Coal analyses . . . 429, 521 
Coal products . . . .527 
Cocos nucifera . . . . 494 
Corypha umbra culifera . . 494 
Codarium acutifolium . .476 
Cordia myxa .... 486 
Conium maculatum . , . 539 
Coal mines of Marseilles . .173 
Craetagus pyracanthus . . 366 
Crysophyllum cainito . .267 
Crystals of soda, made on the 

Tyne 131 

Cream-colour ware, composition 

of 204 

Cryptocarya "W ightiana . . 489 
Crysophyllum Roxburghii . 481 
Cupressus sempervirens . . 394 
Cut-noses . ' . . . 340 

Cuttle-fish, dried, eaten in Japan 274 
Cummelmums . . . .273 
Custard apple seeds . . . 342 
Culture and trade iu Sumach . 324 
Cubebs . . . . .543 
Cumin seed .... 542 
Cucumber seed . . . 539 

Cucumis sativus . . . 539 
Cullenia excelsa . . . 404 
Cyttaria Darwinii . . .386 
Cyprus, productive resources of 158 
Cydonia vulgaris . . . 539 
Cycas circinalis . . . 476 
Cycas revoluta . . . 384 

Cyathocalyx zeylanicus . . 403 
Cytisus spinosus, a dye-wood . 400 
Cyprus cotton . . . .159 



Cyttarea Gunnii 
Cyttaria Berteroi 
Cyttaria Hookerii . 
Cyttaria disciformis . 
Cynometra ramiflora 
Cyrninosma pedunculata 

Dada-hirilla . 
Dalbergia Mooniana 
Dalbergia sissoo 
Dammara orientalis 
Dammars of India . 
Damson plum of Jamaica 
Daucus carota . 
Darwin's Beech morel 
Dasyauhis nerefolius 
Date stones 
Dattock fruit . 
Dawata-gaha . 
Dawanyia 
Dawu-gas 
Dawul-kirsunda 
Desmanthus virgatus seeds 
Detarium senegalense 
Dialium ovoideum . 
Dichrostachys cinerea 
Didya-dange . 
Dignenes, an edible fungi 
Dika bread, source of 
Dill seed 
Dillenia retusa 
Dil-gaha . 

Demosternon zeylanicus 
Diosphyros pilosanthera 
Diosphyros cordifolia 
Diosphyros ebenum . 
Diosphyros embryopteris 
Diosphyros hirsuta . 
Diosphyros nigra 
Diosphyros quesito . 
Dipterocarpus hispidus . 
Dipterocarpus glandulosus 
Dipterocarpus quiso 
Dipterocarpus zeylanicus 
Diwul 

Diya-na-gaha . 
Diya-Siembala 
Dolomite 

Dodonaea Burmannia 
Domba-keen . 
Dongon wood . 
Doom palm-fruit 
Doona congestiflora . 
Doona codifolia 
Doona trapezifolia . 
Doona zeylanica 
Doon-gas 
Dorona-tel oil . 
Dorana-gas 

Drab ware, composition of 
Dragon's blood 



406. 



491 

409 
410 
245 
242 
267 
539 
386 
482 
342 
475 
413 
404 
411 
489 
342 
475 
410 
410 
486 
389 
477 
539 
403 
490 
492 
428 
482 
483 
482 
482 
428 
482 
405 
405 
428 
405 
406 
407 
409 
176 
407 
407 
428 
349 
405 
405 
405 
405 
405 
405 
405 
205 
540 



July 1, 1864.] 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



PAGE 

Drivi-kadura .... 485 

Dried cuttle fish for food . . 274 

Dried molluscs . . . 274 
Duboisia myoporoides, suited for 

wood carving ... 53 

Dunstable plait . . . 450 
Durability and preservation of 

wood ; work by Kotschy on . 8 

Dwarf trees, method of growing 333 

Earthenware, different kinds of 204 
Ebenacese .... 482 
Ebony — black, green, and red . 54 
Economic products of the Pal- 
myra 281 

Edible fruits of the "West Indies 264 
Eella . . . . . .487 

Eels, American . . .117 

Eepetta 413 

Ehretia lsevis . . . .486 
Elaeocarpus ganitrus . . 339 
Elagokatu-gas . . . .406 
Ela-palol. . . . .486 
Elavummarum . . . 404 

Elittani cardamomum . . 541 
Eli-midella . . . .412 
Elm woods, weight of . . 3 
Eloeocarpus copaliferus . . 243 
Endive seed .... 539 
Engineering manufactures of the 

Tyne 145 

Entada gigalobium . . . 343 
Entada Purssetha . . .343 
Epaw wood .... 366 
Eperua falcata .... 344 
Ephedra fragilis, juice used to 

cleanse linen . . . 395 
Epsom salts made on the Tyne 176 
Erythrina corallodendron seeds 341 
Erabadu-gaha .... 409 
Esparto for paper ... 59 
Enrya Japonica . . . 406 
Erythrina Indica . . . 409 
Eugenia Mooniana . . . 412 
Eugenia Willdenovii . .412 

Euphorbium .... 541 
Euphorbia Tirucalli . . . 491 
Evia amara .... 409 
Excoecaria Agallocha . . 491 

Explosibility of coal oils, on . 97 

Fagus betuloines . . . 386 

Pagus Cunninghamii . .389 

Fagus antarctica . . . 391 
Fagus obliqua .... 389 

Fen tree of Ceylon . . .407 

Fenugrec seed . . . .542 

Feronia elephantum . . 406 

Fibres of Bermuda . . .334 

Fibres for paper . . 335, 377 

Filicium decipiens . . . 407 



PAGE 

Fisheries of Indian ocean . 270 
Fish sago . . . .272 

Fish maws .... 272 

Fishes of North America . . 116 
Fish-liver oil . . . .272 

Fleawort 543 

Flounder, various species of 

American .... 116 

Flower satinwood . . . 408 

French colonial products . . 392 

Fungi, esculent . . . 385 

Furniture woods ... 55 

Fustic 55 

Galiocerda tigrina . . .271 
Gas-works, chemical products of 179 
Galam butter .... 398 

Gaskaela 409 

Garcinia morilla . . . 406 
Gas-pambuna .... 406 
Garcinia echinocarpa . . 406 
Garcinia cambogia . . . 406 
Gal-mindora gaha . . .410 
Gal-syambala gas . . . 410 
Gal-mora-gaha. . . .411 
Gardenia lucida, wood adapted 

for turning .... 52 
Gardinia latifolia . . .414 
Gallis-gas .... 414 
Garlic ..... 545 

Gamboge 544 

Galls 544 

Galbanum .... 543 
Gaertin Kcenigii . . . 486 
Gaeta-nitul .... 490 

Gal-mora 489 

Gems of Australia . . . 372 
Gems or precious stones, com- 
position of . . . . 442 
Geoffroya spinosa almonds . 345 

Gentra 542 

Gelonium lanceolatum . . 492 
Ginjo wood .... 428 
Gimbernalia calamansanay . 427 
Gidi-kilala . . . .413 

Ginger 546 

Givotia rottleriformis . .492 

Giro corn 477 

Glass for decoration ... 90 
Glass for household use and 

fancy purposes . . .120 
Glycerine soap .... 47 
Glycyrrhiza glabra . . . 538 
Gmelina Eeehdii . . . 487 
Gold discoveries of New Zea- 
land 510 

Gold in "Western Africa . .187 
Goraka-gaha . . . .406 

Gokatu 406 

Gomphia angustifolia . . 408 
Goda-itta . . . .413 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



[July 1, 1864. 



Goda-maranda . 
Gooraenda 
Goda danga 
Gorma-gaha 
Goda-kadura . 
Gora-kadura . 
Goda-para 
Greenheart, weight of 
Green paper of Siam 
Granite and its uses . 
Green indigo of China 
Grewia tiliaefolia 
Grease 

Green ebony . 
Grias caulmora. 
Grenadilla 
Gru-gru nuts . 
Greenheart seeds 
Graphite or black lead 
Grano marzolauo 
Gritnthia Gardneri . 
Guavas . 



PAGE 

412 
491 

486 
483 
485 
487 
403 



433, 495 

. 277 

. 404 

. 179 

. 397 

. 267 

. 268 

. 344 

. 344 

. 470 

. 459 

. 414 

. 266 



Guapec 275 

Guilandina bonducella nuts . 341 
Guazuma tomentosa. . . 404 
Guayacahac .... 427 
Guaycancillo .... 429 

Gums 645 

Gunta baringa .... 487 
Gerioeta . . ' . . .484 
Gypsophila struthium, used for 

scouring . . . .342 
Gypsum used to adulterate 

paper .... 
Gyrinops walla 
Gyrocarpus asiaticus 



Hardwoods of commerce . 

Hard woods used by the turner 

Hopea micrantha, dammar of . 

Halmihila . • 

Hal-gaha . 

Halamba 

Hampalanda . 

Hats and bonnets, trade in 

Hemlock seed . 

Habzelia iEthiopica . 

Hffiinatostaphis barteri 

Herring of Nova Scotia 

Henna plant . 

He matin. 

Hembaraella-gaha . 

Hellumi, a kind of cheese made 

in Cyprus . 
Hedera* exaltata 
Hemicyclia sepiaria . 
Herna-gaha 
Hernandia sonora . 
Hemidesmus Iudicus 
Heen-kadol 
Hides, trade of, in Marseilles 



184 
488 
490 

49 
50 
245 
404 
406 
413 
411 
462 
539 
476 
475 
231 
395 
330 
409 



413 
492 
490 
489 
538 
481 
173 



Hik-gas . 
Hik-karotura . 
Homaederya . 
Horse-eye beans 
Horse nicker seeds 
Hopea discolor 
Hora-gaha _^. 
Hooker's beech morel 
Hosiery manufacture 
Holarrhena mitia . 
Hunteria zeylanica . 
Hulanhick-gaha 
Hulau-mara 
Hymenoea verrucosa 
Hydraulic hoists, &c, for coal 
Hymenoea courbaiil 
Hydrochloric acid . 

Iawasher 

Ichthyology of Nova Scotia 
Illicium anisatum 
Illupei 

Ilex Wightiana 
Illana . 
Insect wax of China 
Industrial Museum, Leeds 
Industrial museums 
Indian fibres for paper 
' Industrial museums, their 

to commerce 
Inocarpus edulis yields a dye 
Inga dulcis seeds 
Iugini-gaha 
Iodru mulli 
lolu 

Ipomea turpethum 
Iron wood, various woods 

called 
Irviugia Barteri 
Issue peas 
Isonauda grandis 
Isauris Koxburghiana 
Ixora parvifiora 

Jambosa aquea 

Japanese paper 

Jacaranda Braziliana 

Jack wood for furniture 

Jaggery from the palmyra 

Japan paper, mode of making 

Japoti negro 

Jalap 

Jeeopatra nuts strung 

amulets 
Job's tears 
Jonesia Asota 
Jujube 
Juniperus Phoenicia 

Kakala 

Kaolin of Cornwall 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



[July 1, 1864. 



xni 



Kattamanati 


PAGR 

. 404 


Landyi, a kind of Madagascar 


PAG E 


Kaolin used in paper 


'or adul- 


silk . . ■ . 




480 


teration 


. 183 


Lakada-tarana 




414 


Kattu bodde 


. 404 


Laniti 




428 


Katu-imbul gas 


. 403 


Lawsonia alba 




413 


Katu-kurundo 


. 403 


Lagerstroemia reginse 




413 


Kayer stylosa 


. 407 


Lates nobilis . 




273 


Kaju-gas 


. 409 


Lawsonia inermis 




395 


Kaekuna-gaha 


. 409 


Laban 




544 


Kadukui-mauru 


. 411 


Laboratory Notes . 


429 


591 


Kalatiya-gaha 


. 410 


Lac in Nagpore 




269 


Kahata-gaha 


. ■ 418 


Lamp Black . 




179 


Katu-keena gas 


. 408 


Letter wood 




55 


Kadalipur 


. 413 


Leaveg of tropbis aspera 
for cleaning arms, &c, 


used 




Kahata gaha 


. 412 




339 


Kasni 


. 543 


Leaves of Curatilla Americana 




Kakira 


. 543 


used to smootb wood 




339 


Kadumet 


. 542 


Lettuce seed . 




539 


Kannogn 


. 493 


Legborn hats . 




451 


Karron-gas 


492 


Ligustum robustum 




484 


Kauchy 


' 491 


Linum usitatissimum 




539 


Katu-panburu 


" 488 


Liquorice root . 




538 


Kaat kornul 


I 487 


Litsoea zeylanica 




489 


Kalu-maedinya 


. 483 


Lime juice 


> 


544 


Karan cuttay 


. 414 


Linseed oil 




540 


Kat-manichan 


. 406 


Linseed . 




539 


Keat-milla 


. 487 


Limonia missionis . 




406 


Kelingoes 


. 285 


Liang-gaha 

Linseed &c, imported at 




409 


Keena-gaha 


. 407 


Mar- 




Keena 


. 407 


seilles . 




170 


Kharde 


. 543 


Liriodendron tulipifera 




366 


King-wood 


. 55 


Locusts, a reward offered for 




Kilmoy 


. 409 


their eggs in Cyprus 




165 


Kiri-kong 


. 408 


Logwood 




366 


Kino 


. 543 


Lo-kao, gum of China 




277 


Kitul-gaba 


. 498 


Logwood, trade in . 




328 


Kiriwalla 


. 485 


Lophostyles angustifolia 


ibre . 


477 


Kilina-hal 


. 485 


Lunn-midella . 


. 407 


486 


Kirihaen biliya 


• 482 


Lunn-ankenda 




408 


Kleinbovia bospita . 


. 4C5 


Lumnitzera racemosa 




411 


Konjie-maram 




Lump Fish 




117 


Kokatic 


. 406 


Lucuma mammosa . 




267 


Kookoona zeylanica 


. 407 








Kong-gaha 


. 407 


Maccaroni 




48 


Kokum 


. 407 


Machine and mill work made on 




Koanay 


. 413 


the Tyne . 




147 


Kolong-gaba 


. 410 


Macharla-marum 




481 


Kos-gaba 


. 490 


Macaranga tomentosa 




492 


Koomny-maum 


. ~ . 487 


Machilus macrantha 




489 


Kobo nut 


. 482 


Macrocladus sylvicola 




494 


Kotnniya 


.543 


Madder roots of Cyprus 




160 


Kotala gas 


. 412 


Madol-gas . " . 




406 


Kurrimia Ceylanica 


. 408 


Madan . 




412 


Kumbuk 


. 411 


Madagascar silkworm 




480 


Kurkum 


. 543 


Magnesia, carbonate of 




177 


Kurtum 


. 543 


Magnesia, sulphate of 




177 


Kyabooka wood 


. 405 


Magul karandu 
Maha-kiri-wael. 




409 
413 


Lawsonia, essential oi 


L from a, . 79 


Maba-ratambala 




414 


Lawalu . 


. 481 


Maha-lakkada . 




481 


Lactuca sativa . 


. 539 


Maha-timbiri . 




482 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



[July 1, 1864 



Maha-debara . 


PAGE 

. 408 1 


Moreton Bay chestnut 


PAGE 

. 345 


Mahleb necklaces 


_ . 343 1 


Morinda bracteata seeds 


345, 413 


Malpighia saccharina 


. 476 I 


Morinda umbellata . 


. 413 


Mal-kaera 


. 408 


Morinda exersta 


. 413 


Mammea Americana 


. 265 


Morocarpus longifolius 


. 490 


Mammee sapota 


. 267 


Motsakiri seeds 


. 474 


Mammee apple 


. 265 


Mugil corsula ^ 


. 273 


Ma-marum 


. 400 


Murraya exotica 


. 52, 406 


Mangifera Indica 


. 408 


Muriatic acid waste converted 


Manganese 


. 134 


into bleaching powder 


. 135 


Manila copal . 


. 246 


Muruku . 


. 409 


Manila mastic. 


. 246 


Muru-tu-gaha 




. 413 


Malabar cardamoms . 


. 369 


Musk melon 




. 546 


Mancbineel wood 


. 397 


Mustard . 




. 543 


Manga-chapury 


. 438 


Musk wood 




. 58 


Mango fish 


. 273 


Musk seed 




. 344 


Manja-woenna . 


. 413 


Myall wood 




. 57 


Maple sugar made in 


New 


Myrrh 




. 544 


Brunswick . 


. 331 


Myrobalans 


. 411 


Maple bowls 


58 






Mapuria guyanensis, a dye 


-wood 400 






Marine engines made o 


n the 


Natural sciences, utility of . 210 


Tyne . 


. 149 


Naphthaline . 


. 296 


Marseilles, trade of . 


. 168 


Narthex asafoetida . 


. 346 


Mas-moru-gaba 


. 410 


Naedum . 


. 409 


Mastic 


. 544 


Na-gaha . 


. 407 


Mazer cups 


. 58 


Nauclea eordunata . 


. 413 


Melia azedaracb seeds 


. 340 


Nauclea Cadamba . 


. 413 


Melia composita 
Meenteera litbratis . 


. 407 


Nauclea cordifolia 


. 413 


. 404 


Navel marum . 


. 412 


Melon seed 


. 539 


Native Peach of Sierra Le 


one . 475 


Meinecylon capitellatum 


. 411 


New Zealand Gold Discov 


eries . 510 


Mendoza wood 


. 406 


Naphelium longa um 


. 407 


Mesua ferrea . 


. 407 


Nicker Beans . 


. 341 


Mesua speeiosa 


. 407 


Niya dessa 


. 406 


Mesua coromandelina 


. 407 


Nigella sativa . 


. 642 


Metal trade of Marseilles 


. 172 


Norway haddock 


. 233 


Micbelia cbampaca . 


. 403 


Nuts and seeds, economi 


c uses 


Micbelia Nilayinca . 


. 403 


of 


. 339 


Mieria-gas 


. 482 


Nutmeg wood . 


. 56 


Milila-gaha 


. 487 


Nutmeg . 


. 542 


Millingtonia hortensis 


. 486 


Nux vomica . 


. 542 


Miuiusops eleugi 


. 481 


Nilgherry boxwood. 


. 493 


Mimusops Indica 


407, 482 


Nyctanthea arbor tristes 


. 485 


Miscal 


. 537 






Miscbodon zeylanicus 


. 492 






Mobola . 


. 477 


Oak timber, weigbt of 


3 


Moesa Indica . 


. 481 


Ochtrosia borbonica . 


. 485 


Moeta-bembiya 


. 481 


Ochyes . 


. 476 


Mogalinga-marum . 


. 485 


Ochna mooni . 


. 408 


Molucca beans . 


. 341 


Odina wodier . 


. 409 


Molabaa . 


. 492 


Odika bread . 


. 744 


Monodora graudiflora, &c 


. 476 


Oils and fats . 


. 298 


Monocera tuberculata nut 


s . 339 


Oils, manufacture of vege 


table . 425 


Moodilla . 


. 412 


Oils and fats, compositioi 


i of . 298 


Moodu-kadura . 


. 485 


Oil cake sent from Marse 


dies . 171 


Moona-mal 


. 481 


Oil seeds imported at Mai 


seilles 170 


Mook-kiluvy . 


. 409 


Olea longifolia . 
Olea latifolia . 


. 226 


Mora-gaba 


. 407 


. 226 


Mora wood, weigbt of 


3 


Olea divica 


. 484 


Morels of Southern Hemi 


sphere 385 


Olea capensis 




. 227 



July 1, 1864.] 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



Olive wood . . . .366 
Olive oil imported into Mar- 
seilles ..... 
Olive, cultivation of . . 225 
Olive seeds used as rosaries . 342 
Olive tree in Algeria . . 395 
Olives of Cyprus . . .162 
Olibanum .... 541 



Olive oil . . . . • . 540 

. 344 

. 485 

. 542 

. 542 



Oncoba spinosa seeds 

Ooghri 

Ophelia cherayta 

Opopouax .... 

Opochala seeds of Western 

Africa .... 32, 476 
Orange peas .... 342 
Ormosia coccinea seeds . . 341 
Otaheite chestnut . . .345 
Othe marum .... 409 

Otthe 492 

Owala tree of Western Africa 32, 476 

Paper manufacture . . .13 
Paper, want of strength in 

modern . . . .182 
Paper- tree of Siam . . .337 
Paper of Japan . . .278 
Palmyra palm, products of . 281 
Paraguay tea . . . .70 
Paper, adulteration of British . 15 
Palisandre wood . ... 56 
Partridge wood . . . 56 

Paint for preserving wood . 9 
Paper consumption in different 
countries .... 
Paraffine . . . .296 

Paritium tiliaceum . . . 403 
Palo-morada of Paraguay. . 366 
Papara pooley-maram . . 404 
Passiflora quadrangularis . . 268 

Papaw 268 

Painted earthenware, composi- 
tion of 204 

Palm-oil making . . .397 
Pattipariti . . . .404 

Pala 407 

Pailac-marum . . . .412 
Pandy-kyan . . . .412 
Pame-kara . . . . 412 
Paper-hangings, manufacture of 529 
Palinga-gas . . . .493 
Pavvk-marum . . 493 

Palol 486 

Palu gaha . . . .482 

Pali-marum .... 482 

Paniche 482 

Paritium tiliaceum . . .477 
Palm woods, uses of . .56 
Peziza vesiculosa . . . 384 
Palm of Chili . . . .384 
Palm sago .... 389 



Pearl hardener 


pao • 
178 


Persia gratissima, 


266 


Peenary-maram 


404 


Petan 


410 


Pelengas . 


408 


Pentaptera glabra . 


411 


Peppermint . 


544 


Peganum harmala . 


541 


Penicillarii spicata . 


477 


Phosphates, first discoveries of . 


111 


Phytelephas macrocarpa . 


259 


Philippines, woods of 


427 


Pines, weight of various, per 




cubic foot .... 


3 


Pistacia terebinthus seeds 


340 


Pine forests of Cyprus 


158 


Pistachios false 


340 


Pine seeds, edible . 


346 


Pinus gerardina 


346 


Pinus cembra . 


346 


Pinus pinea seeds . 


346 


Pinus Lambertiana seeds . 


346 


Pinus Llaveana seeds, edible . 


346 


Piney resin . . . . 


242 


Piney varnish .... 


406 


Pihimbiya . 


407 


Pithecolobium bizeminum 


410 


Pithecolobium dulce 


410 


Picardy pots .... 


468 


Pine baru 


412 


Pisonca oleracea 


487 


Pentaclithra macrophylla. 


476 


Pimpinella anisum . 


538 


Pittosporums, species of, tried 




for wood engravings 


52 


Plumbago Crucible Works 


464 


Plerospermum indicum . 


405 


Ploberas Gartnerii . 


403 


Pleurostylia Wightii 


408 


Phoenix spinosa. 


473 


Plumbago crucibles . 


464 


Podocarpus nerifolius, might do 




for engraving 


53 


Port-wine false of Marseilles . 


174 


Poon spars .... 


404 


Poovasarum .... 


403 


Polynemus, species of 


272 


Poonyet resin .... 


245 


Porcelain biscuit 


202 


Ponga-marum . 


409 


Pottery, definition of 


202 


Pongamia glabra 


409 


Poolia-marum .... 


409 


Poonga 


407 


Poo-maram .... 


407 


Poruwa-mara .... 


414 


Pomegranate-flowers. 


545 


Poppies 


543 


Portulacea oleracea . , 


538 


Preserving wood, processes for . 
Prussiate of potash . 


8 


175 



July 1, 1864.] 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



PAGE 

Prunus mahaleb, fragrant kinds 
of 343 

Protium caudatum . . .409 
Prosorus indicus . . . 492 
Premna latifolia . . .487 
Preuina tomentosa . . . 487 
Premna herbacea . . . 487 
Pterospemium suberifoliuni . 404 
Pterdcarpus indicus . . . 409 
Pterocarpus marsupia . . 409 
Purple wood . . . .56 
Purslane . . . . .538 
Putrangiva Roxburghii nuts 339, 493 
Punatoo ..... 286 
Pyrites for sulpbur . . 129 

Pymi 406 

Pyam ..... 408 
Pygeum zeylanicum . . .411 
Pilla-murdat mamm. . .411 
Pyrolignite . . . .432 
Pyrulia Wallachiana . . 488 

Quiabrahacba . . . 429 

Quibracho wood of Paraguay . 366 

Quillia saponaria bark . . 342 

Quinaseed .... 539 

Kapbia vinifera fruit . . 344 

Eata-dil 490 

Bata-sapia .... 403 
Eat-kabiri . . . .488 
Eawak gaha . . . .493 
Eawan iddala . . . .414 
Eed sanders wood ... 56 
Eesin size .... 179 

Eeviews 286 

Eharonus catbarticus . . 277 

Rhubarb 545 

Rhus coriaria .... 324 
Rhus cotinus .... 324 
Rhus glabra . . . .324 
Ehus pentapbylla . . . 324 
Ehus typhina . . . .364 
Ehynocobatus lsevis . . . 271 
Ebynocobatus pectinata . . 271 
Eice, wild, of North America 326,541 
Eicinis communis . . . 540 
Eosaries made of seeds . . 340 
Eose dammar .... 245 
Rosmarinus officinalis . .540 

Rosemary oil . . . . 540 
Rottlera oppositifolia . . 492 
Ruay, a seed used as ajeweller's 

weight . . . .340 

Ruck-athana .... 485 

Sabicu wood, weight of . . 3 

Safflower 538 

Saffron . . . . .549 
Sagapenum .... 645 
Salachus maximus . . . 271 



PAGE 

Salvadore Malabarica . . 404 
Salt -lakes of Cyprus . . 158 

Salt- works on the Tyne . .127 
Salvadora Wightonian . . 485 
Samadera Indica . . . 408 
Samut-dam .... 337 
Santalum album . . . 488 
Sapindus emarginatus . -* 341 
Sapindus esculentus . . 341 

Sapindus saponaria . . 341, 395 
Saponine, plants which contain 342 
Sapota elongoides . . . 481 
Sarcocephalus esculentus . . 475 
Sarcococci pruriformis . . 493 
Sarsaparilla, Indian . . .538 
Satin woods .... 57 
Saul Dammar .... 243 
Scammony .... 545 
Scilla maritina . . . 395 

Scleichera trijuga . . . 269 
Scajvola Plumieri . . . 481 

Scottea latifolia, gum from . 79 
Scrofula, proposed remedy for . 22 
Scymnus borealis . . . 233 
Scypbostachys coffeoides . .414 
Sebastes Norvegicus . . 233 

Seeds of Persian lilac . . 340 
Seiambala .... 409 
Semmaworthy .... 407 

Sepala 485 

Seggars 468 

Sericulture in Oudh . . . 348 
Serissa Ceylanica . . .414 
Sesame oil ... . 540 
Sesasum seed imported at Mar- 
seilles 170 

Sethia Indica .... 407 
Sharks' fins . . . . 271 
Sharks' teeth, fossil . . 112 

Shavandilly-maram . . . 404 
Shorea oblongifoba . . . 405 
Shorea robusta . . . 243 

Shorea stipularis . . . 405 
Shreetaly seeds . . . 340 

Silk of Cyprus . . .160 

Silk imports at Marseilles . 171 
Silk-worm disease, prize offered 

for prevention ... 47 
Silk trade of Beyrout . . 546 
Singapore Dammar . . .245 
Siritikku . . . .487 
Sitepsics, what . . . 196 
Sleichera trijuga . . . 407 
Sole of New York . . .117 
Sonneratia acida . . .413 
Soap made on the Tyne . .135 
Soap plant of California . .342 
Soap nuts .... 341 
Soap shipped from Marseilles . 171 
Soap wort .... 342 
Soda ash 131 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



[July 1, 1864 





PAOS 




PAOB 


Soda ash, its uses in 


paper 


Swiss hats .... 


459 


making 


. 10 


Switch sorrel of Ceylon . 


407 


Soda, bicarbonate of 


. 131 


Sword bean .... 


343 


Soda, caustic . 


. 131 


Symplocos spicata . 


484 


Soda, crystals of 


. 131 


Syzigium carophyllifolium 


412 


Soda, hyposulphite of 


. 132 


Syzigium mesiancum 


412 


Soda manufacture . 


. 246 


Syzigium polyanthum 


412 


Soowen-du Cuttay . 


. 414 


Syzigium sylvestre . 


412 


Sorghum vulgare 


. 477 






Sour and sweet saps 


. 264 


Tal-Domba-gaha 


407 


Spathodea adenophylla . 


. 486 


Talkohombo .... 


408 


Spathodea Rheedii . 


. 486 


Tabernac monta dichotoma 


485 


Specific gravity of British Guiana 


Taddea maram 


404 


woods . 


. 523 


Tala-gaha .... 


494 


Specific weight of woods . 


. 365 


Tal-gaha 


494 


Sponia orientalis 


. 491 


Talipot palm nuts . 


340 


Spirit trade of Marseilles 


. 173 


Tallow tree of China 


33 


Stained glass . 


. 90 


Tamara ..... 


492 


Staphylea pinnata, fruit of . 340 


Tamerindas officinalis 


409 


Star anise 


.. 538 


Tamarinds .... 


545 


Star apple 


. 267 


Tamarind seeds 


342 


Stationary steam-engines 


made 


Tambilaya .... 


412 


on the Tyne 


. 147 


Tanikai 


411 


Steam tugs on the Tyne 


. 149 


Tanning in various barks, &c . 


431 


Stercospermum chelonoides . 486 


Tanning materials used on the 




Stercospermum suavolens 


. 486 


Tyne . . . ... 


263 


Sterculia ambiformis 


. 428 


Tanning trade of Newcastle 


261 


Sterculia foetida 


. 404 


Tarana , 


414 


Stillingia sebifera, wax-tree of 


Tasmanian beech morel . 


389 


China .... 


. 33 


Tea companies in India . 


424 


Stone fruit kernels . 


. 342 


Tea plantations in India . 


414 


Streblus asper . 


. 490 


Teak, weight of 


3 


Straw-plait trade 


. 448 


Technology, chemical 


193 


Strychnos nux-vomica 


. 485 


Tecoma leucoyxlon . 


397 


Strychnos potatorum 


. 486 


Telambu 


404 


Sturgeon fisheries of Eussia . 117 


Tella-keniya .... 


491 




Telmu gaha .... 


482 


Rome . 


. 119 


Tericonamalay-maram 


404 


Sturgeon, sharp - nosed, of 


Terminalia alata t 


411 


America 


. 118 


Terminalia belerica . 


411 


Stylocoryne "Webera 


. 414 


Terminalia catappa . 


344 


Sudu kadumbria 


. 482 


Terminalia chebula . 


411 


Sugar, analysis of refined . 524 


Terminalia edulis 


427 


Sugar machinery 


. 386 


Terminalis parviflora 


411 


Sugar plum of Sierra Leone . 476 


Terpnophyllum zey lanicum 


406 


Sugar refined at Marseilles . 169 


Tetrameles nudiflora 


488 


Sun-fish oil 


. 272 


Tetran thera Roxburghii . 


489 


Sulphate of copper . 


. 179 


Thalathu maram 


404 


Sulphate of iron 


. 178 


Thespesia popolnea . 


403 


Sulphur, sources of . 


. 129 


Thetto marum .... 


486 


Sumach, culture of . 


. 325 


Timber trade of Marseilles 


173 


Sumach, trade in 


. 324 


Timber trees of Ceylon . 403 
Timonius jambosella 


481 


Sun-fish . 


. 117 


414 


Sunflower, cultivation of 


. 335 


Tinian pine .... 


493 


Superphosphate of lime 


. 178 


Trimeya-gas .... 


405 


Suriya-gas 


. 403 


Tintale, a place where logwood 




Suriya-mara 


. 410 


is cut 


329 


Surre-mara 


. 410 


Tobacco-seed oil ... 


47 


Suwanda-gas . 


. 407 


Toddy from the palmyra . 


283 


Swietenia febrifuga . 


. 407 


Tonka or Gayac bean 


344 


Sweet flag 


. 543 


Ton-khai, paper tree of Siam . 


337 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



[July 1, 1864. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Toot poison plant of New 


Vidi-marum . 


486 


Zealand 


. 136 


Vitex altissima 


487 


Toombika . 


. 482 


Vuckuna-marum 


482 


Totella . 


. 486 


Vummary-maram . 


408 


Tragacanth 


. 543 






Trichilia capitata 
Triculia seeds . 


. 474 


Waa gas .... 


410 


. 476 


"Wagapul .... 
Walbelin-gas 


412 


Trincomalie wood 


. 404 


408 


Tropins aspera 


. 337 


"Wal-jambu . . . . 


412 


Tug steamers on the 


Tyne . 146 


"Walla-gaba .... 


488 


Tukahalu-gas . 


. 405 


Walla keena .... 


407 


Tulip tree of Ceylon 


. 403 


"Wal-sapu .... 


403 


Turbot of America 


. 116 


Walsura piscida 


408 


Turmeric 


. 543 


Wannapotba 


407 


Turpentine 


. 545 


"Water oats of North America • • 


326 


Turtle oil 


. 272 


Water pressure machinery 


152 


Tuscany plait . 




Wat-kopie . 


414 


Tuv japonica . 


. 413 


Wax, substitutes for 


76 


Twadanum 


. 407 


Wellipyana 


412 






Wendlandia Notoueana . 


414 


Ub-beriya 


. 406 


Whale flesh eaten in Japan 


277 


Uguraesa 


. 408 


Wheat straw plait 


449 


Ukuru-gaha . 


. 492 


Wheat trade of Marseilles 169 


, 175 


Ulmus integrifolia 


. 491 


White dammar tree 


243 


Uncaria Gambir 


. 413 


Wild lime of Ceylon 


406 


Urene 


. 491 


Wild rice of North America 


326 


Urostigma religiosum . • 491 


Willi-kaha .... 


411 


Urtica stimulans 


. 490 


Willow squares 


462 






Wiue of Cyprus 


161 


Vaccaria vulgaris 


. 342 


Wood engraving, experiments 




Vaghay maram 


. 410 


on new woods suited for 


51 


Vanga 


. 486 


Woods of Philippines 


427 


Vateria Indica . 


. 242, 406 


Wood, properties of . 


1 


Vatica Tambugaia 


. 243 


Woods, specific weight of 


365 


Veckalie . 


• 411 


Woods, weight of different, per 




Vegetable ivory of commerce ■ 259 


cubic foot .... 


3 


Vegetable Materia 


Medica of 


Wool imports at Maiseilles 


172 


Persia . 


. 537 


Wrightia coccinea . 


485 


Vegetable oils, manufacture of . 425 


Wrightia, species of, tested for 




Vegetable silks 


. 400 


wood engraving . 


52 


Velanga . 


. 404 


Wuragaha .... 


492 


Velva-maram . 


. 406 






Venetian red . 


. 179 


Xanthocymus ovalifoliua 


406 


Veppal-arise 


. 485 


Xanthyoxylon rhitsa 


408 


Vepu maram . 


. 408 


Xanthyoxylon triphyllum. 


408 


Vernonia Javanica 


. 481 






Veronica quinquifol 


a, remedy 


Yerba de mate 


70 


for scrofula . 


. 21 


Yettie-marum . 


485 


Vela padrie 


. 486 






Violets 


. 545 


Zizania aquatica 


326 


Vizne Catyang . 


. . 477 


Zizyphus jujuba . . 408, 


541 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



NOTES ON THE PKOPERTIES OF WOOD. 

BY JOSEPH JUSTEN. 

Trees cut in summer give lighter wood than when felled during win- 
ter time. The cause for this may probably be ascribed to the fact that 
in winter a large amount of nourishment is stored in the trunk, which 
during the spring and summer is spent for the formation of bloom and 
leaves. 

We call hardness in wood the resistance which it opposes when 
another body enters it. If wood were an equal body like minerals, we 
should be able to determine its resisting power or hardness ; but it being 
differently built, and, whilst trying its hardness, other properties inter- 
fering, we cannot arrive at a decisive result. 

Sometimes a wood has very hard fibres but very little body ; that is, 
it is lighter built than another wood with soft fibres and a full body ; it 
is therefore unadvisable to judge the hardness of a wood according to 
its fibres. Experiments to ascertain its hardness should be made across 
the stem and not upon a longitudinal section ; and although there is no 
instrument which leads us at once to a definite result, we can generally 
arrive with a saw at a fair conclusion. Many persons constantly em- 
ployed on wood are of the opinion that it becomes harder if it is worked 
or barked whilst green. 

Wood, as a porous body, contains in its natural state — whether dead 

or alive — a certain amount of moisture ; by the loss of that moisture or 

increase of the same, the bulk of the wood either contracts or expands. 

If we have a piece of wood where this action takes place only upon 

one side, it is obvious that the piece will alter its form or shape. 

The consequence of the loss of moisture is also the warping and 
splitting of the wood. The inner structure of a stem is irregular ; for 
instance, we find the inner moisture of a yearly ring to be more than on its 

VOL. IV. B 



-A NOTES OX THE PROPERTIES OF WOOD. 

outer side ; this causes the splits on the exterior, after the wood is dry, 
and it also accounts for the impossibility of forming out of green wood a re- 
gular body which shall not lose its weight or shape. The time during 
which the evaporation of the moisture takes place depends upon the 
state of the atmosphere. Several authors are of opinion that the con- 
traction is regulated by the specific weight. This, as a rule, cannot be 
adopted ; for instance, lilac and oak, being both heavy and hard, con- 
tract quickly, whilst the double American maple, which is equally hard, 
contracts slowly. It is evident, however, that the fuller of sap a tree is, 
the greater will be the contraction. This will account for the fact, that 
we find on cut timber the cracks extend from the exterior towards the 
centre, because the sap-wood will contract more than the heart-wood. 

Planks turn with their sides upwards ; that is, the edges rise from 
the level of the centre line. This explains why we turn the inside of a 
plank towards the joists whilst we lay a floor, which prevents the twist- 
ing. The contraction and action of the wood cannot be checked 
altogether. Among the means to prevent it stands foremost the one of 
putting the tree into water ; but wdien taken out it must not be stored 
in a place where it dries too soon, as it would burst if done ; nor must 
it be left too long in the water, as this will injure the quality of the 
wood. 

All the wood which is used is never quite dry ; besides this, it 
works a little in itself under the changes of the atmosphere ; and there- 
fore attention must be paid to the selection of timber for the same 
purpose, for the heart-wood is less subject to such action than sap or 
splint-wood. This is an important point with the furniture makers. 
The expansion or contraction is less apparent in the length of the fibre 
than in the cross section of the wood. 

The elasticity of the wood is called its property of return to its 
original form and shape after these have been altered by another cause. 
"With this quality is connected the valuable fitness of some woods to 
transmit sounds, for which reason they are much used hj musical in- 
strument makers. The elasticity has its limit ; and the more a piece of 
wood can be bent without breaking, the greater its elasticity. 

The resistance of wood depends upon the three following conditions ; 
— 1st. Two pieces of equal length and height offer different resistance 
with reference to their breadth. 2nd. Two pieces of equal length and 
breadth offer different resistance with regard to their height. 3rd. Two t 
pieces of wood of equal height and breadth offer different resistance with 
regard to their length. 

Again, experience has proved that a piece of wood resting freely with 
its two ends will carry from one-third to one-half less weight than if the 
ends are fixed or built in a wall. Old wood has less elasticity than 
young, and heart-wood is less elastic than sap-wood. The same differ- 
ence is found with wood from the lower stem compared with that from 
the upper crown. Th<r elasticity diminishes with the progress of the 



NOTES ON THE PROPERTIES OF WOOD. 



specific dry weight. Square-cut timbers laid horizontally with their 
yearly rings have not by far such bearing power as when laid perpen- 
dicularly. 

Green wood has considerable elasticity. Young steins, although they 
suffer sometimes by the wind, will regain their original position in a 
short time. Here it is necessary to mention that where young stems or 
branches have been bent through snow for a longer period, they will 
not return to their former form. 

I submit the following as the result of some experiments rela- 
tive to the bearing capacity of various woods. The pieces were all 3 
feet long, and 2 inches by 1 inch, and air-dry. The constants arrived at 
were the following : — 



Yellow Pine 


Constant. 
. 358-5 


Wet. 


Weight, 
per C. Ft. 

25-687 lb. 


Baltic Pine 
Red Pine . 


. 444- 
. 467- 




29-062 „ 
33-437 „ 


Ash . 


. 517-75 


53-875 


41-812,, 


English Elm 


. 595-25 . 




37-312 „ 


Pitch Pine 


629- 




45-750 „ 


American Elm 


. 631-5 




45-312 „ 


American Oak 
African Teak 
Mora 
Sabicu 
African Oak 


653-5 
. 673-5 
. 691- 

854-25 . 
869-5 




44-875 „ 
60-562 „ 
71-250 „ 
59-687 „ 


Greenheart 


1,079-5 




69-750 „ 


English Oak . 


— 




53-312 „ 


Indian Teak 


— 




38-125 „ 


Ironwood 


— . . 




73-500 „ 


English Larch 


— 




32-562 „ 



Formula to find the breaking-weight of a piece of timber : — c 
constant, b breadth in inches, d depth in inches, I length in feet, w break- 
ing-weight in pounds. 

c b d* 



I 

The adaptability of greenheart for hydraulic construction, dock- 
gates, &c, cannot be over-estimated. I may refer to an instance where a 
clough was taken out of a sewer after sixteen years : it had been made 
half of oak and the other half of green-heart ; the oak was completely 
worm-eaten, whilst the green-heart was in its original condition. This 
certainly contrasts with the fact mentioned by Mr. Burnell in his paper, 
that he has a piece of green-heart riddled by the teredo ; and it would 
be interesting to ascertain under what circumstances the teredo 
will attack or not attack this kind of wood. My experience proves that 



4 NOTES ON THE PROPERTIES OF WOOD. 

green-heart is exempt from the erosion by the teredo ; hut there is a 
mollusc in this timber which we find alive in it when it arrives here 
from the West Indies. The worm is found in sizes from the lymexylon 
to the teredo ; but is of a different species, and seems not to live in this 
wood when used in such constructions as dock-gates, &c, in this country. 

Green sap-wood will not retain its form and bend if it is 
suspended horizontally by its two ends. The same will occur in 
timber constructions where green wood has been used. I may 
mention that the artificial process of drying wood should not be 
extended beyond 10 per cent., because it will cause it to become 
brittle and totally useless. A close examination of a beam sup- 
ported by its two ends will tell that the upper half of the fibres are 
stowing while the lower fibres are extending. The centre of gravity lies 
in the middle of the cross section. All woods do not offer the same re- 
sistance, and we can increase it by strengthening the centre of gravity. 
M. Duhamel describes in his work, " De la Force des Bois," the follow- 
ing experiment in elucidation of this fact : he took twenty -four sticks 
cut from young willows of equal strength ; each stick was 3 feet (Paris) 
long, and 1^ inch square. Six of these broke in the centre, with an 
average weight of 256'909 kilogrammes (1 kilogramme equals 2-205 lb. 
English.) In two other pieces he made a cut across, £ inch deep in the 
centre, and filled it up with a piece of oak ; they broke with an average 
weight of 269'718 kilogrammes. Two more were cut ^ inch deep, and 
otherwise treated in the same manner ; they broke with 259 - 312 kilo- 
grammes. Five were cut f inch, and broke with 265764 kilo- 
grammes. From this it results that the smaller piece of harder wood 
fixed across the centre, considerably increased the strength of the stems 
when put in half and even three-quarters of the thickness. It is also 
the reason why a beam composed of several'smaller pieces will bear as 
much as if of one entire piece. And again, as the bearing poA¥er of the 
timber varies, some advantageous results may be obtained by putting 
stronger and weaker wood together in a construction. 

A round or square piece of a stem will offer about the same resist- 
ance from each side ; but if we compare a timber cut with the yearly 
rings vertically, with another having the rings horizontally, we find that 
the former will bear more than the latter. 

The sap which protects the wood does not prevent its decay. Tur- 
pentine, which is often in the sap, prolongs the preservation of the fibre. 
According to Baron Liebig, the decay of wood takes place in the three 
following modes : first, oxygen in the atmosphere combines with the 
hydrogen of the fibre, and the oxygen unites with the portion of carbon 
of the fibre, and evaporates as carbonic acid. This process is called 
decomposition. Secondly, we have to notice the actual decay of wood 
which takes place when it is broughtinto contact with rotting substances ; 
and the third process is called putrefaction. This is stated by Liebig to 
arise from the inner decomposition of the wood itself; it loses its 



NOTES ON THE PROPERTIES OP WOOD. 5 

carbon, forms carbonic acid gas, and the fibre, under the influence of the 
latter, is changed into white dust. 

As an example of this, I may instance the wooden ceilings of houses 
which after some time go into that state. The chief cause is, that the 
free access of the air to the wood is prevented, and the little dampness 
occasioned by washing is sufficient to promote the dry rot. 

The sap of wood contains some saccharine matter, which will 
naturally decompose in itself, and this is noticed in timber stores from 
the sour taste and smell of such woods. 

The actual time which wood; lasts depends in a great measure on 
the'time when it was felled, and in how far the soil in which it grew 
was suitable for its development. As a rule, wood cut in summer 
is less durable than that felled during the winter months. 

It will also be the case with trees which remain a longer period 
before their removal in the forest after being cut ; however, a great 
difference does not exist between ripe woods, whether they are felled in 
the summer or winter time, because the formation of the leaves and the 
blossoms affects only the sap-wood and the bark of the tree ; therefore, 
if the sap-wood is cut off, and the heart-wood is properly treated and 
seasoned, the quality of the summer wood would be eqtial to that cut in 
winter time. In support of this, I may mention that most of the trees 
in Southern Italy are felled in July and August. 

The pines in the German forests are cut down mostly in summer, 
and their wood is generally very sound. The opinion that this causes 
dry-rot is, I think, unfounded, for I believe whenever this takes 
place, it is in consequence of unseasoned timber being used. Con- 
sidering the large quantity of timber imported into this country, I must 
mention that my experience tends to show that the North American 
woods, with the exception of red pine, are less durable than those from 
the north of Europe. The latter are stronger, superior, and not so much 
subject to dry-rot as the former. 

In the earlier portion of this paper, I had occasion to mention some 
enemies of the wood which attack it while growing ; it is lucky that 
they are neutralized and destroyed to a great extent by other animals in 
the forest; and among those doing great service in this respect let us 
remember the woodpeckers, finches, swine, hedgehogs, badgers, frogs, 
and many others. 

Dry or dead wood has also some terrible foes, which at times cause 
alarming ravages ; and unfortunately no effectual means have as yet 
been found to check them : the most dangerous of these are the Termites, 
the Lymexylon, the Sirex gigcts, the Teredo, and the Lymnuria terebrans. 

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish good from bad timber, and I 
would therefore draw notice to some illustrations from a work published 
by the French Government, — " Instructions sur le Bois de Marine," with 
special reference to the oaks, and to which the following explanation 
may serve. 



b NOTES ON THE PROPERTIES OF WOOD. 

Plate 43, figure 1, represents English oak, of the best quality. To 
this kind of oak belongs the Quercus pedunculata, and the Quercus 
sessiliflora. The fresh cut of such is a yellow straw colour, sometimes 
of a rose colour. The annual rings show a fine glossy grain which allows 
it to take a fine polish. The horny layer of three to five millimetres is 
quite distinct from the cellular portion, and the pores are very little to 
be seen. 

■ This kind of oak is very sensible to the influence of the atmosphere. 
In damp weather it swells, and in dry weather it contracts considerably. 
This makes it liable to split ; but notwithstanding this it is excellent 
woo J, and the best suited for the ribs in a ship. The fibres hold 
together with a great longitudinal and even transversal tenacity which 
gives it a great resisting power. 

Plate 43, figure 3, shows the cross section of an inferior quality. It 
is spongy ; has large pores of a pale colour, sometimes brown or reddish; 
its deficiency has been caused by too wet a soil, by want of nourishment, 
or of fresh air, or of some other condition requisite for its full develop- 
ment. If such wood be ruptured it will break clean off, and a fibre may 
be rubbed into dust between two fingers. A valuable property of this 
kind of oak is, that it alters veiy little by the changes in the atmos- 
phere, and it is therefore much in use for floors, furniture, and car- 
pentry. 

Between these two qualities of oak, range a great number of others, 
differing in their condition. 

"When trees are found to be decayed at the trunk, it must be attri- 
b uted to an interruption of the functions of the root. It will occur that 
one or several of the roots die, by which putrefaction is imparted to 
the lower part of the stem, if this rot be white or black it is not very 
dangerous ; it does not generally reach more than one foot above the 
roots ; but when the rot is of a red colour, the wood should not be used in 
construction or it will soon lead to decay. 

Trees arrive at an age when their wood becomes ripe, and then is the 
proper time to fell them. This maybe seen when the top of the tree brings 
forth no leaves in spring. Such trees are superannuated ; that is to say 
they grow no longer ; and then they become subject to a serious evil 
called the dial. This is explained by the following process : — We know 
that with a vigorous tree in full growth the heart-wood contains the 
smallest portion of water, and that its density decreases from the centre 
towards the circumference ; when it is felled and dried, it will split from 
the outer side towards the centre. This is not the case with a super- 
annuated tree, in which the oldest wood begins to perish first ; and con- 
sequently the greatest density lies between the heart-wood and the bark. 
Now in such a tree the central wood contracts while drying, which causes 
the splits. Sometimes splits are found in trees which bear a glossy 
blackish aspect, and they must be distinguished from those just men- 
tioned. Thev extend from the circumference towards the heart, and 



NOTES ON THE PROPERTIES OF WOOD. / 

were created whilst the tree was growing. It is asserted that they are 
effected by frost. They look at first straight or capillary and enlarge with 
each heavy cold. They show themselves mostly longitudinally, on a swell- 
ing of the stem, and make the tree useless. 

The splits in the heart of a tree must not be confounded with holes 
caused in felling. There is no clanger with the latter beyond that they 
diminish the length of the timber. 

Often in the trunk of a stem a particular irregularity is found in 
the non-juxtaposition of two successive annual rings. 

This fault is caused by the strong winds, which affect it in the point 
where the flexion of the stem has its maximum. 

It will also arise when the tree has not sufficient nourishment, by 
which two layers are prevented from growing well together. It shows itself 
in incomplete dark rings. If these are only in the sap-wood, they may 
be looked upon as rmimportant ; but when they are, on the contrary, in 
the heart-wood, and accompanied with the dial, they betray a serious 
defect in the tree. 

In some cross sections of an oak we often notice circular bands of 
a different colour from the remainder of the section, sometimes white, 
yellow, red, or brown. The texture of these bands appears loose, even 
spongy, and betrays signs of decomposition. It is found in the best 
qualities of wood, and it cannot be cured. The reason for this decay is 
not definitely known. Some persons suppose it to arise when the sap 
wood is prevented by severe cold from developing itself into good wood. 
When this evil is in the heart, it looks like a whitish circle, and is 
called the moon. Wood from such trees ought not to be used, because 
it will soon decay. When the faulty bands are straight, and the shades 
of colour are less observed, the vice is not so dangerous. 

Druxy knots are caused by woodpeckers, by lopping, and by dead and 
broken branches, which make holes in the tree : into these the water 
runs, decomposes, and directs the evil towards the inner stem. If w T e 
find on a tree a swelling or depression, we may conclude that the con- 
dition of the tree is bad. Such trees are olten found with the sap 
running out of their armpits. Among the various rots engendered by 
the knots, we have the following : — 

Wet rot is composed of porous fibre running from the knot into the 
trunk of a tree. This rot is of brown colour and has an offensive smell. 
This evil is often found with white spots, the latter of watery subs- 
tance. When it has yellow flames it is very dangerous. Black coloured 
knots are easily cured, and unimportant. 

We find wounds on trees which have been effected by the fall of a 
neighbouring tree ; from the friction of a cartwheel by which the bark 
was torn. If this wound does not reach beyond the bark, it has no bad 
effect upon the wood ; but should it have damaged the ligneous portion 
of the stem, the wood soon assumes a green-like colour, and begins to 
decompose. 



NOTES ON THE PROPERTIES OP WOOD. 

It occurs that a new bark grows over such wound, and in such 
instances the evil is not detected until the stem is cut into timber. 
Similar defects are also caused by lightning. 

As a very elaborate work upon the various kinds of oak, I may 
mention Kotschy's Eichen Europa's, " Durability and Preservation of 
Wood." 

Well seasoned timber will last for an indefinite period if kept in dry 
air or under water ; but when alternately exposed to atmosphere, water, 
and light, it begins to decompose. The ordinary causes by which this is 
effected are chiefly the fermentation of the azotic substances contained in 
the cellular tissue. This is developed under the influence of the oxygen 
in the atmosphere, and by the moisture contained in the wood. We have 
therefore the problem to find means to prevent this fermentation, either 
by obviating all such circumstances as air and water, or to extract from 
the wood its vegeto -albumen, or to act upon the latter in a manner that 
it will resist fermentation, and the attacks of insects. No process has 
yet been invented which answers all these conditions, and with all its 
trials we must have the assistance of chemistry and entomology. 

I refer to our museums as the place where, among other rude-made 
articles, will be found here and there a remnant of wood which bears the 
age of decenniums, and other specimens of petrified wood which must 
have been in existence in its natural state centuries ago. 

That wood in sandy soil will last for centuries may be seen in the 
specimens which were dug up whilst making the new docks at Birken- 
head, from depths varying from 8 to 32 feet below the surface, and they 
are reckoned to have been there for centuries. 

Among the many inventions to preserve wood, those of England have 
proved the most successful. Already in 1737 a patent was granted to 
Mr. Emerson, for preparing timber with hot oil, and soon after the 
method of Oxford and Kyan came into use. 

In 1837 a patent was taken out by Margary, to impregnate wood with 
sulphate of copper ; and since 1838, Sir William Burnett's process, 
chloride of zinc, has been in use. 

Mr. Payne obtained a patent in 1841 for preparing wood with two 
solutions, such as carbonate of soda and sulphate of iron. Some very 
good results are obtained with this system, but it must be done with the 
greatest care. 

Still better is the invention patented by Mr. J. Bethell, which con- 
sists in the injection of oil of tar after the air has been extracted. This 
process is effective to a great extent, and for a full description I 
refer to Mr. Bumell's paper, read before the Society of Arts in London, 
1860. (See Vol. 8 of " Transactions," p. 554.) 

The disadvantage of the creosoting system is the offensive smell 
and the increased danger by fire ; but it is recommendable for railways 
and hydraulic works. 

In France, the price of creosote is too high to admit its general use ; 



NOTES ON THE PROPERTIES OF WOOD. 9 

and solutions of metallic salts are employed instead. Among these M. 
Boucherie's method has obtained the best results. He acts with a pressure 
of 5 or 7 feet of water upon wood not later than two or three months 
after it is felled, and injects a solution of sulphate of copper by a trans- 
versal section, while the sap runs out in the opposite direction. Railway 
sleepers prepared in this manner were laid down in 1846 ; and in 1853 
they were found in so good a condition that ever since, M. Boucherie's 
system has been much employed in France. Another economical process 
of Mr. Fontenay is worth mentioning. He acts upon wood with what he 
calls metallic soap, which he obtains from the residue in the greasing- 
boxes of carriages ; also from the acid remains of oil, suet, iron and 
brass dust, which are all melted together. 

A piece of wood was put in such a hot fluid for forty eight hours 
after the water had previously been partly extracted under the ordinary 
pressure of the atmosphere. When taken out, the metallic solution 
which it had taken up stood at 3 per cent, to its first weight. This piece 
of wood was used as a railway sleeper on the Orleans Bailroad, and after 
eight months it was in perfect condition, whilst other wood not treated 
in a similar manner was in a state of decomposition. 

Another process is recommended by Mr. Dondeine, and much 
applied in France and Germany. It is a paint consisting of the fol- 
lowing : — 

Linseed oil . . . .15 kilogrammes. 

Rosin 15 „ 

T ^ 5 

Zinc or white lead . .12 „ 

Vermillion, red or yellow .10 „ 

Colour (clay colours must be 
avoided as they thicken too 
much) .... 4 „ 

Cement .... 6 „ 

Oxide of iron 

Gutta percha, glue, or gum 

Hydrate of chalk . . 6 „ 

Lard 15 „ 

Litharge .... 2 „ 

(One kilogramme = 2,205lb. English.) 

All these are well mixed, and reduced by boiling to one-tenth. When 
applied warm, it can be applied with a brush ; but not too hot. It may 
also be used cold ; in which case the paste must be mixed with a little 
varnish or turpentine oil. The results obtained with this process are 
reported as yet very satisfactory. It prevents decay, and admits no 
humidity. 

Mr. Dondeine further reports that it prevents oxydation of iron ; and 
wherever walls have had a coat of this mixture it has kept away all wet, 
VOL. iv. c 



10 SODA ASH. 

and unpleasant insects, ants, bugs, &c. Eoofs of pasteboard or of wood 
which have been painted with the mixture keep dry, and withstand the 
effects of rain and snow. 

"Wood impregnated with sulphate of copper will not last longer in 
sea-water than other wood. It is quite as much attacked by the sea 
worm as when in its natural state. On the other hand it has been 
proved that wood impregnated with sulphate of copper will have longer 
durability in the soil than when either tarred or charred. 

The following statement of M. Brouzet to the French Academy may 
also be of interest. He has a seat in the Cavennes Mountain, where he 
cultivates silk-worms. The shelves upon which they breed are of pine. 
During the period from 1853 to 1858 all his crops perished through 
illness. In 1860 he was induced to make new shelves of pine impreg- 
nated with sulphate of copper, and ever since the silk-worms have, been 
in the finest and healthiest condition* 

At Saint Sebastian, in Spain, the piles of a wooden bridge standing 
in the sea have been guarded against the attacks of sea-worms in the 
following manner. Each pile is surrounded by a wooden box, and the 
space between filled up with cement. After six years it was proved that 
the piles were in perfect condition, whilst the outer boxes were com- 
pletely riddled by the worms. 



SODA ASH.f 

BY MURRAY THOMSON, M.D., F.R.S.E. 



Soda Ash, or, as it is sometimes called in commerce, " Alkali," is a 
preparation of soda largely used by the paper maker, and his use of it 
has greatly increased since the scarcity of rags has compelled the intro- 
duction of new sources of fibre. The process by which an almost un- 
limited supply of soda ash can be produced we owe to the ingemuty of a 
Frenchman, M. Leblanc, wdio published his process about the end of last 
century. It was first practically applied at St. Denis in 1804. It was 
proved then to be an eminently successful process, and though it early 
commanded the esteem of our English manufacturers, yet it was not till 
the repeal of the salt duty that it was adopted in this country, and one 
of the first manufacturers to employ it was Muspratt of Liverpool. 

Previous to the introduction of Leblanc's process, our only source 
of alkali was from the ash of seaweed, knowm under the name of 
Barilla, w r hen it came from Spain, and Kelp, when it was made in the 

* See ' Coniptes Rendus de 1' Academie Frangaise,' vol. 54. 
t From ' The Paper Trade Review.' 



SODA ASH. li 

western islands of Scotland and in Ireland. Barilla or kelp, was at the 
best but a limited source, and Leblanc's process was, therefore, a great 
improvement, when it enabled us to obtain soda from such a plentiful 
substance as common or sea salt. 

We deem it sufficient to indicate in outline only the different stages of 
Leblanc's process, as a full description of them would hardly prove 
interesting to our readers. 

The first stage consists in converting the chloride of sodium, or com- 
mon salt, into sulphate of soda, by heating it in a reverberating furnace 
along with oil of vitrol. Hydrochloric acid is given off during the 
process. This gas is not allowed to escape into the atmosphere as it 
once was, but is condensed in an arrangement known as the Coke 
Tower. The sulphate of soda, which is left in the furnace, is called salt 
cake. 

The second stage consists in roasting the salt cake of the last operation 
along with a mixture of chalk and ground coal in a reverberating furnace 
until it is completely fused. Carbonic oxide gas is given off abun- 
dantly during the process. The fused mass on being withdrawn from 
the furnace, is now called hall soda or black ash. 

The third stage consists in dissolving out of this black ash the valu- 
able soda salts. This is done by a most ingenious application of tepid 
water, by means of which a large amount of black ash is thoroughly 
exhausted of its soda salt by a comparatively small amount of water. 
"What the water does not dissolve is known as soda waste. It consists 
mainly of oxysulphide of calcium. 

The soda liquor or lye, which is thus obtained, is then evaporated to 
dryness, and once more calcined along with some sawdust or coal dust, 
the effect of which is to decompose any sulphide of sodium, and convert 
it into carbonate of soda. It undergoes another purification by being 
once more dissolved, evaporated, and calcined. The product of this last 
operation, on being ground under mill-stones, constitutes the soda ash of 
commerce. It may be regarded as a mixture composed in chief part of 
carbonate of soda, and in smaller quantity of caustic soda ; but, besides 
these, it may contain such impurities as sulphide of sodium, hyposul- 
phite, and sulphate of soda, particles of sawdust, &c. 

If the relative quantities of carbonate of soda and caustic soda re- 
mained always the same, in every sample of soda ash, there would be no 
use for processes for valuing the article ; but, as these frequently vary, 
there has long been in use a method of estimating the exact value of any 
sample of soda ash. These methods are applicable to pearl ash as well, 
and are known under the general name of alkalimetry. 

An alkalimetrical method is based on the well established fact, that 
a certain known quantity of an acid, such as sulphuric acid, will always 
neutralise or combine with a fixed definite quantity of alkali, such as 
soda or potass ; and it is easy to tell, by the use of a little colouring 
matter, such as litmus, when this neutralising has been effected. The 

c 2 



12 SODA ASH. 

following details of the most approved method of ascertaining the 
amount of available alkali in any sample of soda ash, will best illustrate 
the subject of alkalimetry. 

Some ordinary commercial oil of vitriol, which has usually tiie specific 
gravity of 1845, water being 1000, is diluted with eight times its bulk of 
distilled water — if distilled water be difficult to procure, clean 
rain water will answer. This diluted acid is now tested as 
to its strength, in the following way. A graduated glass 
measure, is filled to a point between the division 23 and 24. It 
is understood of course, that these numbers count from the zero 
or 0°. the measure is now filled to zero with pure water, covered with 
the hand, and inverted several times, so as to cause thorough mixture. 
The diluted acid in every division of the measure ought to neutralise or 
saturate one grain of pure or uncombined soda. To determine if this 
is really the case, 100 grains of carbonate of soda, is obtained by heating 
red hot for some time the common bicarbonate of soda, the heating con- 
verts it into carbonate of soda, and 100 grains of this is now dissolved 
in 3 or 4 fluid ounces of water in a Florence flask, and when the solution 
has been effected it is filtered if- necessary. The filtered solution is now 
coloured with some infusion of litmus and heated to near boiling. The 
acid contents of the measure are now added little by little, each addition 
is followed by brisk effervescence and a partial reddening of the litmus 
colour, but on again applying heat, so as to boil the solution, this redden- 
ing is changed back again to blue, and so with each addition of the acid, 
until 58'5 measures have been added, when a reddening is produced 
which boiling fails to restore to blue. This indicates that the soda of 
the 100 grains of heated bicarbonate is neutralised or saturated. If the 
58-5 measures of acid has exactly neutralised the 100 grains of pure 
carbonate of soda, then the remainder of the diluted oil of vitriol may 
be put in a stoppered bottle, and kept as a store of standard acid, to be 
used for testing in the above way any sample of soda ash. If, however, 
the diluted acid should be so strong that 50 measures of it effected satu- 
ration of the above amount of carbonate of soda, then it is clear that 
these 50 measures should have occupied the bulk of 58-5. A change in 
accordance with that can easily be effected by adding to every 50 measures 
of the acid in the measure, 8 5 of pure water, or to every 100 of the 
acid 17 measures of water. If, on the other hand, more than 58-5 
measures of dilated acid be recpiired, this indicates that the standard 
acid is too weak to bring up its strength, there is no more convenient 
method than to add of vitriol drop by drop, to the quantity of acid first 
diluted, and subsecmently trying it with fresh carbonate of soda. 

With ordinary discrimination, one or two such trials is usually suffi- 
cient to restore the acid to its proper strength. When this has been 
done, the whole of the diluted acid should now be put aside as before, 
with a label attached, to the effect that the alkalimeter, or graduated 
measure, when filled to 23-5 with this acid, and then to 0° with water, 



ON THE PAPER MANUFACTURE. 13 

every division of the alkalimeter is equal to one grain of caustic or pure 
soda. Enough of this standard acid should now be made to serve for a 
great number of valuations. 

The actual process of valuing any sample of soda ash is now pro- 
ceeded with in the same way as the 100 grains of carbonate of soda was 
treated in the foregoing description. The only difference being, that the 
inference to be drawn in this case is not the strength of the acid from the 
saturation of the pure carbonate of soda, but the converse ; the strength 
of the sample of soda ash, or real amount of soda it contains, is to be 
inferred from the amount of acid used to neutralise it, each measure 
being equal to one grain of pure soda. 



ON THE PAPER MANUFACTURE. 

BY BENJAMIN LAMBERT. 
II. 

Among the almost infinite variety of objects which arrest the atten- 
tion of the diligent Technologist, paper must always hold a foremost 
place, not only as being a beautiful product of practical science, with 
uses so various as almost to defy enumeration, but mainly on account of 
the numerous members of the vegetable kingdom, which are fitted to 
enter into its constituent parts. The paper manufacture of this country, 
both by the amount of its invested capital and relative producing power, 
is entitled to rank as a national industry ; and although its proportions 
may be dwarfed when brought into comparison with the gigantic wealth- 
producing interests, cotton and coal, must still claim a conspicuous place 
in the long list of British manufactures. Such being the case, its welfare 
becomes matter of public concern, and its scientific necessities the 
subject of careful and special consideration. 

The welfare of the great bidk of the paper manufacture is based on 
a plentiful supply of cotton and linen rags, and the complaint of the 
trade is that the available supply is not equal to the demand. It is 
stated with truth that the production of rags cannot be increased by any 
effort of private enterprise, but the further allegation that rags are 
essential to the production of the finer sorts of paper, must be taken 
cum grano salis by all parties who have seriously investigated the 
question. For centuries rags have been considered a waste product, 
destitute of value, other than for the manufacture of paper. We have 
always bought largely in the different continental markets ; whilst our 
own has been subject to periodical visitation from our cousins in the 
United States of America. Under the old fiscal regulations, the 
established system of trade worked smoothly enough, and paper-makers 
in this country did not care to look seriously beyond existing circum- 
stances for any prospective, disturbing cause. Rags were abundant, 
the paper-maker could literally revel in the variety of material which 



14 ON THE PAPER MANUFACTURE. 

his capital could at any time command. Foreign competition in the 
markets of the world, in finished paper, was a state of things to which 
they were well accustomed, and knew how to be victorious when they 
chose ; hut foreign competition at home, within the very shadows of our 
British mills, was a possibility never seriously contemplated. So, when 
the inevitable abolition of all fiscal imports on paper came, and with it, 
an army of Teutons, invading the counting-houses of their customers, 
offering good-looking papers, in startling quantities, at prices fabulously 
low, and on terms temptingly inviting, our makers incontinently lose 
heart of grace, instead of girding their loins for the coming struggle, 
with a stern determination to vindicate our manufacturing supremacy. 

How far the present state of things is exceptional and temporary*, 
rather than consequent and fixed, is worthy of calm consideration. Our 
paper-makers state that while the price of rags has advanced, the value of 
finished paper has rapidly declined, and that whilst the rise in rags and 
decline in paper must be treated in the relation of cause and effect, the 
former is simply the effect of increased consumption in countries which 
either entirely prohibit, or place a high duty on the export of the raw 
material, the increased consumption again being the effect of the foreign 
makers being admitted to free competition with the English makers in 
their own market. This mode of stating the case may seem rather in- 
volved, but the inquiry is surrounded with peculiarities — for example, it 
would be fair to expect that the prices of our home collection of rags 
would have closely assimilated to the enhanced price of rags abroad. 
Yet London " fines" and "seconds" are very much the same in price as they 
have been for many years past. Again, it is well known that immedi- 
ately on the repeal of the duty on paper, several makers increased their 
prices for fine sorts, and not the least puzzling circumstance is, that mills 
which, prior to the abolition of the excise on paper, had been shut up 
for years, were started again, quite twelve months after the duty had 
ceased, and that by one of the largest makers of printings in the trade, 
an anomaly for which we have never been able satisfactorily to account. 
For all the purposes of argument it may be stated, that in the matter 
of quality, no foreign paper has yet been brought into the English 
market which our own makers are not prepared to equal, at prices which 
shall properly remunerate the foreign makers, be they made from rags, 
or the veriest rubbish that ever defiled an engine, did the question of 
character not intervene. Almost every mill in this country has a repu- 
tation, laboriously acquired, for excellence in the make of some descrip- 
tion of paper, and consequently to lower their standard of quality is a 
question of very serious import. A buyer of English paper almost in- 
variably looks for the mill number on the wrapper, confident in his 
knowledge of the quality of paper made at that particular mill, but this 
is not true of the continental mills, either in sense or extent. The word 
foreign covers a multitude of sins, and the consequence is that our 
market has been flooded with large quantities of stuff in the sem- 
blance of paper, which for a time has successfully ministered to the 



ON THE PAPER MANUFACTURE. 15 

necessities of the low-priced newspapers, but possessing neither the sub- 
stance, finish, or durability of a really good article. 

Belgium and Prussia are the two countries from which the bulk of 
recent imports have come, and the sorts have been mainly low printings, 
and worse than low browns and other wrapping descriptions. Of the 
latter we bave seen such samples as were simply a disgrace to any 
maker, utterly unfit for use in any trade with which we are acquainted. 
What, either in the heavens above or the earth beneath could have pro- 
duced such stuff, with the exception of the chopped straw with which the 
surface was plentifully plastered, passes our comprehension. As regards 
the printing sorts, they, of course, look very much better and handle 
surprisingly well when the very low prices at which they are offered 
are considered. Yet they do not suit our market ; they neither wet 
well nor work free, and the chronic tendency which makers of "printing 
sorts" on the Continent have to load their paper heavily with various 
mineral substances, seriously detracts from the permanent value of the 
manufactured article. All things considered, we incline to the opinion 
that the Continental makers cannot manufacture a sound paper such 
as would command the approval of British consumers, and put it into 
damaging competion with our own makers, at a price which shall be 
properly remunerative to the producer. Already the Customs' Returns 
exhibit a marked diminution in the weight of paper imported from 
abroad ; so marked indeed as to bring the figures representing the im- 
ports for the five months ol the present year below those for the 
corresponding period in 1862, and this is rendered more significant 
when coupled with the fact that the German paper-makers are com- 
bining for the purpose of rescuing the trade from imminent peril, brought 
on by the uirremunerative prices at which sales have been forced for some 
time back, an immediate advance of 10 per cent, was resolved upon at 
a meeting of the trade held at Carlesruhe in April last, and the Belgian 
makers will, in all probability, find it necessary to follow the example. 

When speaking of the adulteration of paper by the admixture of 
mineral ingredients it has been very much the habit to attribute it 
almost entirely to foreign makers. And the practice has been most 
heartily denounced by both printers and publishers, — the former very 
naturally at finding his forms filled up with fluffy clay, and the latter 
in the want of firmness in the printed quire ; to pay 6d. per pound for 
paper in which there was 30 per cent, of China clay, was considered 
very much too bad even for this advanced period of the century. Some 
of our own makers, however, as would appear from a letter published 
in the 'Paper Trade Review' for the month of June, have become no mean 
adepts in the science of adulteration. Mr. James Eckworth, of New- 
castle, states that he has just finished the examination of "eleven 
samples of first-class papers," all British made, " and of the eleven only 
two were free from adulteration ;" and he goes on to say : " It may appear 
almost incredible, but 1 can vouch for its being correct, th 1 1 some of these 
papers were so heavily charged with mineral ingredients, that the propor- 



16 ON THE PAPER MANUFACTURE. 

tion reached the astounding rate of 50 per cent. The lowest propor- 
tion of adulteration was 20 per cent., and the ingredients employed were 
various, and included gypsum, China clay, silica and starch." Mr. Eck- 
worth may well remark that such a state of things may appear almost in- 
credible. Had he found low-class papers very largely adulterated it would 
not have excited surprise, but that from 20 to 50 per cent, of mineral 
ingredients should have been found in first-class British-made papers, 
is a circumstance demanding critical attention. In the matter of low 
printings the paper manufacture seems to be gradually drifting into 
a dilemma difficult of explication. The shout " Cotton is King" went 
forth from the Confederate States of America as the key-note of a 
national programme. Whether the assertion properly belongs to the 
region of fact or to that of fiction remains to be proved. From the 
reading masses in this empire there has also gone forth a shout " Penny 
is King," and as with Cotton, it remains to be proved whether the 
prophecy shall be recorded among the things that were, or be graven 
in the annals of our periodical literature as indisputable truth. Of course 
the great Penny feature of the day is the cheap daily newspaper ; 
and the problem is not yet by any means satisfactorily solved whether a 
newspaper with any just pretension to literary excellence, can give a sheet 
of decent paper measuring 46J X 35J, and weighing say 60 lbs. to the 
ream for one penny. The quantity of paper consumed weekly by the 
cheap newspaper press is something enormous, and the quality of the paper 
ranges from execrable to very common, with a fluctuating medium which 
may be described as bad. Of straw paper, ordinarily so-called, there is no 
lack, and of low rag paper with a mixture of raw fibre there is an abund- 
ance ; but there is at the same time an enormous quantity of nonde- 
script stuff which it would puzzle any paper-maker in the three kingdoms 
to describe. The raw material, whatever its kind, may be tolerably 
decent, but the make is usually of the most discreditable character, and 
the finish destitute of the mark which experience never fails to leave 
even on the lo vest manufactured product. We are not without know- 
ledge that within the last few years, and especially since the repeal of the 
duty, the number of paper-makers in this country has slightly increased, 
it would be illiberal to deny that in some instances the trade if it has not 
and gained, has, at all events, suffered no loss of reputation from the 
accession ; but we cannot close our eyes to the fact that there are 
others, and the number is not a few, who have signally nistaken their 
calling, and who have been furnishing the markets, as the fruits of their 
incompetence, with much of the paper which we feel called upon so 
unhesitatingly to condemn. An amateur paper-maker is, generally 
speaking, a dangerous specimen of the genus homo, and it cannot be 
sufficiently impressed upon such that, although the science of paper- 
making may be rapidly mastered by those whose natural taste and 
ancillary knowledge qualifies them for the pursuit, there are others, the 
standard of whose iiltimate excellence must be mediocrity, resulting, 
in many cases, in disappointment and disaster. 



ON THE PAPER MANUFACTURE. 



17 



The principal materials employ 3d in the manufacture of paper in this 
country are rags, cotton waste, and bagging of various descriptions, but 
rags are the staple article, ever since the establishment of the manufac- 
ture paper-makers have regarded rags as the only material from which 
a respectable quality of paper could be produced. And it is therefore 
to be expected that when, from any cause whatever, a rise occurs in their 
market value, the trade becomes uneasy and alarmed. At the Inter- 
national Exhibition of 1862, the British makers were very inadequately 
represented. Scarcely 11 per cent, of the total number of exhibitors 
hailing from Great Britain and Ireland, but although the exhibitors 
were few, it is fair to assume that all those makers who were possessed 
of any specialty in raw material, exhibited their produce ; and the 
following tabulated statement printed in the Jurors' Report is in- 
teresting as showing the materials from which the various samples 
of paper exhibited were manufactured : — 
1862. — Classification of Paper from the different Countries. 





o 






•5^ 


Of paper 


■si 




ll 






<o 2 






§ i 


from 


to h 


1 s 

■a 8 

a g 


-fe o£ 


Description of 


Countries. 


|S 


1-i 


1.2 


o -2 


rags alone. 


S 
la 2 


|1| 


raw materials 
employed, other 






f*3 




jS"S 


£ § 


First 


All 


S m 


?'" 




than rags or 




3s 


Is 






class 
paper 


other 
sorts 


ll 


II 


Ills 
Ph is 2 


ropes. 


Great Britain and ( 
Ireland . . . \ 


11 


6 


2 


2 


1 
2 — 


2 


3 


4 


1 2 of straw. 
< 1 of esparto. 
( 1 of hop-bine 












1 








New Brunswick . 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— I 1 


1 










India .... 


3 


— 


— 


— 


- ! 3 


3 










Belgium . . . 


6 


— 


3 


1 


1 2 


3 


1 


1 


Unknown. 


Denmark . . 


1 





1 


— 


1 | — 


1 










France .... 


17 


10 


6 


— 


12 | 5 


17 










Austria .... 


4 


3 


1 


— 


4 1 - 


4 








Maize. 


Baden .... 


1 





1 





- ! 1 


1 










Hanover . . . 


1 





1 





— 1 1 


1 










Gd. Duchy of Hesse 


2 


— 


1 


— 


— 1 


1 


— 


1 


Straw. 


Prussia .... 


20 


10 


5 


2 


12 ' 3 


15 





3 


Straw. 


Saxony and Reuss 


2 


1 


1 


— 


1 I 1 


2 


_ 






"Wiirtemburg . . 


2 


2 


— 


— 


1 — 


1 


— 


1 


Wood. 


Italy 


10 


2 


7 


— 


6 | 3 


9 





1 


Straw. 


Netherlands . . 


3 


1 








1 


2 


3 









Norway .... 


1 


— 





1 



















Portugal . . . 


4 


— 


2 


— 


— ■ 


4 


4 










Japan .... 


1 


— 


— 


. — 


— 


1 


1 


' 





Bark. 


China and Formosa 


2 














2 


2 










Russia .... 


3 


— 


3 


— 


3 


_ 


3 










Spain .... 


8 


— 


4 


— 





8 


8 










Sweden .... 


3 


— 


3 


— 


3 


— 


3 


— 


— 


Wood. 


Total . . 


106 

1 


35 


41 


6 


47 


38 


85 


4 


11 





Note. — The column "first-class paper from rags alone" is intended to include 
such papers as are manufactured of the best materials, and at great expense for sizing 
and finishing, such as high-class writing, and plate, and drawing papers. 

Among the thirty-eight "other sorts," there are many papers which have been 
made of very superior materials, but they are for the greater part for printing pur- 
poses, and in the case of Spain they consist almost wholly of paper for cigarettes. 



18 ON THE PAPER MANUFACTURE. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that out of 100 sorts of paper 
shown by the same number of exhibitors, 85 per cent, was made from 
rags, 7 per cent from straw, and only 4 per cent from raw fibres ; such 
a statement as this is conclusive evidence as to the almost universal use 
of rags all the world over. 

The paper manufacture of Great Britain and Ireland requires of raw 
material about ] 50,000 tons every year ; and of this large quantity, the 
greater proportion is rags ; about 8 per cent, of the gross weight having 
to be imported, we stand in the peculiar position of requiring a larger 
supply of paper than we can furnish raw material for. The continent of 
Europe has at present a surplus of this raw material, whilst America is 
very much in the same position as ourselves. The following extracted 
statement, although we do not vouch for its" accuracy in detail, will give 
a sufficiently fair view of the relation existing between rags and paper 
both in this country and on the Continent : " The Continent consumes 
only 4 lbs. of- paper per head of its population, requiring 6 lbs. of paper 
material for its production ; England consumes 8 lbs. of paper per head, 
requiring 12 lbs. of paper material ; and America consumes 10 lbs. of 
paper per head, requiring 15 lbs. of paper material for its production : 
these simple figures 4, 8, and 10, represent with sufficient accuracy the 
relative position of England both towards the Continent and towards 
America as regards paper production and rag supply. It requiras l£ 
lbs. of paper material, to make 1 lb. of paper. The paper material 
therefore, consumed on the Continent is 6 lbs. per head of its population. 
In England it is 12 lbs. per head, and in America it is 15 lbs. per head ; 
now the Continent, using 6 lbs. per head, does not consume all the paper 
material it produces, it has a surplus for export. England, consiuning 
12 lbs. per head, consumes a great deal more than it produces. The 
average, therefore, of paper material (or rags) that is made per head of 
these populations is somewhere between 6 lbs. and 12 lbs. It would be 
a long affair to show how the figures are reckoned out, and it is rather 
an uncertain calculation, with all the care that can be taken, but it is 
not far from true to compute that the Continent makes 8 lbs. per head 
of raw material (or rags,) and England 10 lbs. This would show that 
the former, requiring for its own use but 6 lbs., has 2 lbs. per head to 
spare for export ; and that England, requiring for its use 12 lbs., needs 
2 lbs. per head to be imported to keep its mills going. The Continent, 
would therefore (from the population of 80,000,000) have about 36,000 
tons of rags to spare for the wants of England and America, the only 
two countries that have to import rags because their home supply is 
deficient, and England would require in ordinary years about 13,000* or 
14,000 tons to make up her quantity. In 1862, owing to the dearth of 
cotton waste, she imported more than this quantity by 6,000 or 7,000 
tons. The account corrected by deducting the English export of rags 
gives between 19,000 and 20,000 tons as the actual foreign supply of rags 
for that year." 

The importance of a good supply of rag's to the paper-making interest 



ON THE PAPER MANUFACTURE. 19 

is from the foregoing perfectly obvious, but no notice whatever seems to 
have been taken by the writer of the large quantities procurable from 
Egypt, India, and Japan ; paper-makers almost without exception say 
that Eastern rags are worthless on account of their softness, and the 
excess of wear which" the woven fabric receives before it is condemned ; 
there is much more force in the first objection than there is in the 
latter. In order to convert a good strong rag into paper, there is not so 
much skill and care required at the hands of the experienced manufac- 
turer, as is necessary in the working of a comparatively soft material ; 
as a rule, the lowness of the rag must be in an inverse ratio to the state 
of the machinery ; with strong stuff after being couched, the paper-maker 
may let his dry felts waddle on the stretching rolls, if precision be 
not with him a cardinal virtue, and generally to allow the paper to run 
as slack as it may until it either falls on the cutting board or is wound 
on the reel, but it is otherwise with a low material, which requires mak- 
ing in the strictest sense of the term ; then precision is absolutely indis- 
pensable, and the machinery from the engine roll downwards, must be 
in the most perfect order. Many inexperienced paper-makers imagine 
that anything will do for a common material, the contrary being the case 
as we have already stated. The principal difficulty with which the 
paper-maker has to contend in working soft rags, is their inability to 
carry engine size, rendering machine sizing necessary ; and as very few 
machines in this country are adapted for sizing, it follows that stuff 
needing this particular treatment is necessarily condemned. Nearly all 
modern machines are made with a double set of drying cylinders so as to 
admit the use of animal size, but the great bulk of the machines in use 
have been running for a great number of years, are small in size, and 
not worth the additions which it would be necessary to make in order to 
fit them for sizing purposes. The paper-makers of this country must 
set about the substitution of modern for comparatively ancient 
machinery, before long, if they would keep their proper place in the 
van of the manufacture. Cotton spinners, so long as they could obtain 
a plentiful supply of long staple cotton from the Gulf of Florida, classed 
every other sort coming from the East under the name of Surats, 
and condemned their use, but now that the supply of Sea Island and 
other favourite marks is cut off, they are gladly putting their machinery 
in order for the working of the shorter stapled, but still valuable, Surats, 
we do not say that to such a pass the paper-makers of this country must 
come, but the lesson may have its uses. From Japan alone a large and 
increasing exportation of rags is going on ; Sir Rutherford Alcock states 
the cost of collection, freight, and incidental expenses to be about 141. 
per ton laid down in this country, and the wisdom of allowing a mass of 
such material to lie neglected in our warehouses, and finally to be re- 
shipped to another market, is, to say the very least, exceedingly ques- 
tionable. 

The mode in which rags are collected for the use of the paper 



20 ON I-HE PAPER MANUFACTURE. 

maker is one of the most roundabout conceivable, generally speaking 
they are considered as most decidedly contraband by thrifty housewives, 
who declare that dirt is inseparable from their stowage — first come the 
itinerant vendors of hearth stones, glass ornaments, crockery et hoc 
genus omnes, who in exchange for their wares are anxious to receive 
rags and bones, soleless boots, and crownless hats, the value of which 
no one but a Bohemian could satisfactorily appraise ; they in turn 
convey their purchased stock to the rag shop, which is the market for 
their miscellaneous gleanings. There, from a mass of indiscriminate 
rubbish perfect order is evoked. Kags are sorted into cottons and linens, 
new and old, white and coloured, the latter being again subdivided into 
blooms and other varieties. Here also rags are first accumulated, as the 
rag-man does not, as a rule, sell his stock, until a parcel of respectable 
size has been obtained, when they are all cleared out and sold to the 
merchant, by whom they are supplied to the paper maker — and so 
exclusive is the trade that a stranger would have the greatest possible 
difficulty in purchasing a small parcel of rags from a merchant uidess 
he were well introduced, the owner of a rag shop usually refusing 
to sell to any but the merchant with whom he is accustomed to deal. 
The collection of rags is, as we have endeavoured to show, indirect in 
its character, and the conclusion is inevitable that a large per-centage is 
annually withdrawn from the market, by burning and other means of 
destruction. A quasi charitable movement has been recently set on foot 
in London, for the direct collection of rags, under the name of the 
Rag Brigade, and we understand that it has so far been a financial suc- 
cess, but il the quantity of rags collected for paper-making purposes is to 
be materially increased, some more extensive organisation must be estab- 
lished. In the Jurors' Report on Class 28, Section A, in the International 
Exhibition of ] 862, already referred to, the following curious calculation 
is given of the approximate quantity of rags made, collected, and 
wasted in this country. In the year 1860 the quantity of linen and 
cotton fabrics retained for home consumption, (which is found by 
deducting the quantity exported from what was imported) amounted to 
210,000 tons, thus :— 

Tons. 
Imported of Linen, Flax, &c. . . . 145,000 
Cotton all kinds . . . 170,000 



315,000 
Deduct exported . . . 105,000 



210,000 



And the report goes on to state that " by taking the returns from the 
Excise Books for a similar period, it appears that in the year 1860 there 
were charged with duty 99,840 tons of paper of all sorts, being the 
largest aggregate ever reached, indicating that there ought to be of 



ON THE PAPER MANUFACTURE, 21 

rags, making a large allowance for waste, not less than 50,000 tons of 
raw material produced by the wear and tear of our habiliments, which 
do not as yet find their way to the paper mill." The calculation i3 
ingenious, but it would be much nearer the truth to estimate the quan- 
tity of rags uncollected at 100,000 instead of 50,000 tons, on the basis 
of 210,000 tons of material being available. Hitherto it has been 
assumed by the paper makers that they are as certain of a monopoly of 
the rag collection in the future as they have been in the past, an assump- 
tion which we are inclined seriously to doubt. It was stated recently 
in the public prints that a French engineer had invented a machine by 
which cotton and linen rags could be made available for re-spinning, 
and it was stated at the time that it would be impossible to estimate 
the extent to which such an invention might revolutionise particular 
staple industries. Such an announcement in the ordinary course of things 
might fairly be considered a remote contingency, were it not for the 
startling fact that the process which has been in embryo in this country 
for the last two or three years is now being developed so steadily as to 
leave no doubt of the position it is destined to assume, as an important 
branch of the cotton manufacture. So far the demand for rags has been 
scarcely felt by the paper makers, because manufacturers have not yet 
had sufficient time to get a large plant in order, but that done, every 
thousand spindles will tell upon the supply of rags with unmistakeable 
distinctness ; against such an industry as this the paper maker will be 
powerless, as the prices the spinner could afford to offer would be such 
as to make rags unattainable for the purposes of the paper manufacturer. 
To meet such a contingency as this we do not believe the paper makers 
of this country are prepared. Its realisation even in a partial sense will 
herald the downfall of many. The hard cotton waste, which in the 
days of plenty the spinner cast to the paper maker, as a waste product, 
is now found, in the days of scarcity, to possess a high textile value, and 
that is consequently going slowly but surely from his grasp. It cannot 
reasonably be expected that a waste product, such as rags, which ha3 
been proved to possess a length of staple when broken up, sufficient for 
the spinning of low numbers, will be much longer permitted to find its 
way exclusively to the paper mill, and the paper makers of this country 
as prudent men of business, ought at once to bestir themselves in 
anticipation of the event. How far they are in a position to avail 
themselves of raw material other than rags, from whence it must come, 
and the multifarious and momentous considerations which such a change 
would entail, may possibly be noticed by us at another time. 



22 



ON THE VERONICA QUINQUEFOLIA AS A REMEDY FOR 
SCROFULA. 

BY WILLIAM R. PRINCE. 

I am not aware whether diseases derived from parentage can be 
eradicated ; but I am fully satisfied that there is no impurity of the 
blood, derived from whatever source, that is within the limit of possible 
cure by remedials ever yet applied, that will not be eradicated by the 
proper use of the root of the species of plant which I now shall proceed 
to name. In regard to the plant remedial for small-pox I speak with 
less force, because the discovery of its efficiency is more recent, but I 
find the fact attested by great numbers, and no denials of its potent 
relief. 

Until my recent tour through Mexico, I had no realising conception 
of the extent, and of the apparent abiding existence of scrofula, among 
whole tribes of the inhabitants of earth. It has been with me an 
enigma difficvdt to solve in connection with Divine power, wisdom, and 
love, that children are afflicted through the errors of preceding genera- 
tions. I find its solution alone in the mighty truth, that all moral and 
physical influences and results are based on the all-pervading principle 
of an eternal retributive justice. In a large district of Mexico bordering 
on the Pacific and extending 150 miles inland, the entire popidation 
consists of the Pinta or painted race, their faces and their skin on every 
part presenting the appearance of various coloured calico. The cause 
of this peculiar characteristic is declared to have resulted from the 
perpetuity of scrofula by a lack of adecpiate cures, and the intermarriage 
of such persons throughout that region of country. I was told that the 
men possess less strength than other tribes. The only hope for the 
repurification of this unfortunate race, and for others who have 
inherited similar maladies, consists in the constant exercise by nature 
of all her recuperative energies toward the resumption of her primitive 
prerogative of health and purity, and in effecting this she will avail 
herself of every means which may influence such a result. I have 
made these initiatory remarks, which some may deem superfluous, by 
way of explaining why my mind, which has always been devoted to the 
culture of trees and plants, has been attracted to a consideration of the 
maladies which so sorely afflict humanity. 

There are 150 species of the Veronica described in botanical 
works, of which 22 species are natives of the United States, and it is 
matter of surprise that Eaton, in his general " Manual of Botany for 
North America," fails to include and describe all of our native species. 
Our botanical umpires, Torrey and Gray, we trust, will, in the conclud- 
ing part of their great work, amply fulfil the task which they have so 
nobly be^tin. The present species hns been found in several localities 



ON THE VERONICA QUINQUEFOLIA AS A REMEDY FOR SCROFULA. 23 

in greater or less quantities, and with, flowers of different shades, varying 
from white to purple. The plant possesses such inestimable properties 
as a remedial for all diseases arising from impurity of the blood, that I 
deem it a duty to give to the world a cursory history of it, the earliest 
details being copied from the Memoirs of William Prince, my father, 
who was born in 1766, and died in 1843, and who took extreme pains in 
the distribution of this plant, gratuitously, among his invalid friends 
and to different hospitals, the great desire being that they all should 
fully test its applicability to various diseases ; his whole life seeming to 
overflow with purposes of benevolence. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century there still existed a rem- 
nant of the Indian race in the vicinity of this town, and they were 
noted for their success in curing various diseases, and the town was 
visited by very many persons for the purpose of obtaining what was 
then termed the " Indian Physic." The knowledge of the cures then 
effected by the root of this plant furnished by the Indians became so 
wide spread, that William Prince, my grandfather, who had established 
his nurseries here, received applications for it from all parts of the 
Union, and having, after a long period of Indian secrecy, obtained some 
fresh root, he by immediately planting it, succeeded in ascertaining its 
name. He forthwith inserted it in his Catalogue as a specific for leprosy, 
&c, and the consequent demand became so great that every locality 
where it had grown spontaneously was nearly exhausted, and latterly 
as high as 12 dols. has been paid for ten ounces of the fresh root, this 
being the quantity prescribed for a patient labouring under any scrofu- 
lous disease. Dr. Ogden, a very eminent physician, who resided and 
died here, has stated in his Memoirs ' that twelve ounces of the root of 
this plant, taken in moderate doses, will restore the blood of an adult 
to the purity of that of an infant.' Dr. W. Beach has recorded in his 
medical works a very remarkable cure of a poor man, named Noah 
Coombes, who was a leper, covered with this disease over his entir e 
body down to his toes, and was deemed in a dying condition, to whom 
on hearing of his direful case, my father sent this root, and who about 
ten weeks after came fifteen miles to thank him, he driving his own 
waggon, aud being perfectly cured. This root has cured the severest 
cases of mercurialised human systems that have ever been witnessed. 
Even dropsy, as well as erysipelas, and all other scrofulous diseases, have 
been eradicated by it. In fact it may be justly deemed the most potent 
of all remedials for the whole chain of maladies arising from impurity of 
the blood. I have recommended it wherever such diseases have been 
spoken of, and have never endeavoured to make it a source of pecuniary 
benefit, deeming always that what nature bestows on us spontaneously, 
"man should impart freely to his brother man, and that our only just 
claim to compensation is for our actual toil. This plant, which was 
formerly quite plentiful in the marshy portions of our island, became 
nearly eradicated about twenty years since, and this is probably the 



24 ON PETROLEUM AND PHOTOGEN. 

cause why its great merits have been in a measure lost sight of. I have 
recently ascertained some new localities where it is attainable, and I 
have urged one of my sons to undertake its culture. I have some plants 
growiug in my garden borders, where any one can have the privilege 
of examining them. In regard to the Red -flowered Sarracenia, a reme- 
dial which arrests the small-pox in twelve hours, it is also a native of 
our island, and is found in moist localities, on the borders of ponds, and 
in white cedar swamps. It is now becoming very generally applied, 
and, I understand, always with successful results. 

Flushing, Long Island, N. Y., May, 1863. 



ON PETROLEUM AND PHOTOGEN. 

BY W. PROCTER, M.D., F.C.S. 

The discovery, in 1825, by Dr. Faraday, of benzole in the products 
of the distillation of oil, and the numerous applications which were 
made of it, may be said to be the origin of those investigations into the 
substances produced by the distillation of coal which have led to results 
of the utmost importance, viewed either in a scientific, economic, or 
commercial aspect. The two most valuable are the discovery of aniline 
with its wonderful dyes, and the coal and other illuminating and lubri- 
cating oils. It is to the latter of these two subjects that the present 
paper is devoted.. 

The ancient inhabitants of different parts of the world, both civilised 
and barbarian, were acquainted with natural oils which flow from the 
earth, such as mineral oil, or petroleum, naphtha, bitumen, &c, and 
used them for illuminating and other purposes. In Egypt, a substance 
derived from petroleum was employed for embalming bodies, and in 
some neighbouring countries asphalt is used to cover the roofs of houses 
and coat boats. Mixed with grease, the Trinidad asphalt is applied to 
the sides of vessels to prevent the borings of the teredo, and with lime 
is used as a disinfectant. The Persians, Burmese, and other nations, 
still continue to employ these substances, in their crude state, to give 
light, and for medicinal purposes. 

In addition to these natural sources, similar compounds have long 
been obtained by the distillation of coal and other allied minerals. As 
early as 1694, Erie, Hancock, and Portlock "made pitch, oyl, and tar 
out of a kind of stone, and obtained patents, therefore." In a work in 
1791, by Lewis, on Materia Medica, it is stated that oils were distilled 
from black bituminous shale. The early papers, also, of the Royal 
Society, give accounts of the distillation of oils from coals and other 
bituminous substances. In 1781, Lord Dundonald obtained a patent for 



ON PETROLEUM AND PHOTOGEN. 25 

" a method of extracting or making tar, pitch, and other substances 
from pit-coal," and in this manner is said to have turned the mines of 
coal on his own and other estates, to considerable profit. Later, the 
attention of some French chemists, especially M. Selliguier, was turned 
to the purification of these products, and their exertions were attended 
with some success, and the purified oils acquired an extensive sale in 
Europe for illumination and lubrication. But the first real practical 
success was made in this country by Mr. Young. Previous to his in- 
vestigations, the thickness, coarseness, and unpleasant odour of the oils 
then manufactured, were such that they had fallen into disuse in Europe, 
when the attention of Mr. Young, a manufacturing chemist of Glasgow, 
was called to some petroleum which had been obtained from Biddings, 
in Derbyshire. The spring was an old coal-mine, from the sandstone 
roof of which a dirty rock-oil exuded. This source soon became ex- 
hausted, and Mr. Young then investigated the somewhat similar oils 
which Beichenbach and Selliguier had previously shown might be ob- 
tained by the distillation of coal, lignite, peat, &c. Since that period, 
enormous impulse has been given to the manufacture, especially by the 
recent discoveries in America. 

We now, without any lengthened or scientific details, proceed to 
consider generally the substances capable of affording oils by distillation. 
The materials which are employed at the present time are coals, bitu- 
minous shales, asphalt, bitumen, bituminous sands and clays, petroleum, 
lignite, and peat. 

I. Coal. — When coal, as in the ordinary process of gas manufacture, 
is submitted to distillation in closed iron retorts, three substances may 
be said to be the result of that process. 1. Illuminating gas of complex 
composition, consisting chiefly of gaseous vapour of hydro-carbons. 2. 
Tar. 3. Coke which is left in the retorts. The quantity and composition 
of these several products are dependent on several causes, but principally 
on temperature and the nature of the coal. These circumstances will 
guide the manufacturer in the selection of the conditions under which 
he distils the coal, according to the products which he wishes to obtain. 
The higher the temperature employed, the greater is the quantity of 
volatile matter or gas which is produced. Therefore, in gas-works, when 
it is the object to procure as much volatile matter as possible, the coals 
are distilled at a high temperature, sufficient to decompose the oils. 
These the manufacturer of photogen desires to preserve, and accordingly 
distils his materials at a heat which does not destroy the liquid hydro- 
carbons. The following is a general outline of the process usually 
adopted for the preparation of illuminating oils and other substances of 
economic value from coal : — 

The coal is distilled at a temperature of 700°, and the tar collected. 
The latter substance is put into a large iron retort (which is of different 
fashion in several manufactories), connected with a coil of iron pipes 
surrounded with cold water, called the condenser. The retort is heated, 
and a light oil or naphtha (sp. gr. 0.830) comes over, and is succeeded, by 
VOL. IV. D 



26 ON PETROLEUM AND PHOTOGEN, 

a series of heavier oils, which constitute the lamp-oil. Steam is now 
forced into the retort, and a heavy, lubricating oil passes over, and, as a 
residue, there is left a black, tarry matter used to grease heavy machinery, 
and a black coke employed as fuel. When the oils first come over, they 
are in a very impure condition ; the amount of foreign matter which 
they contain renders their purification a matter of difficulty, as well as 
of expense, and although much has been effected in this direction, much 
remains to be done before they are rendered free from all offensive odour, 
and free from colour. The process of purification consists in the treat- 
ment with concentrated oil of vitriol to remove the coloured and 
odorous constituents of the crude distillate, and washing with an alkali 
to remove carbolic acid and its congeners, as well as that portion of sul- 
phuric acid which remains suspended in the naphtha, and the sulphurous 
acid produced by the decomposition of a portion of the sulphuric acid 
by the carbon of some of the organic compounds. The alkalies also 
serve to remove some sulphuretted hydrogen and other fetid sulphur 
compounds and their resulting products. By a careful purification, coal- 
oil is now obtained perfectly free from colour. It often exhibits the 
phenomena of dichroism. This is diminished by perfect purification 
with acids and the removal of the less volatile portion of the distillate. 

But few common bituminous coals can be successfully employed for 
the production of oils, their distillates abounding in creosote, carbolic 
acid, &c, and their purification is both troublesome and expensive. Few 
coals produce over 100 gallons per ton ; some cannels will not yield over 
50, others 30 gallons per ton. The quality of the crude oils also differ ; 
some afford a large quantity ol paraffin, or heavy oil, and but a small 
percentage of light oil, and others yield the opposite. The lighter 
qualities yield the largest proportion of burning oil. 

II. Boghead Coal occurs at Torbane hill, in the county of Linlith- 
gow, in the carboniferous limestone of the Frith of Forth. It is used 
largely by Mr. Young for obtaining his paraffin and paraffin oil, his 
manufactory being situated in the immediate vicinity of the mines. At 
one time this mineral was largely exported to America, and in 1859 the 
Kerosene Light Company imported upwards of 20,000 tons at 1 8 dollars 
per ton ; but the discovery of strata of cannel coal, and of petroleum, 
has done away with the necessity of that importation. 

The nature of Boghead coal is at the present time an undecided 
question, even after an action at law. At that trial a great array of 
scientific witnesses were examined on this matter ; they consisted of 
chemists, geologists, botanists, mineralogists, microscopists, as well as 
practical coal engineers and owners. The evidence was conflicting, one 
party maintaining that it was coal, whilst the other declared it to be an 
nndescribed mineral or bituminous schist. But the evidence is in favour 
of its right to be ranked as a true coal ; it rests on a bed of fireclay full 
of Stigmaria, and is surmounted by shale and ironstone, with plants and 
shells (Anthracosia). It has the microscopical structure of coal, burns 
with a flame, and yields 70 per cent, of volatile matter. 



ON PETROLEUM AND PHOTOGEN. 'it 

Whatever may be the precise nature of the Boghead coal, it is a most 
valuable producer of oils. One ton yields 120 gallons of crude oil, of 
which 65 gallous are lamp-oil, 7 paraffin oil, and 12 lbs. of pure paraffin 
can be extracted. 

Ill, Bitumens. — Deposits of this substance exist in various parts of 
the world, and have been lately employed largely in that branch of 
manufacture which we are now considering. The largest deposit known 
is the celebrated Pitch-lake of Trinidad, three miles in circumference. 
The bitumen is solid, and cold near the shores, but gradually increases 
in temperature and softness towards the centre, Avhere it is boiling. The 
solidified bitumen appears as if it had cooled in large bubbles as the 
surface boiled. The ascent to the lake from the sea, a distance of three- 
quarters of a mile, is covered with hardened pitch, on which trees and 
vegetables flourish, and contains small pools of water, clear and trans- 
parent. The lake is underlaid by a bed of coal. Mr. S. P. Wall shows 
that the asphalt of Trinidad and Venezuela belongs to strata of tertiary 
formation (the upper miocene or lower pliocene age), which consists of 
limestones, sandstones, and shales, associated with beds of lignite. The 
bitumen 13 found not only in the pitch-lake, but in situ, where it is 
confined to particular strata, which were originally shales containing 
vegetable remains. These have, he says, undergone " a special mine- 
ralisation, producing a bituminous matter instead of coal or lignite. 
This operation is not attributable to heat, nor of the nature of a dis- 
tillation, but is due to chemical reactions at the ordinary temperature 
and under the normal conditions of climate." — (Proc. Geol. So:, of 
London, May, 1860.) 

One ton of the Trinidad bitumen yields 42 gallons of oil fit for 
lamps, and 11 for the purpose of lubrication. The bitumen contains 
sulphur. Sulphuretted hydrogen issues from the pit where the mineral 
is discharged from the earth. The first distillate is full of impurity, 
such as pyroxylic spirit and other products of the distillation of wood, 
which give evidence of the vegetable origin of this pitch ; it is also 
accompanied by a peculiar volatile oil, which imparts to it a most un- 
pleasant odour and renders it difficult to purify. 

From time immemorial the burning and naphtha springs of Persia 
and other parts of the East have been known. But these substances 
were not utilised in England, until an agent of Price's Candle Company, 
in his search after new sources of palm oil, discovered a material fitted 
for his purpose in the so-called mineral tar of Rangoon, in the Birman 
Empire. Iron tanks were constructed, and were filled with the crude 
tar at the wells. This, when refined at the Sherwood works, yielded 
solid paraffin, heavy lubricating oil, Belmontine oil, &c. The tar is ob- 
tained by sinking wells in the soil of blue clay, about 60 feet deep ; 
the fluid oozes in from the soil, and is removed ; it is of the consistence 
of goose-grease, of a green-brown colour, and of a peculiar bat not dis- 
agreeable odour, and contains only 4 per cent, of solid matter. It is- 
said that there are now 520 wells, which yield 400,000 hogsheads 

D 2 



28 ON PETROLEUM AND PHOTOGEN. 

annually. The tar affords about 70 per cent, of oil and 11 of paraffin. 
None of the cannel or bituminous coals or shales, or other substances 
used for yielding burning fluid by distillation, give distillates of such 
purity and freedom from odour as Rangoon tar. The more volatile 
portion of the latter is known as Sherwoodole, and is used instead of 
benzole for the removal of grease, &c. The paraffin obtained from Ran- 
goon tar has a greater value for commercial purposes than that from 
Boghead coal, inasmuch as it has a higher melting-point which renders 
it better adapted for the manufacture of candles. 

There are several mines of bitumen in the Island of Cuba which 
yield from 100 to 140 gallons of crude oil per ton. This, when purified, 
is well adapted lor lamps ; but the objectionable odour is an obstacle to 
its use. Large deposits also exist in Central and South America, and on 
the shores of the Dead Sea. In the vicinity of the Caspian Sea there 
are springs yielding large quantities of naphtha, which is used throughout 
the region for lamps. In Europe there are a few similar deposits. On 
one of the Ionian Isles an oil formation exists, and the oracular fires of 
ancient Greece have been attributed to similar sources. Oil-springs also 
occur in Bavaria and in the Grand Duchy of Modena, in France, and 
one near Amiano, in Italy, which was formerly used for lighting- the 
city of Genoa, 

IV. Peat has been employed for the manufacture of oils, but up to 
the present time with no marked success. An able and elaborate paper 
on this subject by Dr. Paul, will be found in the sixth volume of the 
' Chemical News.' Peat, on distillation yields all the products which 
are obtained from coal, but the main question is whether the operations 
can be carried on, to be remunerative. 

V. American Petroleum has led to a wonderful trade in that 
country ; in 1862 there was exported, 10,625,568 gallons. The existence 
of Petroleum in America has long been known, having been collected 
by the Seneca Indians, and used by them chiefly for medicinal 
purposes. The first discovery of a large supply was in 185.9, when a vein 
was opened whilst boring in search of a salt spring. One well alone is 
stated to have yielded 7,000 gallons per day and another 100 gallons 
per minute. Large quantities ran to waste from the difficulty of getting 
vessels to receive it, so that eventually the whole district became 
odorous from oil and the very ground sticky with it. 

The petroleum region embraces a vast extent of the Continent. It 
is known to extend from the Southern extremity of the Ohio Valley 
North to Georgian Bay, and from the Alleghanies East, in Pennsyl- 
vania, to the Western limits of the bituminous coal-fields. It has been 
found in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Michigan, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Kansas, Illinois, Texas, and California, 

The petroleum is obtained by boring holes in the rock three or four 
inches in diameter. When the oil is struck it flows for some time from 
the pressure below, without the aid of a piunp. An iron pipe is then 
inserted, and to the top of this a pump is attached and worked by hand 



ON PETROLEUM AND PHOTOGEN. 29 

or steam power. The average depth at which oil is procured, does not 
far exceed 250 feet, the strata penetrated being chiefly limestone, 
sandstone, and shale. Some wells yield 200 barrels jjer day, one in 
Pennsylvania at the depth of 170 feet yields 300 barrels per day. At 
the present time upwards of 550 wells are in operation yielding about 
30,000 gallons of crude oil daily. There are two sources in the West 
for petroleum springs 1. The oil regions of Pennsylvania and N. E. 
Ohio, which are on the bituminous coul measures and sandstones of the 
Portage and Chemung groups. 2. The oil regions of W. Virginia and 
S. Ohio, including a portion of W. Pennsylvania which are on the coal 
measures. 

The source and formation of Rock oil is difficult of explanation 
and has given rise to different and various opinions. One hypothesis is 
that petroleum has its origin in coal beds, that a low heat in the coal 
seams drives off hydro-carbon vapour, which is condensed in the pores 
of the rocks and the soil, and is washed by rains into subterrant ous 
recesses situated at various depths in the rocky strata ; an evident 
objection to this explanation is that the coal of the district possesses 
the natural quantity of hydro-carbon and bitumen. 

Another theory is, that the oil was produced at the time of original 
bituminisation of the vegetable or animal matter. If this was so, 
wherever there is bituminous coal, Ave should expect to find correspond- 
ing quantities of oil. This is not so, there is no oil except in fissures 
in the rocks overlying the bituminous strata, and these fissures can be 
shown to have been made since the coal strata became bitumenised. 

Petroleum occurs in rocks of all ages from the lower Silurian to 
the tertiary ; it is, doubtless, of organic origin, and is generally found 
impregnating limestone, more rarely, sandstones and shales. The 
presence of it in the lower paloeozoic rocks which contains no traces of 
land plants is a sufficient proof that petroleum has not in every case 
been derived from terrestrial vegetation, but may have been formed 
from marine plants or animals, or both ; of the latter, the Poole and 
shale which contains abundant remains of fishes and Crustacea, and 
affords in distillation a large quantity of illuminating oil is an example. 
This is not surprising when it is recollected that considerable portions 
of the tissue of the lower animals is destitute of nitrogen and similar 
in composition to the woody fibre of plants. Sir W. E. Logan describes 
the Canadian oil as being yielded by a limestone formed chiefly of fossil 
corals in the pores of which the oil is stored, so that the oil may be the 
result of the decomposition of the soft jellylike animalcules, in the 
same manner as the decay of plants has in later times given rise to 
bituminous coal. However this may be, the production of petroleum 
there is every reason to believe is due to the decomposition of organic 
matter, but the exact conditions under which it is capable of being 
produced are unknown, or wherefore it should from decomposition 
rather assume the form of this substance than that of lignite or coal. 
But in the fermentation of sugar (to which we may compare the trans- 



30 ON PETROLEUM AND PHOTOGEN. 

formation of woody fibre) according to the circumstances under which 
it occurs various products result, under certain conditions it yields 
carbonic acid and alcohol, under others butyric and carbonic acids, and 
in certain modified fermentations the acetic, lactic and propionic acids. 
The oils of Canada although long known to have existence in that 
country, did not attract the attention of adventurers until 1853, and 
were not until 1857 turned to profitable account. The very successful 
introduction of the new coal oils for lubricating and illuminating 
purposes by Mr. Young, led to the formation of a company which 
secured the lands of Enniskillen, in which the superficial deposits of 
asphalt occur, for the purpose of using it as a substitute for coals in 
the manufacture of such oils. But on penetrating below the asphalt 
large quantities of the materials were found in a fluid state, and there- 
fore much nearer the conditions required for the manufacture. There 
are now about nine wells (from 100 to 230 feet deep) in operation, yielding 
three to four hundred barrels per day. The soil penetrated is a stiff clay, 
arising from the decomposition of the underlying rocks which have the 
characters and contain the fossils peculiar to the Hamilton group of the 
Devonian system. No rock of a bituminous nature seems yet to have 
been struck, although detached masses of bituminous shale are met 
with. The oil is diffused through the clay, penetrating numerous cracks 
or fissures, and rises up in such quantities that the wells have the 
appearance of boiling cauldrons of pitch. Although the oil-bearing 
rocks are nearer the surface in Canada than in the United States, the 
oil of the latter loses less per cent, by purification, and has a less 
unpleasant odour, the thick tarry consistence of the Canadian causes 
difficulty in its rectification on account of the frothing. 

The American rock-oil is composed of a series of hydro-carbons, 
with different degrees of inflammability, and different boiling-points. 
Its specific gravity is from 0-830 to 0-890. MM. Pelaire and Cahoura 
Lave separated from it twelve hydro-carbons of the marsh gas series. 
They could discover in it no benzine, nor any of its homologues, which 
they consider seems to indicate that the petroleum could not have been 
derived from coal, unless it had undergone a decomposition different to 
that of ordinary distillation. The products more nearly resemble those 
which are formed when various fatty acids, their corresponding alcohols, 
and a great number of organic bodies containing carbon and hydrogen in 
the proportion of equivalent to equivalent, are submitted to high 
temperatures. 

These oils are, as is well known at the present time extensively 
used for the production of artificial light. The term petroleum or rock 
oil being properly applied to those which are produced naturally, whilst 
the product of the distillation of coal, shales, &c, are called Photogen, 
Paraffin, or Coal Oil ; many manufacturers have given to their products 
peculiar and unmeaning names, such as Caselline, Belmontine, &c. 
They are burnt in properly constructed lamps, with flat or round wicks, 
in the former case the greatest amount of light is procured by cutting 
the wick flat, so that the top is made as even as possible. 

These hydro-carbon oils are the best means of light for domestic 
purposes, inasmuch as they give the largest amount of light with the 



ON PETROLEUM AND PHOTOUEN. 31 

least development of heat. The following tables are by Dr. Frank- 
land ; the first gives the illuminating equivalents of various 
materials, showing the quantity of other substances which 
would be required to give the same amount of light as would be 
obtained from one gallon of Young's Paraffin oil. 

Young's Paraffin oil .... TOO gallons. 

American Eock oil .... 1"26 „ 

Paraffin candles 18-6 pounds 

Sperm „ 22-9 „ 

Wax „ 26-4 „ 

Stearine „ 27'6 ,, 

Composite,, 29'5 „ 

Tallow „ 39-0 „ 

The following table shows the comparative cost of the light of 20 
sperm candles, each burning 10 hours at the rate of 120 grains per 
hour, and of the heat evolved per hour : — 

s. d. Unit of heat. 
Tallow . . . . . .28 100 

Wax 7 2£ ) 

Sperm 6 8 ( tiZ 

Paraffin candles . . , . 3 10 66 

Rock oil 7 I 9 q 

Paraffin oil 6 S 

Coal gas ..... 4J 47 

Cannel gas .... 3 32 

The objections which have operated chiefly against these oils as 
agents for the production of artificial light have arisen from the fear 
of explosion, and the unpleasant odour produced during their com- 
bustion. It is unquestionable that accidents have occasionally arisen 
from explosion of the oil in lamps by the ignition of the explosive 
mixture which their vapours form with air. When the accident occurs 
it arises from imperfect purification of the liquid, by the imperfect 
removal of the benzine or more volatile constituents, so that the safety 
of a given sample depends upon the temperature at which vapour is 
given off. The purification is now more efficiently performed than 
when the materials were first manufactured, and as the cistern of a lamp, 
especially if made of glass or other nonconducting substance, is never 
likely to rise higher in temperature than 100 deg., all oils which do not 
give off vapour at that heat may be considered safe. A simple test is the 
application of a light to a small quantity, if it takes fire, and burns 
like alcohol it is unsafe. The other objection is, the odour which they 
produce during combustion, various oils differ in this respect, which in 
some measure depends upon their constitution and their purity ; but it 
may be greatly lessened or entirely overcome by attention to certain 
precautions. The chief causes are imperfect combustion with conse- 
quent production of offensive empyreumatic substances, and the volatili- 
sation of a portion of the fluid unconsumed. The lamp should 
therefore be burnt with a good flame, and the wick well turned up, the 
cistern of the lamp not filled too full, and all the metal of the burning 
parts kept scrupulously clean. 

The length of this notice of petroleum precludes the consideration 
of the uses of a large number of other substances which are obtained with 
the oil by the distillation oi coal, and which admit of most valuable 
and extensive employment such as Benzole, Paraffin, &c, as well as the 
application of Rock oil to the manufacture of illuminating gas which 
has been carried out successfully in New York. 



32 



ON THE OWALA OR OPOCHALA. 

BY JOHN B. JACKSON. 

In the 3rd volume of the Technologist, at p. 155, is an account of 
the " Owala," or " Opochala" of Western Africa, and of the oil which is 
yielded by its seeds. At the time that article was written, little was known 
of the habits of the plant, and consequently the native name was all the 
clue that could be had, with the exception that from the form of the 
pods, seeds, &c, it was clearly seen to belong to the Leguminous order. 
Since then, however, Mr. Gustave Mann, the zealous botanical collector 
to the Royal Gardens, Kew, who has spent three years in West Tropical 
Africa, has identified it with the Pentaclethra macrop/iy}la,~Beiith., belonging 
to Leguminosse, sub order Mimosese. It is a large and handsome forest 
tree, with bipinnate leaves 2-3 feet in length, made up of many trapezi- 
form leaflets, each about an inch long, and the small flowers arranged 
in a spicate manner on the branches of a terminal panicle. The pods 
in the Museum of the Royal Gardens, Kew, which are those sent home 
by the late Mr. Barter, are not only, as stated in the paper before alluded 
to, 1 foot long, but quite 2 feet, and this, I understand, is about the 
ordinary length, the widest part three inches, and the thickness of the 
entire pod about 1 inch. The seeds lie in an oblique direction. One of the 
most peculiar things connected with the pod is the extraordinary strength 
of the fibrous tissue of which it is composed. The valves are each a 
quarter of an inch thick, made up entirely of this strong fibrous sub- 
stance, the fibres running longitudinally. When ripe, the two valves 
burst open with a loud report, scattering the seeds, and, at the same 
time, each valve contracting and curling round in opposite directions. 
So great is this power of contraction, that if the pods be bound round 
with strong wire at the distance even of two or three inches apart, it 
frequently bursts between its bands as if overloaded inside, but in all 
cases the membranous lining of the pod always remains uninjured. 
This peculiar habit of contraction was first brought to my notice as the 
pods were lying amongst other specimens of fruits, seeds, &c, which 
had been recently brought from a cold room into a warm one, by a 
motion at intervals amongst the whole collection. Upon examination, 
I found that the apparent vitality was in the pods of the Pentaclethra, 
the valves of which were gradually rolling themselves into a much 
smaller compass, of course upsetting the other things by their move- 
ments. 

The seeds, besides yielding the oil alluded to, are collected at the 
seasons of their falling, and eaten as food by the natives of Fernando Po. 

Kew, July 11, 1863. 



33 



ON THE TALLOW TREE (STILLINGIA SEBIFERA) AND THE 
PELA, OR INSECT WAX OF CHINA. 

BY D. J. MACGOWAN, M.D. 

The botanical characters of this member of the Eupkorbiaceae are 
too well known to require description, but hitherto no accurate account 
has been published of its various uses ; and although it has become a 
common tree in some parts of India and America, its value is 
appreciated only in China, where alone its products are properly 
elaborated. 

In the ' American Encyclopaedia,' it is stated that this tree is almost 
naturalised in the maritime parts of South America, and that its cap- 
sules and seeds are crushed together and boiled, the fatty matter being 
skimmed as it rises, hardening when cool. 

Dr. Roxburgh in his excellent ' Flora Indica,' says : — " It is now very 
common about Calcutta, where in the course of a few years it has be- 
come one of the most common trees. It is in flower and fruit most part 
of the year. In Bengal it is only considered an ornamental tree. The 
sebaceous produce of its seeds is not in sufficient quantity, nor its 
quality so valuable as to render it an object worthy of cultivation. It 
is only in very cold weather that this substance becomes firm ; at all 
other times it is in a thick, brownish fluid state, and soon becomes 
rancid. Such is my opinion of the famous vegetable tallow of China.*' 

Dr. Roxburgh was evidently misled in his experiments by pursuing 
a course similar to that which is described in the ' Encyclopaedia Ameri- 
cana,' and in many other works, or he would have, formed a very different 
opinion of this curious material. Analytical chemistry shows animal 
tallow to consist of two proximate principles — stearine and claine. Now 
what renders the fruit of this tree peculiarly interesting, is the fact that 
both these principles exist in it separately in nearly a pure state. By 
the above-named process, stearine and claine are obtained in a mixed 
state, and consequently present the appearance described by Roxburgh. 
Nor is the tree prized merely for the stearine and claine it yields, though 
these products constitute its chief value ; its leaves are employed as a 
black dye ; its wood, being hard and durable, may be easily used for 
printing blocks, and various other articles, and finally, the refuse of the 
nut is employed as fuel and manure. 

The Stillingia sebifera is chiefly cultivated in the provinces of 
Kiangsi, Kongnain, and Chihkiang. In some districts near Hangchan, 
the inhabitants defray all their taxes with its produce. It grows alike 
on low alluvial plains and on granite hills, on the rich mould at the 
margins of lakes, and on the sandy sea-beach ; the sandy estuary of 
Hangchan, yields little else. Some of the trees at this place are known 
to be several hundred years old, and though prostrated, still send forth 



34 



ON THE TALLOW TREE, ETC. 



branches and bear fruit. Some are made to fall over rivulets, forming 
convenient bridges. They are seldom planted where anything else can 
be conveniently cultivated — in detached places, in corners about houses, 
roads, canals, and fields. Grafting is performed at the close of March, 
or-early in April, when the trees are about three inches in diameter, and 
also when they attain their growth. 




WAX-TREE AND INSECT. 

Fac-simile of a drawing made from the Pun-tsaou-kang-muh. The upper 
characters on the left are Chung-lit (insect-wax) ; beneath them, Lit-chung (wax- 
seed ; in the right-hand corner at bottom Tinig-tsing-shoo (winter-green-tree). 

The ' Fragrant Herbal ' recommends for trial the practice of an old 
gardener, who, instead of grafting, preferred breaking the small branches 
and twigs, taking care not to tear or wound the bark. In mid-winter, 
when the nuts are ripe, they are cut off with their twigs by a sharp cres- 
centic knife, attached to the extremity of a long pole, which is held in 
the hand and pushed upwards against the twigs, moving at the same 
time such as are fruitless. The capsules are gently pounded in a mortar 
to loosen the seeds from their shells, from which they are separated by 
sifting To facilitate the separation of the white sebaceous matter en- 



ON THE TALLOW TilEE, ETC. 35 

veloping the seeds, they are strained in tubs, having convex open wicker 
bottoms, placed over cauldrons of boiling water. When thoroughly- 
heated, they are reduced to a mash in the mortar, and thence transferred 
to bamboo sieves, kept at a uniform temperature over hot ashes. A 
single operation does not suffice to deprive them of their tallow ; the 
steaming and sifting are, therefore repeated. The article thus procured 
becomes a solid mass on falling through the sieve ; and to purify it, it is 
melted and formed into cakes for the press. These receive their form 
in bamboo hoops, a foot in diameter, and three inches deep, which are 
laid on the ground over a little straw. 

On being filled with the hot liquid, the ends of the straw beneath 
are drawn up and spread over *the top, and when of a sufficient con- 
sistence, are placed with their rings in the press. This apparatus, which 
is of the rudest description, is constructed of two large beams placed 
horizontally so as to form a trough capable of containing about fifty 
of the rings with their sebaceous cakes ; at one end it is closed, and at 
the other it is adapted for receiving wedges, which are successively 
driven into it by ponderous sledge hammers wielded by athletic men. 
The tallow oozes in a melted state into a receptacle below, where it 
cools. It is again melted and poured into tubs smeared with mud to 
prevent its adhering. It is now marketable, in masses of about 80 lbs. 
each, hard, brittle, white, opaque, tasteless, and without the odour of 
animal tallow. 

Under high pressure it scarcely stains bibulous paper ; melts at 
104 deg. Fahr. It may be regarded as almost pure stearine ; the slight 
difference is doubtless owing to the admixture of oil expressed from the 
seed in the process just described. The seeds yield about 8 per cent, of 
tallow, which sells at 2^d. per pound. 

The process for pressing the oil which is carried on at the same time 
remains to be noticed ; it is contained in the kernel of the nut, the 
sebaceous matter, which lies between the shell and the husk, having 
been removed in the manner described. The kernel and the husk cover- 
ing it is ground between two stones, which are heated, to prevent clogging 
from the sebaceous matter still adhering. The mass is then placed in 
a winnowing machine, precisely like those in use in western countries. 
The chaff being separated, exposes the white oleaginous kernels, which 
after being steamed are placed in a mill to be washed. This machine is 
formed of a circular stone groove, twelve feet in diameter, three inches 
deep, and about as many wide, iuto which a thick solid stone, 
8 feet in diameter, tapering at the edge, is made to revolve perpen- 
dicularly by an ox harnessed to the outer end of its axle, the inner 
turning on a pivot in the centre of the machine. Under this ponderous 
weight the seeds are reduced to a mealy state, steamed in the tubs, 
formed into cakes, and pressed by w<?dges in the manner above de- 
scribed ; the process of washing, steaming, and pressing, being repeated 
with the kernels likewise. 



6b ON THE TALLOW TREE, ETC. 

The kernels yield above 30 per cent, of oil. It is called ismg-yu, 
sells for about 3 cents, (ljd.) per lb., answers well for lamps, though in- 
ferior for this purpose to some other vegetable oils in use. It is also 
employed for various purposes in the arts, and has a place in the Chinese 
' Pharmacopoeia,' because of its quality of changing grey hair black, and 
other imaginary virtues. 

The husk which envelopes the kernel, and the shell which encloses 
them and their sebaceous covering are used to feed the furnaces, 
scarcely any other part being needed for this purpose. The residuary 
tallow cakes are also employed for fuel, as a small quantity of it re- 
mains ignited a whole day. It is in great demand for chafing dishes 
during the cold season, and finally, the cakes which remain after the oil 
has been pressed out, are much valued as a manure, particularly for 
tobacco fields, the soil of which is rapidly impoverished by the Virginia 
weed. 

Artificial illumination in China is generally procured by vegetable 
oils, but candles aie also employed by those who can afford them, and 
fur lanterns. In religious ceremonies no other material is used. As 
no one ventures out after dark without a lantern, and as the gods 
cannot be acceptably worshipped without candles, the quantity con- 
sumed is very great. With an unimportant exception the candles are 
always made of what I beg to designate as vegetable stearine. 

"When the candles, which are made by dipping, are of the required 
diameter, they receive a final dip into a mixture of the same material 
and insect-wax, by which their consistency is preserved in the hottest 
weather. They are generally coloured red, which is done by throwing a 
minute quantity of alkanet root (Anchusa tinctoria,) brought from 
Shantung, into the mixture. Verdigris is sometimes employed to dye 
them green. The wicks are made of rush, coiled round a stem of coarse 
grass, the lower part of which is slit to receive the pin of the candle- 
stick, which is more economical than if put into a socket. Tested in 
the mode recommended by Count Rumford, these candles compare 
favourably with those made from spermaceti, but not when the clumsy 
wick of the Chinese is employed. Stearine candles cost about 8 cents, 
(4d.) the pound. 

Prior to the thirteenth century bees-wax was employed as a coating 
for candles ; but about that period the white-wax insect was discovered, 
since which bees wax has been wholly superseded by the more 
costly but incomparably superior product of this insect. It has been 
described by Abbe Grosier, Sir Geoige Staunton, and others, but those 
accounts differ so widely among themselves, as well as from that given 
by native authors, as to render further inquiry desirable. From the 
description given by Grosier, entomologists have supposed the insect 
which yields the pe-la, or white wax, to be a species of Coccus. Staunton, 
on the contrary, describes it as a species of Cicada (Flata limbata.) As 
described by Chinese writers, however, it is evidently an apterous 



ON THE TALLOW TREE, ETC. 37 

insect ; hence the inference, either that there are two distinct species 
which produce white wax, or that the insect Staunton saw was falsely- 
represented as the elaborator of this beautiful material. 

A few particulars regarding the Himalaya wax insect [Flata Umbata,) 
by Captain Hutton, are published in the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal,' vol. xii. p. 898. After alluding to Sir George Staunton's and the 
Abb6 Grosier's account of the wax-yielding insect of China and to 
various authorities, Captain Hutton observes : " From all these state- 
ments, therefore, we arrive at the positive conclusion, that as this 
deposit, (that of F. Umbata,) will neither melt on the fire, per se, nor 
combine with oil, it cannot be the substance from which the famous 
white wax in China is found ; and we are led to perceive from the dif- 
ference in the habits of the larva of Flata Umbata, and that of the insect 
mentioned by the Abbe Grosier, that the wax is rather the produce of 
a species of Coccus than of the larva of F. Umbata, or even of the allied 
F. nigricorjiis." 




COCCUS SINENSIS, WESTWOOD. 

ABC. Mature female insects adhering to pieces of stick partially encrusted 
with the wax (natural size). 

D. Vertical section of a piece of the crude wax, showing the position of the 
young insects (magnified). 

The subjoined account has been principally derived from the Puntsau 
and the Kiangfangpu, two native herbals of high authority. The insect 
feeds on an evergreen shrub or tree, (Liyustrum lucidum*) which is 
found throughout Central China from the Pacific to Thibet, but the 
insect chiefly abounds in the province of Szetchuen. It is met with also 
in Yunan, Hunan, and Hupeh. A small quantity is produced in 
Kiuhwa, Chekiang province, of a superior description. Much attention 
is paid to the cultivation of this tree ; extensive districts of country are 
covered with it : and it forms an important branch of agricultural 
industry. In planting they are arranged with the mulberry, in rows 
about 12 feet apart ; both seeds and cuttings are employed. If the 

* The Himalaya insect is not confined to a Ligustrujn. 



»8 ON THE TALLOW TREE, ETC. 

former they are soaked in water in which unhusked rice has been 
washed and tbeir shells ponnded off. When propagated by cuttings, 
branches an inch in diameter are recommended as the most suitable 
size. 

The ground is ploughed semi-annually, and kept perfectly free from 
weeds. In the third or fourth year they are stocked with the insects. 
After the wax, or insect, has been gathered from the young trees, they 
are cut down just below the lower branches, about four feet from the 
ground, and well manured. The branches which sprout the following 
season are thinned, and made to grow in nearly a perpendicular direc- 
tion. The process of cutting the trunk within a short distance of the 
ground is repeated every four or five years, and, as a general rule, they 
are not stocked until the second year after this operation. 

Sometimes the husbandman finds a tree which the insects them- 
selves have attained ; but the usual practice is to stock them, which is 
effected in spring, with the nests of the insect. These are about the 
size of a " fowl's head ?" and are removed by cutting off a portion of the 
branch to which they are attached, leaving an inch each side of the nest. 
The sticks, with the adhering nests, are soaked in unhusked rice-water 
for a quarter of an hour, when they may be separated. When the 
weather is damp or cool they may be preserved in jars for a week ; 
but if warm, they are to be tied to the branches of the trees to be stocked, 
without delay, being first folded between leaves. By some the nests are 
probed out of their seat in the bark of the tree, without removing the 
branches. At this period they are particularly exposed to the attacks 
of birds, and require watching. 

In a few days after being tied to the tree, the nests swell, and 
innumerable white insects, the size of " nits," emerge, and spread them- 
selves on the branches of the tree ; but soon, with one accord, descend 
towards the ground, when, if they find any grass, they take up their 
quarters. To prevent this, the ground is kept quite bare ; care being 
taken also that their implacable enemies, the ants, have no access to the 
tree. Finding no congenial resting-place below, they re-ascend, and 
fix themselves to the lower surface of the leaves, where they remain 
Beveral days, when they repair to the branches, perforating the bark to 
feed on the fluid within. 

From " nits " they attain the size of " Pediculus horui." Having 
compared them to this, the most familiar to them of all insects, our 
author deems further description superfluous. Early in June the insects 
give to the trees the appearance of being covered with hoar-frost, being 
" changed into wax 5" soon after this they are scraped off, being pre- 
viously sprinkled with water. If gathering be deferred till August, they 
adhere too firmly to be easily removed. Those which are suffered to 
remain to stock trees the ensuing season, secrete a purplish envelope 
about the end of August, which at first is no larger than a grain of rice ; 
but as incubation proceeds, it expands and becomes as large as a fowl's 



ON THE TALLOW TREE, ETC. 39 

head, which is in spring, when the nests are transferred to other trees, 
one or more to each, according to their size and vigor, in the manner 
already described. 

On being scraped from the trees, the crude material is freed from its 
impurities, probably the skeleton of the insect by spreading it on a 
strainer, covering a cylindrical vessel, which is placed in a caldron of 
boiling water. The wax is received into the former vessel, and on con- 
gealing is ready for market. 

The pe-la or white wax, in its chemical properties is analogous to 
purified beeswax, and also spermaceti, but differing from both ; being, 
in my opinion, an article perfectly sui generis. It is perfectly white, 
translucent, shining, not unctuous to the touch, inodorous, insipid, 
crumbles into a dry inadhesive powder between the teeth, with a fibrous 
texture resembling fibrous feldspar ; insoluble in water ; dissolves in 
essential oil ; and is scarcely affected by boiling alcohol, the acids, or 
alkalies. 

The aid of analytical chemistry is needed for the proper elucidation 
of this most beautiful material. There can be no doubt that it would 
prove altogether superior in the arts to purified beeswax. On extraor- 
dinary occasions, the Chinese employ it for caudles and tapers. It has 
been supposed to be identical with the white wax of Madras ; but as 
the Indian article has been found useless in the manufacture of candles 
(Dr. Pearson, Philosophical Transactions, vol 21), it cannot be the same. 
It far excels also the vegetable wax of the United States, (Myrica 
cerifera) 

Some interesting particulars on this subject are contained in a 
memoir in the Philosophical Transactions for 1848, by Mr. B. C. Brodie, 
entitled " On the Chemical Nature of a wax for China." Mr. Brodie 
states that although in appearance the substance resembles stearine or 
spermaceti more than beeswax, it comes nearest to purified cerin. The 
Comptes Bendu for 1840, tome x. p. 618, contains a communication by 
M. Stanislas Julien on the China wax, and the insect which yields it. 
The wax insects are there stated to be raised upon four species of 
plants, these are Niu-tching (Rhus succedanea) Tung-tsing (Ligustrum 
gldbrum and lucidum) Chouikin, supposed to be Hibiscus syriacus, and 
Tcha-la (botanical name unknown). Rhus succedanea, or a nearly 
allied species occurs in the Himalayahs. 

Is this substance a secretion 1 There are Chinese who regard it as 
such ; some representing it to be the saliva, and others the excrement of 
the insect. European writers take nearly the same view ; but the best 
authorities expressly say that this opinion is incorrect, and that the 
animal is changed into wax. I am inclined to believe the insect under- 
goes what may be styled a ceraceous degeneration ; its whole body being 
permeated by the peculiar product in the same manner as the Coccus 
cacti is by carmine. 



40 ON THE TALI.OW TREE, ETC." 

The wax costs at Ningpo from 22 to 35 cents. (Is. to Is. 6d.) per pound. 
The ai.nual product of this humble creature in China cannot be far 
from 400,000 pounds, worth more than 100,000 Spanish dollars. 

Mr. Daniel Hanbury, with that exhaustive research and thorough 
investigation which he bestows on all commercial subjects he ex- 
amines and treats of, has furnished one of the most complete accounts 
ot the insect white wax of China in a paper in the xii. vol. of the 
' Pharmaceutical Journal,' and to the Council of that Society we are 
indebted for the use of the wood-cuts which illustrate this article. Mr. 
Hanbury states the only considerable importations of Chinese wax into 
England were in 1846 and 1847, when nearly three tons were imported 
into London. Some of this wax sold in April 1847 fetched Is. 3d. per 
pound, a piice "Loo low to be remunerative, and no further importation 
we believe has taken place. 

The insect wax occurs in commerce in circular cakes of various 
dimensions ; some of those imported into London had a diameter of 
about 13 inches, a thickness of 3^ inches, and were perforated near the 
centre with a hole five- eighths of an inch across. 

The broken surface generally exhibits the wax as a beautifully 
sparkling, highly crystalline substance somewhat resembling spermaceti, 
but much harder ; some cakes are internally much less crystalline and 
sparkling than others. The wax is colourless and inodorous, or nearly 
so, tasteless, brittle, and readily pulverizable at the temperature of 60 
Fahr. The melting point of the commercial wax is 181.4, that of the 
perfectly pure wax, 179.6. 

The mean of Mr. Brodie's analyses of the purified wax gave its com- 
position thus : — 

Carbon .... 82.235 
Hydrogen . . . 13.575 

Oxygen .... 4.190 



100.000 



In the ' Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society,' vol. v., p. 24, 
will be found an interesting paper by Mr. A. S. Maskelyne, " on the 
Oxidation of Chinese Wax." The late Professor Quekett states : — 

When a small portion of the wax is examined under the microscope, 
it is found to consist of a series of short filaments or cylinders, some of 
which are straight, but others more or less curved ; within each cylinder 
is a tubular cavity extending throughout its whole length. In fig. 1 is a 
representation of the cylinders as seen under a power of 500 diameters. 
If the wax be heated on glass, it readily melts when the temperature 
rises to 184 Fahr., and if examined in this state, the fluid mass is per- 
fectly transparent and structureless. On cooling, however, it crystallises 
precisely like spermaceti, as shown in fig. 2. One of the most perfect 



ON PETROLEUM AND I'HOTOGEM. 



41 



insects taken out of the wax is represented in fig. 4. This is its dorsal 
surface. Fig. 5 is a representation of the abdominal surface of the same 
insect. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 




It will be seen that it has six legs, and the body is full of wax. The 
white ii laments and minute oval bodies with which the cochineal insect 
is surrounded present nearly the same structure as the insect wax. They 
are represented in fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. 5. 




Dr. Martius, commenting on the same subject, says — In Mr. 
Hanbury's paper it is mentioned that Flata limbata has beeu assumed to 
be the insect producing pe-la ; but, according to Burmeiston (' Handbuch 
der Entomologie,' II., p. 466), this insect only inhabits Western Africa. 
Besides Cicada limbata, Donovan (Flata nigricornis, Fabr.) is a native of 
China, and its caterpillar is stated to live on StilUngia sehifera, to be 
entirely covered with a white down, which remains on the leaves, and 
which, when melted, forms the pe-la. In the late edition of Pereira's 

VOL. IV. E 



42 ON THE TRADE IN CORK BARK. 

' Materia Medica' (VoL II,, p. 2220), there is a wood engraving giving a 
good idea of this insect. 

The statements of Westwood and Quekett, however (' Pharmaceutical 
Journal,' Vol. XII., p. 482), that Coccus sinensis produces pe-la, render 
the above assertions very doubtful. Besides, it is stated that the white 
substance above referred to is washed away by the dew and rain, whereas 
pe-la is well known to be insoluble in water. I suspect that Flata 
liinbata exudes a sugary substance — a kind of manna. Helbig (' Miscel- 
laneorum Ephemerides,' 1693, p. 459, No. 18) mentioned, a kind 
of Ceylon manna which, perhaps, owes its origin to this insect. At any 
rate, it would be highly interesting if those who can give information 
upon this subject would do so. 



ON THE TRADE IN CORK BARK. 

BY THE EDITOR. 

The trade in the bark of the Quercus Suber is one respecting which 
there is not much recent detail accessible, and yet it is an important 
article of commerce, our imports reaching in value nearly a quarter of a 
million sterling.. The demand for and consumption of cork in England 
has increased, since the year 1848, three hundred per cent, and is still 
far beyond the actual means of supply. The average imports of cork- 
bark are about 5,000 tons annually, nearly all of which is used here. 
Its price varies, according to quality, from 321. to 35Z. per ton, the 
Spanish cork fetching the highest price. Of ready-made corks the imports 
have been steadily on the increase, and two-thirds of those imported are 
used here, the remainder being re-exported. The average price is a little 
over Is. of foreign per lb. 

Uses. — Cork is light and porous, readily compressible, and wonderfully 
elastic. These qualities make it superior to all other substances for 
stoppers for bottles, in the manufacture of which it is principally made 
use of. It is also employed as buoys to float nets, the construction of 
life-boats, cork jackets, cork belts, and other life-preservers, cork mat- 
trasses, the making of waterproof shoes, the lining of hats, models, false 
limbs, and for various other purposes. When burned, it forms a light- 
black substance known as Spanish black. 

The cork mattrasses, although intended originally for the army and 
navy, are valuable, especially for emigrants, and in other ways. The 
mattrass consists exclusively of minute " clippings" of cork— a material 
utterly useless for any other purpose, and, until so applied, regarded as 
worse than " waste ;" for when accumulated, it became absolutely ne- 



ON THE TRADE IN COUK BARK. 43 

cessary to destroy it. The inventor of this admirable adjunct to health 
and comfort has, therefore, turned to valuable and profitable account 
that which was heretofore a nuisance in the cork factory. These minute 
bits of cork are placed between two layers of oiled linen, or caoutchouc 
cloth, thus preserving the sleeper entirely from all hazard of damp, the 
nature of cork being to resist it. On sea-board, besides excluding all 
the " disagreeables" that generally haunt a vessel during a long voyage, 
it serves as a life-buoy in case of shipwreck — either to the individual or 
to the boat ; its value, therefore, to the emigrant is incalculable. 

Cork should be chosen in fine layers or boards, not broken nor knotty, 
smooth when cut, and of moderate thickness. 

The cork-oak is abundant in Portugal, Spain, especially Catalonia 
and Valencia, Italy, the South of France, and parts of Northern Africa. 
In France it is found in great abundance in Languedoc, Provence, the 
environs of Bordeaux, and the department of Var. 

M. Casimir De Candolle has recently published a dissertation upon 
the manner in which cork is formed in the cork-tree. 

The bark of all trees consists of a parenchymatous or soft cellular 
tissue, and of a harder ligneous tubular tissue. In most cases the latter 
is most abundant ; in the cork the former constitutes the mass of the 
bark, and hence its elasticity and the facility with which it is cut in all 
directions. When, however, it is first generated, the bark of the cork- 
tree is far less elastic than it becomes subsequently, which is owing to 
its consisting, in the first instance, of a large proportion of woody 
matter. When the latter is once formed, which takes place in the first 
year of its growth, it never increases, however long the bark may remain 
in a living state ; but the parenchymatous substance will go on growing 
as long as the bark is alive, a provision of nature connected with the 
annual increase in diameter of wood, and the necessity of the bark 
giving way to the pressure from within. 

If the growth of the parenchyma is prolonged and rapid, a corky 
substance is the necessary consequence, as in certain kinds of elms, the 
common oak itself, and many other trees ; but it does not occur in any 
European tree in such excess as in the cork. As soon as the bark dies, 
it of course ceases to grow, and then, not distending as it is pressed upon 
from within, it falls off in flakes which correspond to the layers that are 
formed annually. 

The careful removal of this outer or dead bark from the cork-tree 
does not in any way injure it ; on the contrary, it is stated that the tree 
grows more vigorously and lives longer in consequence of being thus 
stripped. After a tree has attained to the age of 26 to 30 years, it may 
be barked, and the operation can be subsequently repeated every eight 
or ten years, the quality of the cork improving with the increasing age 
of the tree. The bark is taken off in .1 uly and August, and trees that 
are regularly stripped are said to live for 150 years or more. The bark 



44 ON THE TRADE IN CORK BARK. 

is stripped from the tree in pieces two inches in thickness, of considerable 
length. 

The bark-peeler or cutter makes a slit in the bark with a knife, per- 
pendicularly from the top of the trunk to the bottom ; he makes another 
incision parallel to it and at some distance from the former, and two shorter 
horizontal cuts at the top and bottom. For stripping off the piece thus 
isolated, he uses a kind of knife with two handles and a curved blade . 
Sometimes, after the cuts have been made, he leaves the tree to throw 
off the bark by the spontaneous action of the vegetation within the 
trunk. The detached pieces are soaked in water, and are placed over a 
fire when nearly diy ; they are, in fact, scorched a little on both sides, 
and acquire a somewhat more compact texture by this scorching. In 
order to get rid of the curvature, and bring them flat, they are pressed 
down with weights while yet hot. 

The charring occasions that peculiar and disagreeable empyreumatic 
flavour which is so frequently imparted to liquors which have been 
stopped by cork thus treated. Some years ago an attempt was made to 
avoid this evil .by using younger cork-bark, the texture of which 
is not so close as to need the aid of ' fire ; but this bark is too thin 
for ordinary purposes, and could only be used by cementing two or more 
layers of it together. The risk of bad flavour was by this means alto- 
gether avoided, but for some reason or other the plan was not perse- 
vered in. 

Although the outer bark may be removed without any injury to the 
tree, the inner bark, which is employed in tanning, cannot be removed 
without producing the death of the tree. It is not commonly separated 
for commercial purposes except in Corsica, Spain, and a few other 
countries, where the tree is indigenous and very abundant. It contains 
about twice as much tannin as oak bark of average quality. The tannin 
of cork tree bark appears to bear more resemblance in its properties to 
that of catechu than to the tannin of most other vegetable matters. 
Like catechu, cork tree bark scarcely affords any of the light fawn- 
coloured deposit called bloom, and it is doubtful whether this variety 
of tannin is susceptible of conversion into gallic acid. The dark 
colour which cork tree bark always communicates to leather, produced 
by its means, is the greatest objection to the use of this material. This 
bark was extensively used for tanning in Ireland some years ago, as 
much as 8,000 or 10,000 tons having been imported annually for this 
purpose, cargoes are occasionally received from Rabat and Laroche, 
ports of Fez, in Barbary, and from Sardinia. That from Leghorn is 
not considered so good, being less astringent than oak bark. It has 
long been used by the tanners of Marseilles, being imported from 
Corsica and other parts of the Mediterranean. In Italy, it is almost 
exclusively used in tanning sole leather. In the forests belonging to 
the state lands of Tuscany, nearly 1,000 tons are annually collected. 



ON THE TRADE IN CORK BARK. 45 

The landowners in Tuscany, neglecting to Lark their trees every six 
or eight years and carry it away, it becomes too large and mouldy from 
remaining so long. If due care were taken in this respect, the cultiva- 
tion of the tree would he improved, and Italy might be able to send 
corks to France and other countries, instead of being under the necessity 
of importing them. 

The American Government a few years ago imported a large quantity 
of acorns of the cork oak from the south of Europe, and distributed 
them over the middle and southern States for experiment, to test the 
adaptation of the tree to the climate. The Government was desirous 
of being independent of importation by naturalising the tree. 

The cork trade in Portugal is reported to be on the increase. The 
annual exportation now amounts in value to upwards of 10,000,000 francs. 
It takes place principally from Sines, the only port of the province of 
Alentejo where the largest quantity of cork trees grow. The greatest 
amount is sent to London, where, on the average, the consumption 
amounts to 10,000lb. per day of Portuguese corks. A considerable 
quantity is also sent to France, America, and the Baltic. The Portuguese 
cork is inferior to the French, but superior to that of Italy. 

The trade now is chiefly carried on locally through the instrumen- 
tality of the Algarveros : persons who, travelling from forest to forest, 
purchase on the ground parcels of cork, which, at great labour and ex- 
pense, they carry to Lisbon and other places, where it is prepared for 
export. The money for these purchases is usually borrowed by them at 
high rates of interest, frequently at 20 to 30 per cent., thereby increas- 
ing the cost of the cork by this item of expense. The waste attending 
the preparation of the cork for the market is about one-half. 

A company was lately formed in London with a capital of 100,COOZ. 
to carry on the cork trade on a large scale. In their prospectus it is 
stated that the cork trade in this country has been for years confined to 
a few firms, who have had the power, by this union of capital, to regu- 
late the prices of all cork imported, as also the prices at which the 
cork is sold to the cork-cutters, thereby preventing the cork grower 
from receiving the full value of his cork, as compared with the prices 
at which it is sold to the trade. 

The directors have secured a large monopoly in supply for terms of 
years, on leases extending over the largest and most renowned cork pro- 
ducing districts. These leases grant the sole right to take cork in 142 
forests, some containing as many as 1 5,000 to 30,000 cork trees, in the 
districts of Montemor, Evora, Arraiollos, Estremoz, Portel, Vianna, and 
Fronteira, in the Province of Alentejo. 

Statistics. — Between 1815 and 1823, the quantity of cork bark imported 
annually ranged from 25,000 to 60,000 cwts., the duty being 8s. 9d. per 
cwt. In the succeeding ten years, the range was from 32,000 to 55,000 
cwt., the duty being still 8s. per cwt. From 1846 to 1853, the average 
import was 3,500 to 4,000 tons per annum. 



46 



ON THE TRADE IN CORK BARK. 



On the 19th March, 1845, the duty on manufactured corks v. 
abolished. The imports and value for a series of years have been 
follows : — 

Tons. Value. 

£. 
56,110 
46,623 
50,310 
41,555 



1846 . 


. 3,400 


1847 . 


. 2,806 


1848 . 


. 3,028 


1849 . 


. 2,529 


1850 . 


. 6,358 


1851 . 


. 3,707 


1852 . 


. 3,483 


1853 . 


. 4,131 


1854 . 


. 3,849 


1855 . 


. 3,744 


1856 . 


. 4,033 


1857 . 


. 4,729 


1858 . 


. 6,579 


1859 . 


. 5,747 


1860 . 


. 4,855 


1861 . 


. 5,351 



114,508 
128,726 
130,058 
152,144 
212,322 
] 85,413 
157,707 
172,963 

In the ten years ending with 1840, the largest annual import of cork 
from Spain, was 5,730 cwts. ; but on the average of years there have 
been only a few hundred tons received from thence. 

In 1861, our imports were drawn as follows : from Portugal, 4,634 
tons ; from Spain, 577 tons ; and from other countries, 140 tons. 

The duty on ready-made corks was formerly 8jd. per lb. On the 
4th June, 1853, it was reduced to 6d. per lb., and on squared corks for 
rounding, 16s. per cwt. On the 6th March, 1860, the duty on manu- 
factured corks was further lowered to 3d. per lb., at which it still 
stands. Corks are cut with the pores laterally ; bungs have them down- 
wards ; hence, they do not keep in the liquid as well. There has been 
a large and steady increase in the import of foreign made corks, and a 
corresponding reduction in the price, as the following official figures will 
show : — 

Imports of Manufactured Corks. 





Weight. 


Value. 




lbs. 


£. 


1848 . 


. 98,747 . 


. 9,891 


1849 . 


. 125,812 . 


. 12,586 


1850 . 


. 159,757 . 


. 15,989 


1851 . 


. 184,809 . 


. 18,509 


1853 . 


. 373,217 . 


— 


1854 . 


. 479,939 . 


. 47,994 


1855 . 


. 347,688 . 


. 30,423 


1856 . 


. 390,192 . 


. 34,141 


1857 . 


. 472,237 . 


. 41,329 


1858 . 


. 452,365 . 


. 33,935 


1859 . 


. 537,682 . 


. 33,605 


1860 . 


. 702,602 . 


. 38,507 


1861 . 


. . 859,884 . 


• 46,577 



47 



Jkietiitt jinfes. 



Disease in Silk Worms. — A premium of 40,000 francs (1,600/.) is 
offered by the Department of l'lsere, France, for an efficacious remedy 
against the silk worm disease. To entitle a competitor to the pr ize, he 
must prove that by a consecutive experience of three years he has dis- 
covered an efficacious means of curing or preventing the " gatine " and 
" pebrine '' maladies by which the silk worm is attacked. These experi- 
ments must have been conducted in Grenoble or within a radius of 8 
kilometres or more of that town. It must be the result of the educa- 
tion of 25 or 30 grammes of eggs per month. All who desire to com- 
pete are to notify to the administration the locality where their experi- 
ments have been carried on. 

Tobacco-Seed Oil. — Mr. Tredinnick stated a few years ago that he 
had found the seed of the tobacco plant to contain about 15 per cent, 
of oil possessing peculiar drying properties, calculated to render it a 
superior medium, especially for paints and varnishes. The process 
employed for extracting the oil was to reduce the seed to powder, knead 
it into a stiff paste with hot water, and then submit it to the action of 
a strong press. The oil thus obtained was submitted to a moderate 
heat, which by coagulating the vegetable albumen of the seed, caused 
all impurities contained in the oil to form a cake at the bottom of 
the vessel employed, leaving the oil perfectly limpid and clear. It 
possesses the drying quality to a much higher degree than any other 
oil, a circumstance which would render it of great value to painters 
and varnish makers, if it could be obtained in quantity. 

A New Use of Glycerine. — It is not many years ago that glycerine 
was a waste product, which the manufacturer of oils and fats was glad 
to get rid of in any way. Now it has attained a high commercial value, 
and every day new and enlarged economic uses are found for it. From 
its emollient and beneficial action on the skin, it is an excellent com- 
ponent for toilet soaps, but it has hitherto been generally excluded from 
soap in saponifi cation, and can only be introduced mechanically. The 
difficulty has hitherto been to incorporate more than ten per cent, of 
glycerine, as it was found to make the soap too soft. Mr. E. Rimmel 
has, however, discovered and patented a method of combining glycerine 
with soap by fusion, so as to introduce 30 per cent, into the mass, while 
the soap is perfectly hard. Persons whose skin suffers from the use 
of ordinary soaps, may now employ this pellucid glycerine soap with 
confidence, as it does not irritate, but rather corrects acridity and softens 
the skin, an evident advantage for ladies and children. The transparent 
aspect conveyed by the glycerine contained in it, and the delicious 



48 SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 

aroma produced by the perfume of flowers which enter into its compo- 
sition, are calculated to render this soap as agreeable as it is useful. 

Maccaroni. — The best maccaroni is made between Naples and 
Salerno, and is known there by the name of " Maccaroni della Spiagga." 
It is made from wheat of the finest quality, and the grain, after being 
thrashed out (generally in the fields), is carefully spread out upon the 
flat roofs of houses during the hot weather, and then left exposed to the 
sun during the day, and. to the dews of the evening and early morning, 
for a fortnight or three weeks, until by these means it has become quite 
hard and dry. It is also known by the name of " Maccaroni della Zitta." 

Extraction of Copper from Roasted Pyrites. — In the year 1850 
Mr. Gossage showed that the copper amounting to about one per cent, 
in Irish pyrites, could be extracted, and this is still more practicable 
in the case of Spanish Pyrites, which contain about 3 per cent., and, 
after roasting, from 5 to 6 p*er cent. The extraction of copper is, how- 
ever, rarely carried out by the sulphuric acid manufacturer. In 
England the copper is obtained in the dry way by successive meltings. 
In France the roasted mineral is exposed to the action of the air, the 
copper sulphate thus produced is extracted by water, and the metal 
precipitated by iron. More recently the copper has been extracted as 
chloride, by melting the roasted mineral with sodium chloride. The 
method patented by Mr. Henderson, is worked at Mostyn with the 
pyrites residues from Messrs. Muspratt's works, and works are being 
erected near Glasgow for treating the residues from Messrs. Tennant's 
works. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 
A Treatise on Colouring Matters Derived from Coal -Tar, &c. By 
Professor Dussauce. (Trubner & Co.) — Holmes's Magnetie-Electric 
Light, as Applicable to Lighthouses. 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



THE HARD WOODS OF COMMERCE * 

BY P. L. SIMMONDS. 

Few but those who have looked into the subject would suppose that 
foreign woods were imported to the value of nearly twelve millions 
sterling annually, besides our own supplies of British oak and home- 
grown woods, which are utilized for various purposes. Notwithstand- 
ing the extensive adoption of iron for constructive purposes in ships 
and buildings, there has been no diminution in our consumption of 
foreign building woods. Indeed, the imports in the past two years show 
an increased value of one million and a quarter over the imports of six 
or seven years ago. The second great class of woods — dye woods — has 
remained somewhat stationary, and this may arise from the extensive 
use of mineral dyes within the last few years. The class of foreign hard 
woods and furniture woods has, however, increased considerably in con- 
sumption within the jiast ten years, an indication of the greater demand 
for the purposes of Art and luxury, and possibly from the stimulus given 
by Exhibitions, since that of X851, for these have served to bring into 
many new and beautiful woods previously unknown or disregarded. 
Since 1856 the value of the hard woods and ornamental woods imported 
into this country has doubled. It would be impossible in the compass 
of a brief article to pass under notice all the principal furniture woods 
used by the cabinet maker, and we shall confine ourselves, therefore, to 
a glance at the hard woods used by the turner and engraver. Several 
of these woods are also employed for other purposes, but we shall speak 
chiefly of their application in turnery. 

The principal woods used by the turner are — African Black- wood, 

* From the 'Art Journal.' 



50 ON THE HARD WOODS OF COMMERCE. 

Angica, Barwood or Camwood, Bully tree, Botany Bay oak, Box- 
wood, Brazil-wood, Braziletto, Canary-wood, Cocus-wood, Corornandel, 
Ebony, Fustic, Iron - wood, Jack - wood, King - wood, Letter - wood, 
Lignum vitce, Madagascar Red-wood, Nutmeg-wood, various Palms, 
Partridge, Prince's and Purple woods, Queen-wood, red Sanders, Rose- 
wood, Satin, Tulip, Yew, and Zebra-wood. Of these we shall now pro- 
ceed to speak seriatim. 

Of the sources of the African black- wood nothing certain is known. 
It is referred by some to the Cocobolo prieto, from Madagascar and 
Eastern Africa, a tree which we cannot trace. Possibly it may be from 
Afzelia Africanus, but more probably it is the black iron wood, or South 
African ebony, Olina camifolis, a most valuable hard-wood, brownish, 
close, and heavy ; excellent for turning and carving, and much used in 
the Cape colony by cabinet-makers. Angica is a Brazilian wood, which 
is used also by cabinet-makers. The tree producing it has not been 
correctly determined, but it is believed to be a species of Ailanthus. 
The barwood and camwood of commerce, although imported under 
distinct names and from different parts of Western Africa, are the pro- 
duct of the same tree, Baphia nitida. The wood yields a brilliant red 
colour, which is used for giving the red hue to English bandanna hand- 
kerchiefs. It is not a permanent colour, however, and is rendered deeper 
by sulphate of iron. We imported in 1861, 1,154 tons of camwood, 
valued at 20,457Z., and 2,075 tons of barwood, valued at 6,171. These 
woods may be distinguished by their rich purplish tinge. The bully 
tree or beef-wood is said to be a South American wood, obtained from 
British Guiana, and has been referred, but erroneously, to Robinia 
panacoco. The wood passing under the name of " panacoco " is Ormosia 
coccinea. Botany bay oak, sometimes called beefwood, is the trade name 
for the wood of Casuarina stricta and other species of Casuarina, of 
New South Wales. Among those which were sent to the recent Exhi- 
bition by the colony, were the forest or shingle oak, or beefwood 
( C. suberosa), a wood of great beauty, but only fit for veneers ; the 
spreading oak, swamp oak, and white oak, all woods of little value 
in an ornamental point of view. Some of the wood imported under the 
name of Botany Bay oak is well adapted for inlaying and marquetry. 
It is of a light yellowish brown colour, often marked with short red 
veins. One variety is extremely beautiful, and nearly as hard as tulip- 
wood. It is finely dappled with rich intwining streaks, on a high flesh- 
coloured ground. 

Boxwood is one of the most important hard woods which we receive 
for the special uses to which it is applied. The mediaeval collections 
testify to the exquisite skill of some of the old wood carvers on this 
material. Boxwood is also of great use to the turner, the mathematical 
and musical instrument makers, and the wood engraver. The 
largely extended use of woodcuts for the illustrated literature of the 
day has led to an universally increased demand for this, the best 



ON THE HARD WOODS OP COMMERCE. 5-1 

material known for the purpose. Whether all the boxwood imported 
is furnished by Buxus sempervirens, is not known. It is, however, 
not improbable that B. halearica, a larger species, may furnish some of 
that which comes from the Mediterranean. The wood of this species is 
coarse, and of a brighter yellow than the common species. Rondelet, in 
a table of the mean heights of trees, gives that of the trunk of the box 
at 16 feet, and the mean diameter at 10J inches. In 1820 the imports 
of foreign boxwood were 363 tons, the duty being as high as 71. 18s. 6d. 
per ton, and on that from British possessions ll. 13s. 4d. In 1831 the 
imports had risen to 484 tons, the duty having been reduced in 1826 to 
bl. on foreign grown, and ll. on British grown. x The duty is now only 
Is. per ton levied for statistical purposes. The average imports of the 
last three years have been about 3,500 tons, showing the great increase of 
the trade in this important wood. The value in 1860 was about 11Z. 
per ton, and in 1861, 10Z. From the Russian port of Soukoum Kali, in 
the Black Sea, 1,450 tons of boxwood, valued at 10,384Z. were shipped 
in 1861 to Constantinople ; the greater part of this was sent on to Eng- 
land. The market price of the wood at Soukoum Kali was 4s. 2d. the 
pood of 36lbs. But little boxwood of any size is to be obtained now in 
the United Kingdom, and we draw our chief supplies from Turkey ; 
while France depends a good deal on Spain. 

The importance of finding some wood calculated to come into the aid 
of boxwood, the most generally useful of all the European hard woods, 
has long been felt. Attention was drawn to the subject at the Madras 
local exhibitions a few years ago, and it has occupied attention in 
several of our colonies. Among the large and varied collections of 
woods from different countries, shown at the recent Exhibition, we did 
not notice any which, upon trial, appeared adapted for the purpose. 
We may, however, incidentally mention those which have been pointed 
out as suited for wood engraving. The essential properties requisite for 
this purpose are uniformity of structure, and considerable toughness, 
hardness, and retention of any sharp angles to which it may be cut, 
whether on the end or on the side — colour, except for certain purposes, 
is of little consequence. Dr. Hunter, of Madras, has furnished the fol- 
lowing results of experiments on woods for engraving, made under bis 
superintendence at the School of Arts, Madras : — The guava-wood 
(Psidium pyriferum), though close grained and moderately hard, with a 
pretty uniform texture, was found to be too soft for fine engraving, and 
did not stand the pressure of printing. It answered well for bold en- 
graving and blocks for large letters, and for this purpose has been used 
for several years. The small wood from hilly districts was found to be 
harder and finer in the grain than that from large trees. Satin-wood 
proved to be hard, but uneven in the grain, coarse in the pores, and, 
like many other large woods, harder and denser in the centre than near 
the bark. As it was found to splinter under the graver it was con- 
demned. The small dark coloured kinds of sandal wood of 5 inches in 

F 2 



52 OS THE HARD WOODS OF COMMERCE. 

diameter, grown on a rocky soil, proved to be the nearest approach to 
boxwood in working quality, hardness, and durability under pressure. 
It cuts smoothly, the chips curl well rinder the graver, and the oily 
nature of the wood seems to preserve it from splitting when cut. Many 
hundred engravings have been executed upon this wood, and some 
blocks have yielded upwards of 20,000 impressions without being worn 
out. The question of price has, however, to be taken into consideration 
in order to see if it can compete with boxwood in England. Two 
species of Wrightia were experimentalised on without success. The palay 
( Wrightia tinctoria) has a pale, nearly white wood, close and uniform in 
the grain, but too soft to stand printing. It cuts smoothly, but does 
not bear delicate cross-hatching. Although unfit for wood-engraving, 
it is well suited for turnery, carving, and inlaying with darker woods. 
Veppalay-wood (TF r . antidysenterica), on inspection under the micros- 
cope, ajopeared to be suitable for the purpose, from the closeness of tex- 
ture and the polish left by the chisel in cutting it across the grain ; but 
the uneven quality and the softness of the outer parts showed that it 
was not fit for engraving. The wood of the wild orange bears a strong 
resemblance in appearance to box in working qualities, and is often as 
hard. The wood oi the wild Ber tree (Zizy pirns jujuba), common almost 
everywhere in India, gave good promise under the microscope, but 
proved to be a soft, spongy, light wood, that did not stand cross-hatching 
or pressure. A small garden tree, the China box (Murraya exotica), 
proved on trial to be like the wood of many of the orange family — hard 
and close in the grain near the centre, but softer near the bark. The 
cross section was, however, very irregular. The wood of the coffee tree 
was found to be soft, uneven in the grain, and not fit for engraving, 
though well adapted for ornamental carving or inlaying. This wood 
works beautifully in the turner's lathe, and cuts very sharply 
under the chisel, gouge, or graver ; it is deserving of more atten- 
tion for ornamental carving and inlaying. It harmonises well in 
colour with the wood of orange and that of the Manila tamarind (Inga 
dulcig). 

There are a few other woods which may be incidentally noticed. 
The white beech (Fagus sylvestris) is much used for carved mouldings, for 
picture frames, and large wood letters for printing. It is easily worked 
and may be brought to a verv smooth surface. The extremely hard 
wood of the white thorn (Crataegus punctata) is used by wood engravers, 
and for mallets, &c. The dogwood (Cornus fiorida) is well adapted for 
the same purposes as boxwood. It is so remarkably free from silex, 
that splinters of the wood are used by watchmakers for cleaning the 
pivot holes of watches, aud by the optician for removing the dust from 
small lenses. The wood of the olive has occasionally been used for 
engraving on. A very compact, fine and uniform wood (Dodonaa 
viscosa) sent from the Neilgherries, under the name of iron wood, used 
for turnery and making walking-sticks, worked well under the 



ON THE HARD WOODS OF COMMERCE. 53 

graver and on the turning lathe ; but the piece sent was too small to 
print from. The close-grained wood of Podocarpus neriifolius a Bur- 
mese tree, has been suggested as a substitute for boxwood, but I have 
not heard that it has been tried. Another close-grained but undefined 
wood, locally called Banian, much used by the Karens for bows, has 
been also pointed out as probably adapted to take the place of box. 
The white close-grained wood Gf Gardenia lucida is apparently well 
adapted for turning. This wood like that of several other species of 
Gardenia and Randia, is used by the Burmese for making combs. A 
kind of plum wood, rather coarse in the grain, is used in China for cutting 
blocks for books. As a good deal of wood-block printing is carried on 
in Japan, it would be interesting to ascertain what wood is used by this 
intelligent and ingenious people for the purpose. Both the stone-wood 
(Callistemon salignus), a remarkable hard wood found sparingly distri- 
buted in Gipps Land, and the Pittosporum bicolor^ have been used in 
Victoria for wood engraving. The wood of Pittisporum undulatum, from 
New South Wales, was brought forward here by the commissioners of 
that colony last year as calculated to be serviceable for wood engraving. 
Although favourably reported upon by the late Mr. P. Delamotte, it is 
not likely to be of much use to the wood engraver here. Mr. Delamotte 
stated that although the samples of wood he received were probably in- 
ferior ones, having been felled at the wrong season of the year, yet it 
was well adapted for certain kinds of wood engraving, being superior to 
the pear and other woods, generally used for posters. It is the produce 
of a small tree, with very close-grained, hard, white wood. When 
seasoned carefully, it would be well suited for turning. Sound trans- 
verse sections of more than 10 to 16 inches are, however, rare. Another 
of the Pittospoi'ums, the boxwood of Tasmania (Bursaria spinosa), 
which is very close and even-grained, of a yellowish colour, unmarked, 
has the appearance of being well adapted for wood engraving. The 
Celastrus rhombifolius, a dense, hard, and heavy yellow box-like wood 
of the Cape colony, where it is called Pendoom, might be useful to 
turners and musical instrument makers, especially for flutes, clarionets, 
&c. It is much used in turnery, but does not grow to any size, 
never exceeding 4 to 5 inches in diameter. The lightwood of New 
South Wales {Duhoisia myoporoides) is almost as light as the wood of 
the lime, very close-grained and firm ; but easily cut, and hence espe- 
cially adapted for wood carving. 

Leaving the engraving woods, we now pass on to the commercial woods 
of the turner. Brazil-wood and Braziletto are the produce of legumi- 
nous trees, at one time much in demand as dye-woods. The former is 
the produce of Ccesalpinia echinata, and grows abundantly in South 
America, being imported chiefly from Pernambuco and Costa Bica : 
hence it is sometimes called Pernambuco wood. When first cut it is of 
a light colour, but becomes a dark red on exposure to the air. The 
peach-wood, Nicaragua-wood, and Lima- wood of commerce, are supposed 



54 ON THE HARD WOODS OF COMMERCE. 

to be produced by the same tree. The import3 of Brazil-wood in 1861 
were 5,101 tons, valued at 102,262Z. Braziletto wood is furnished by 
C. Brasiliensis, which grows in Jamaica and other parts of the "West 
Indies to the height of about 20 feet. This wood is much used for 
ornamental cabinet work, and both kinds are employed in turnery and 
for making violin bows. Canary-wood is obtained from the Laurus 
indica and L. canariensis, trees natives of Madeira and tbe Canaries. 
Cocus-wood or Kokra is obtained from Cuba and other West Indian 
islands, but has been referred by some to Lepidostachys Roxburghii 
of Eastern India. Cocus is much used in turnery, and for mak- 
ing flutes and other musical instruments. It is a wood of small size, 
being usually imported in logs of about 6 or 8 inches diameter. The 
alburnum is of a light colour, while the heart-wood is of a rich deep 
brown, and extremely hard. Calamander, or Coromaudel wood, is 
obtained in Ceylon, from Diospyros Mrsuta. It is a scarce and beautiful 
wood, exceedingly hard, fine, closed-grained and heavy. It consists of 
pale reddish-brown fibres, crossed by large medullary plates, or isolated 
elongated patches of a deep rich brown colour, passing into black. 
These latter are chiefly conspicuous in well-defined veins and broad 
spots, admirably contrasting with the lighter parts. The lustre is silky 
where the medullary plates are small, but higher and more varying 
where the plates are larger and the grain coarser. Calamander-wood is con- 
sidered by many persons the handsomest of all the brown woods : the root 
has the more beautiful appearance. This wood is now getting scarce. 
Another species (D. Ebenaster) furnishes in Ceylon a very fine wood, 
bearing a close resemblance to Calamander. The planks of Calamander 
shown at Paris in 1855 and at London last year were magnificent. 

Belonging to the same genus as the Calamander is the Ebony of com- 
merce, which, from its colour and denseness is so much used by turners, 
and for inlaying work by cabinet makers. Of 1,500 tons, valued at about 
15,000/, imported in 1861, the bulk came from India and Africa, and a 
small quantity, 260 tons, of inferior, worth only about 5Z, a ton (instead 
of 1 1 /. 1 0s.), from Cuba. The carved ebony furniture from Ceylon was much 
admired. There are several woods which pass under the general name 
of ebony. The green ebony, obtained from Jamaica and other parts of 
the West Indies, is supposed to be furnished by Brya Ebenus, a small 
tree. The duramen of the wood is a dark green, the alburnum, or 
outer wood, of a light yellow. The wood is hard and susceptible of a 
very high polish. It is much used for rulers and other small work, also 
in marquetry. Another green ebony is said to be obtained from Jaca- 
randa mimosifolia, in Brazil. The name green ebony is also applied to 
the wood of Exccecaria glandulosa, of Jamaica. Bed ebony is an unde- 
fined wood of Natal. Several species of Diospyros are known to yield 
in great abundance the black ebony of commerce. Those of the East 
Indies are D. Ebenus, cordifolia, Ebenaster, Meibola, melanoxylon, Ruylei, 
and tomentosa. The ebony from the west coast of Africa is usually the 



ON THK HARD WOODS OF COMMERCE. 55 

most perfect black, that from the Mauritius and Ceylon being variegated 
more or lesss with cream brown. D. cordifolia is a dark brown and 
difficult to work. Ebony is much affected by the weather, and, to 
prevent splitting it should be covered. Ebony of very superior quality 
is procurable in the western districts of the Madras presidency, as well 
as the Northern Circars. We have seen sixteen-inch planks of a fine 
uniform black, chiefly obtained from Coorg and Canara. Smaller pieces 
are procured from Cuddapa, Salem, Nuggur, &c, ; but there is no 
steady demand, though it is a peculiarly fine timber for cabinet work, 
and some of it is well veined for ornament. Ebony may be obtained in 
Siam, but the quality is not very good ; a little is exported thence 
every year to China by the junks. The species of Diospyros have this 
peculiarity, that the black heart-wood is surrounded by white sap-wood. 
The task of determining the species which yield the best wood, and 
verifying the specific names, is important, and merits careful elucida- 
tion. Fustic is a hard, strong, yellow wood, obtained from Madura tinc- 
toria, a West Indian tree. It used to be employed in cabinet work, but 
was found to darken and change colour on exposure to the air and heat. 
It is chiefly used now as a dye-wood. The imports in 1861 were 8,458 
tons, valued at 50,444?. The principal imports come from Venezuela, the 
West Indies, Mexico, and New Granada, and through the northern 
Atlantic ports. Iron-wood is a common name for many trees producing 
bard, ponderous, close-grained woods. In America it is applied to the 
Ostrya virginiaca, a tree which only grows to a small size ; but the white 
wood is compact, finely grained, and heavy. There is an iron-wood in 
Brazil, but the tree yielding it is not defined. One of the iron-woods 
entering into commerce is the Metrosideros verus, an East Indian tree, 
whilst some species of Sideroxylon furnish other iron woods. The iron- 
wood of Norfolk Island is the Olea apetala. Another close, hardwood, 
which sinks in water, is the Argania sideroxylon of Morocco. Jack-wood, 
or Cos, as it is locally called in Ceylon, is an excellent furniture and 
fancy wood, obtained from the Artocarpus integrifolia, a tree allied to 
the bread-fruit. It is a coarse and open-grained, though heavy wood, 
of a beautiful saffron colour, and emits a peculiar, but by no means un- 
pleasant, odour. King-wood, one of the most beautiful of the hard woods 
imported, reaches us from Brazil, in trimmed billets, from 2 to 7 inches 
diameter. It is probably from Spartium arbor, or some undefined 
species of Triptolomoza. It is also called violet-wood, being 
streaked in violet tints of different intensities, is finer in the ejrain than 
rosewood. The smaller pieces are frequently striped, and occur some- 
times full of elongated zone eyes. Letter-wood, or snake-wood, is a 
scarce and costly wood of British Guiana, obtained from Piratinera 
guianensis. It is very hard, of a beautiful brown colour, with black 
spots, which have been compared to hieroglyphics. The spotted part is 
only the heart-wood, which is seldom more than 12 or 15 inches in 
circumference. Its application to cabinet-work and to small turnery 



56 ON THE HAKD WOODS OF COMMERCE. 

articles was shown in the British Guiana collection. Lignum vitce is a 
common, well-known, hard, ponderous wood, the produce of two species 
of Guaiacum obtained in the West Indies, which is used for a great 
variety of purposes requiring hardness and strength. The Madagascar 
red wood is as yet undescribed. Nutmeg-wood is another name for the 
wood of the Palmyra palm (Borassus Jialelliformis), which is used in 
turnery, for cabinet-work, and, from its mottled character, for umbrella 
and parasol handles, walking canes, rulers, fancy boxes, &c. 

The stems or trunks of several palms obtained in the East and "West 
Indies are imported, to a small extent, for fancy use. They furnish a 
great variety of mottled, ornamental wood, black, red brown, and speckled, 
and are used for cabinet and marquetry work, and for billiard cues. 
Amongst those so used are the cocoa-nut, the betel-nut, Palmyra, &c. The 
nuts of two South American pahns, the vegetable ivory nut {Pliytelephas 
macrocarpa), and the dark coquilla nuts from Attalea junifera, are 
largely used by turners for small fancy articles. Partridge-wood is a 
name for the wood of several trees coming from South America, which 
has usually, but erroneously, been ascribed to Heisteria cocclnea, but 
is more likely to be from Andira inermis. It is used for walking-sticks 
umbrella and parasol handles, and in cabinet work and turnery. The 
colours are variously mingled, and most frequently disposed in fine 
hair streaks of two or three shades, which in some of the curly specimens 
resemble the feathers of the bird. Another variety is called pheasant- 
wood. Prince's wood is a light-veined brown wood, the produce of 
Curdia Gerascantlms, obtained in Jamaica, almost exclusively used for 
turning. Purple-wood is the produce of Copaifera pubiflora and bracteata, 
trees of British Guiana, which furnish trunks of great size, strength, 
durability, and elasticity. The colour varies much in different specimens, 
some being of a deep red brown, but the most beautiful is of a clear 
reddish purple, exceedingly handsome when polished. It is used for 
buhl work, marquetry, and in turning. Varieties of King-wood are 
sometimes called purple and violet woods, but they are variegated, 
while the true purple-wood is plain. Queen-wood is a name applied 
occasionally to woods of the Cocus and Greenheart character, imported 
from the Brazils. The wood of Laurus chloroxylon, of the West Indies, 
furnishes some. Red Sanders wood is a hard heavy, East Indian wood, 
obtained from the Pterocarpiis santallnus, imported from Madras and 
Calcutta, chiefly as a dye-wood. It takes a beautiful polish, and some- 
what resembles Brazil-wood. Rosewood is a term as generally applied as 
iron-wood, and to as great a variety of trees, in different countries ; some- 
times from the colour, and sometimes from the smell of the wood. The 
rosewood imported in such large quantities from Brazil is obtained from 
the Jacaranda Brasiliana, and some other species. The Physocalymnna 
ftoribunda of Goyaz, in Brazil, is said to furnish one of the rosewoods 
of commerce. It is the " Pao do rosa" of the Portuguese. The fragrant 
rosewood, or " Bois de Palisandre," of the French cabinet-makers, has 



ON THE HARD WOODS OF COMMERCB. 57 

been ascertained to belong to two or thrae species of Brazilian Trip- 
tvlomeas. The imports of rosewood in 1861 were 2,441 tons, of the 
computed value of 48,884Z. In 1820, when the duty was as high as 
201. the ton, the imports of rosewood were only 271 tons. In 1826 
the duty was reduced by one half, and in 1830 the imports had risen 
to 1,515 tons. The shipments of Brazilian rosewood are chiefly made 
from Bahia. In 1857, 16,870 logs were sent from there, and in 1858, 
17,834 logs, of a total value of about 28,000Z. The great bulk of the 
shipments go to France and Germany. A rosewood is obtained in 
Central America and Honduras, from a species of Amyris. East Indian 
rosewood, a valuable mottled black timber, is obtained from Dalbergia 
latifolia and sissoides ; these furnish the well-known Malabar black-wood 
which is heavy and close-grained, admitting of a tine polish. The prin- 
cipal articles of carved furniture in the East Indian collection were 
made from this wood. A similar kind of rosewood is obtained on the 
west coast of the Gulf of Siam, but the grain is not so close as the 
South American wood. A large quantity is exported yearly from 
Bangkok to Shanghai, and other Chinese ports. 

The East Indian Satin wood is the produce of Chloroxylon Swieteuia. 
It is close-grained, hard, and durable in its character, of a light orange 
colour, and when polished, has a beautiful satiny appearance ; unless pro- 
tected by a coat of fine varnish, it loses its beauty by age. This tree oc- 
curs abundantly in the northern parts of Ceylon. That variety called, on 
account of the pattern, " flowered satin," is scarce. The tree also grows 
in the mountainous districts of the Madras presidency. The West Indian 
satin-wood is obtained from Maba guineensis, in the Bahamas, and from 
an unnamed tree in Dominica. The wood of the European Yew (Taxus 
baccata), being hard, compact, and of a very fine, close grain, is 
occasionally used for fine cabinet work, or inlaying, and by turners for 
making snuff-boxes, musical instruments, &c. ; parts near the root are 
often extremely beautiful. Eor the combination of colour with figure, 
it ranks at the head of the eyed or spotted woods. Brazil furnishes 
tulip-wood, and zebra-wood ; the latter, which is scarce, is from the 
Omphalobium Lamberti, a large tree of Demerara. It resembles king- 
wood, except the colours, which are generally dispersed in irregular but 
angular veins and stripes. Zebra-wood is a beautiful wood for cross 
banding. Some very good specimens of Colonial turning in goblets and 
ornaments, from the native ash, red gum, cherry tree, and black-wood 
of South Australia, were shown at the International Exhibition of 1862. 
One or two new woods have recently been introduced, but not to any 
large extent ; of these we may mention the following Australian woods. 
The scented Myall (Acacia homolophylla) is a very hard and heavy wood, 
of an agreeable odour, resembling that of violets. It is especially 
adapted, from its pleasant odour, for glove and trinket boxes, and any 
interior applications where not being varnished, it would retain its 
pleasant scent. Myall has a dark and beautiful duramen, which makes it 



08 ON THE HARD WOODS OF COMMERCE. 

applicable to numerous purposes of tlie cabinet- maker and the wood - 
turner. It rarely exceeds a foot in diameter, but has been used for 
veneers. Musk-wood {Eurybia argopliylla) is a timber of a pleasant 
fragrance, and a beautiful colour, well adapted for turning and 
cabinet work. The Pomaderris apetala furnishes us with a soft useful 
wood of a pale colour, well adapted for carver's and turner's work. 
One of the most complete, extensive, and tastefully designed applica- 
tions of the hard or fancy woods of commerce was the model of the 
Royal Exchange, shown at the International Exhibition by Messrs. 
Robert Fauntleroy and & Co., in which there were specimens of more 
thau five hundred ornamental woods from different parts of the world. 
We may close with a word or two on a few other woods occasionally 
used. The mountain ash (Pyrus aucuparia), the " rowen tree " of 
Scottish song, yields a beautiful bight wood, cpuite equal to satin-wood 
in appearance, and, like holly, box, horse chestnut, and apple, very 
serviceable in inlaying. The root and burr of Quercus pedunculata, and 
Q. sessiliflora, also rival many foreign woods. The close texture of the 
maple -wood, with the beauty of its grain and its susceptibility of a high 
polish, doubtless contributed to its continued use for the manufacture 
of the pledge cup and wassail bowl. Hence its Scandinavian name of 
mazer came to be applied to the cup made from the wood of the tree ; 
and when, at a later period, other woods and even the costliest 
metals, were substituted, the old designation of the mazer cup was still 
retained. The late Mr. T. H. Turner, in a series of papers in the 
Archaeological Journal, on " The Usages of Domestic Life in the Middle 
Ages," remarks : — " Our ancestors seem to have been greatly attached to 
their mazers, and to have incurred much cost in enriching them. 
Quaint legends in English or Latin, monitory of peace and good fellow- 
ship, were often embossed on their metal rim and on the cover ; or the 
popular but mystic Saint Christophus, engraved on the bottom of the 
interior, rose in all his giant proportions before the eyes of the 
wassailers, giving comfortable assurance that on that festive day, at 
hast, no mortal harm could befall them." Most of our earlier poets 
illustrate the familiar use of the maple bowl in ancient times ; it figures 
at the latest in Scott's " Lord of the Isles." Spenser furnishes a beauti- 
ful description of a highly wrought emblematical mazer cup, in his 
Shepherd's Calendar," evidently suggested by the bowl for which the 
shepherds contend in Virgil's Third Pastoral : — 

" Lo Perigot, the pledge which I plight, 
A mazer ywrought of the maple ware, 
Whereon is enchased many a fayre sight, 

Of hears and tigers that make fiers war ; 
And over them spread a goodly wild vine, 
Entrailed with a wonton ivy twine. 

" Therehy is a lamh in the wolf s jaws ; 

But see how fast runueth the shepherd swam 
To save the innocent from the beast -'s paws, 

And here with his sheep hook hath him slain. 
Tell me such a cup hast thou ever seen ? 

Well might it become any harvest Queen." 



59 



ON THE APPLICATION OF ALFA OR ESPARTO TO THE 
MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. 

BY JULES BARSE. 

Under the name of alfa in Northern Africa, and esparto in Spain 
and other parts of Europe, we meet very commonly with a coarse 
strong grass growing in tufts, resembling in the cylindrical form of the 
stalk, lushes. It is known under the several scientific names oi Macro- 
cliloa tenacissima, Lygeam spar turn, and Slip a tenacissima. 

Alfa grows without culture, in great abundance, on soils the least 
fitted for any agricultural operations, over a large extent of country in 
Algeria. 

By systematic gathering, the quality and the quantity of the leaves 
are improved ; left to itself, the plant does not die being perennial. The 
stem on which there are matured leaves, wdll no less produce fresh leaves ; 
and it is not unusual to find on the same stem, the shoots of three suc- 
cessive years. 

Cultivated or wild, this plant, from its hardy constitution, ought to be 
classed in the first rank oi the vegetable products, from which industry 
demands a regular supply of useful raw material. 

Industry and science had long foreseen the future that awaited alfa, 
whenever it should become possible to extract economically the special 
fibre which it contains. In spite of the efforts of a great number 
of laborious, instructed, and persevering men, alfa is not yet a commer- 
cial commodity, in the large sense, regularly enquired for and accepted 
in any industry except that of ' sparterie ' or cordage. Yet the paper- 
trade is eagerly seeking after everything that can secure it against 
the scarcity or enhancement in price of the raw material. 

"Why is not alfa more used in the mills ? Because inventors and 
manufacturers have often thought that they were able to use alfa before 
the question of practical processes was matured ; many hopes have been 
dispelled by the cost of the manufacture, according to systems, not one 
of which, taken separately, I dare affirm, was sufficiently perfect to 
realize a success. But if, without pretending to create a monopoly, pre- 
vious labours are examined, with sufficient discrimination to retain what 
is good and to reject what is bad ; if, to the sum of these collected ele- 
ments, the results of recent experiments are added ; if above all, the 
powerful patronage of the local administration lends its aid, an appeal 
may be made to the judgment so often previously awarded, and bring 
back conviction to the minds of men, who know that industry progresses 
continuously. Such has been the object, on which I have concentrated 
all my efforts, and towards which I now contribute the appended 
information. 

Gathering, Management, Transport, &c, op the Fibre. — In 
Algiers, and particularly in the province of Oran, alfa alternates with 



OU ON THE APPLICATION OF ALFA OB ESPARTO 

the dwarf -palm, lentisk, asphodel, and squill, on all untilled land. On 
soils, of which the basis is chalk, the dwarf-palm and asphodel pre- 
dominate ; on stony soils, in which silica and iron replace alumina and 
lime, alia, in close tufts, grows abundant in the plains up to the mountain 
ridges, excluding, however, the culminating heights of mountain chains. 
The districts of Mers-el-Kebir, Ai'n-el-Turk, Bouzefer, to the west of 
Oran ; of Saint Cloud, Fleurus, Kristel (mountain of the lions), Saint 
Louis, Arzew, to the East ; the forest of Muley-Ismael, the Macta, in 
the direction of Mostaganem ; the slopes north of the mountains which 
border on the south the plains of the Zig and of the Hobra, are localities 
exceedingly favourable to the industry, and amply supplied to meet the 
wants of the French trade. By concentrating the means and capital 
on the littoral of this province, they are placed in the neighbourhood of 
existing roads, and of those which will shortly be opened. The ports of 
Arzew, Oran, Mers-el-Kebir ; the places of embarkation for feluccas, of 
Ain-el-Turk, Bouzefer, the mouth of the Macta, are so many places 
where depots for the collected alia can be established ; each of these 
localities corresponds to a centre of population, farm, village, or town, 
under the regular and efficacious protection of civil and military ad- 
ministrations. The Arab tribes are in daily communication with the 
French : this element, together with the Spaniards, Moors, and others, 
who make up, more or less, the floating population of the country, will 
6iipply labourers for the gathering of alia, as soon as a respectable estab- 
lishment, worthy of confidence, shall have been at work for more than 
a year. 

At what time of the year and under what conditions of maturity 
ought the gathering to take place ? In its wild state, a tult of alia con- 
sists of withered leaves, leaves that have attained maturity and are still 
full of sap, and lastly, of young tender shoots not yet expanded. Taking 
the plant in this view, it might be said that the gathering can 
be done at any time, provided that at any period of the year, 
the tuft yields fibrous matter suitable for making paper. But 
if alfa is subjected to a systematic and regular process, all is 
changed : if care is taken, as in Spain, to pluck off all the dry dead 
Bhoots from the stem ; if all the shoots that come to maturity are 
gathered, if the young shoots only are left, then the plant is in complete 
cultivation and the gathering becomes annual ; it should be done at a 
fixed time. Is it necessary, as in Spain, where alfa is used for making 
rope, cord, carpets, to wait until the seed is quite ripe and the leaves 
be-in to fade. Ought, on the contrary, the moment to be seized when the 
leaves, wholly curled up, do not re-open under the alternate influence 
of light and moisture, without taking account of the state of the seed, 
ripe or not ? 

As regards paper-making, the chemical analysis of the plant settles 
the question : the matured leaf has in its constituent elements, silica 
and iron, upon which chemical agents act with difficulty : the boiling, 



TO THE MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. bl 

the bleaching, the conversion into fibre can only be obtained to the 
detriment of the quantity and quality of the pulp. The leaf, still green, 
although its full growth is attained, is easier to boil, its fibres separate 
under the influence of less energetic agents ; silica and iron, which hold 
the yellow and red colouring matters in the fibre, are eliminated, so to 
speak, at the same time as the gum-resin which binds the fibres ; the 
knots, analogous to those of straw, are still sufficiently tender so as not 
to require that the boiling, to be effective in reducing them, shall have 
been too prolonged and compromising in regard to the leaves. 

It may hence be concluded that the leaf ought to be gathered when 
green, but also as near maturity as possible. I say as near maturity as 
possible, because a leaf too green gives translucid fibres, and consequently 
a paper analogous to vegetable paper ; on the other hand, the waste is so 
much the greater as the leaf is less matured. There is also, in. respect 
to alfa, the same proceeding to be followed, as with hemp and flax which 
are gathered with reference to the fibre, leaving out of account the seed. 
Flax and hemp, cultivated for seed, will have lost their properties for 
yielding fibre precisely because they have attained complete maturity. 

The gathering of alfa should be done by hand : cutting ought to be 
strictly forbidden, as it obstructs the reproduction of the plant. The 
labourer holds in his left hand a stick 2 or 3 centimetres thick and 
about 40 centimetres long ; he seizes a bunch of alfa leaves with the 
right hand and twists it round the stick ; at the same moment he pulls 
at the stick with the left hand and at the bunch of leaves which the 
right hand still grasps ; the whole of the leaves separate from the stem 
at the articulation. The right hand places the bunch under the left 
arm ; the hands remain free ; the labourer gathers three or four 
bunches, according to his capability, and these, collected under the arm, 
make a manada, which is then tied together by the labourer or by 
children engaged for that purpose. The bundles are ranged on the spot 
to dry, which is effected in a week. It is said an expert labourer 
can gather 200 kilogrammes of green alfa in a day. I have never 
met with such. 

"The operations which, conjointly with M. Cruzel, we carried out in 
Algeria, were undertaken with full authority over our labourers, and 
with full compensation for their work ; on the one hand, we have had 
Spaniards and Moors, who are considered the most expert at this busi- 
ness ; on the other, the General commanding the province had granted us 
thirty Zouaves, under the control of sub-officers, with orders to make an 
official return of how much each man, determined to exert himself, could 
gather, both on first coming to the work and in the following weeks. 
We had, therefore, good will, emulation, and inspection with us ; the daily 
gathering of green alfa per man was, in summer, an average of 100 kilog. 
In drying alfa loses 40 per cent. The labour of a man is consequently 
equal to 60 kilog. of dry alfa per day. Such is the basis upon which 
commercial estimates must be founded. 



62 ON THE APPLICATION OF ALFA OR ESPARTO 

The bundles dried in the fields are collected in bales and brought to 
the port of embarcation. 

The alfa, in its natural state, is bulky and forms an unwieldy pack- 
age for ships, although its real density is great, for a kilog. of alfa im- 
mersed in water, displaces 1165 grammes of liquid only, which gives 
0.858 for the alfa ; the water being 1000. But, in ordinary bundles, a 
cubic metre contains only 212 kilog. of alfa, and the maritime ton of 
lm. 44 cube contains 305 kilog. ; in this state it therefore requires three 
maritime tons of space for 1000 kilog. 

In Algeria we obtained permission to pack the alfa with Poncets's 
presses, which are used by the military administration. The press-cases 
measuring lm. 40 cubic, were uniformly filled with 297 to 300 kilog. of 
alfa packed with care ; the press turned out a bale of 870 to 880 cubic 
decimetres. In this state, a ship would receive scarcely 500 kilog. of 
alfa per ton of space. 

Before my departure for Algeria, M. Cruzel, who was to take part in 
my proceedings, had made at Paris, and placed at my disposal, 
an hydraulic press of great power, and arranged in a special manner, 
for the compression and binding of the alfa. This press could not be 
forwarded to me in time at Oran, but at Paris it served to make some 
very precise and practical experiments. The bales turned out by this 
machine are of a cylindrical form, having a diameter of 60 centimetres, 
and a length of 85 ; they measure 320 cubic decimetres, and weigh 180 
kilog. Consequently, 800 kilog. of alfa go to the maritime ton. Each 
press of this kind will turn out two compressed bales per hour. Reduced 
to this volume, alfa is no longer an unwieldy package ; it can be 
stowed easily, and preserves the normal centre of gravity to the ship 
without increasing the ballast. The cylindrical form of the bales facili- 
tates the transfer they undergo on the route. 

Until now alfa, considered as cumbrous waste in bundles, has been 
charged at a high rate of carriage by the railways, and commerce would 
not resort to this mode of transport, which cost eight centimes per kilo- 
metre ; and per ton, even when baled, this price is only reduced to six cen- 
times. But this rate will not be enforced for bales compressed on the sys- 
tem adopted by M. Cruzel, and myself. These bales are hooped with iron, 
are not exposed to any damage, do not in any extraordinary manner 
affect the responsibility of railway companies ; and their stowage, cubical 
weight, and form, make them similar to goods in bulk, and most con- 
venient for transport. 

I may now give a summary of expenses arising from the various 
manipulations of alfa, from its. first collection or separation from the 
parent stem to its arrival in France, within reach of the mills : 

1. Gathering in April, May, and June, at the rate fr. ct. 
of 60 kilog. of dry alfa, per day and per 
labourer, at 2 francs, for 100 kilog. . 3 33 



fr. 


ct. 





75 


1 








50 


1 


85 





35 





50 


4 


50 





30 



TO THE MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. 63 

2. Drying on the field, and carriage from the field 

to the road 

3. Carriage from the road to the port . 

4. Compression and packing in hooped bales, at 

4,000 kilog. per day and per press, employ- 
ing four men and two boys 

5. Hoops of sheet iron, 3 kilog., and rivets . 

6. Carriage of the bales to the ship . 

7. Wages, rent, maintenance of material, fire 

insurance . . . • . 

8. Freight to Havre 

9. Marine insurance 

10. Merchant's profit and interest on capital at 10 

per cent on the above sums . , . 1 SO 

Cost of 100 kilog. of alfa, delivered at Havre . 14 38 

Technical Operations ; Conversion of Alfa into Paper. — 
Chemically examined for paper making purposes, alfa consists of cellu- 
lose, mixed with gum, resinous matter, silica, lime, and iron. The 
incrustated materials are intercombined in such a manner that there is 
no hope of isolating the textile fibres by prolonged ebullition in mere 
water. The silicates and the resin which form the epidermis of the 
leaves, even resist the dissolving action of alcohol and ether. Recourse 
must be had to caustic agents — lime, soda, potash, ammonia — combined 
with boiling water, or the pressure of steam, to disintegrate the plant. 

The internode which binds the leaf to the stem, similar to the joints of 
straw, resists much longer than the stalk the action of boiling and the 
ley. Hence the necessity of dividing the plant into one portion contain- 
ing the knots or joints, which will undergo a special boiling, and another 
portion containing the stalks, which w T ill require less boiling. Operating 
on these divided portions saves time, and gives, moreover, weight to the 
paper. Those who have operated on the entire plant have reduced a 
large quantity of tender fibres into useless particles by the action of the 
ley, in their endeavour to expose the tough fibres to a prolonged 
boiling. 

The alfa, suitably boiled and lixiviated, preserves sufficient tenacity 
to be drawn off into long fibres, supple and easy to disintegrate. By 
washing, it yields a yellow colouring matter, soluble in alkaline agents. 
This yellow matter is not that which offers the chief obstacle to the 
bleaching. There remains in the fibre another colouring matter, which, 
under the combined action of chlorine and caustic ley, will also become 
soluble, and be eliminated by washing in water, which assumes the 
colour of blood. 

Every attention must be given to the indications of this interesting 
reaction, for so long as the alfa has not given off this red tinge, it will not 



64 ON THE APPLICATION OF ALFA OR ESPARTO 

bleach. Chlorides cause it to take the colour of walnut wood, and acid 
baths, after the chlorides, leave the fibre in the form of greenish grey 
matter, only fit for the manufacture of papier bulle. I do not speak of 
processes -which will produce white pulp at great cost, by means of reagents 
and time ; they are, or at least have been, commercially impracticable. 
Those who have not commenced by the elimination of the yellow and 
red dyes, have treated alfa with corrosive leys or chlorides equally 
destructive ; they have been able to get white pulp, but the waste or the 
cost has been represented by startling figures ; it is quite otherwise, in 
following the rational method of bleaching, by the successive elimination 
of the two colouring matters. 

According to my experiments, the normal waste is made up as fol- 
lows : — 

Yellow colouring matter 12 

Red colouring matter 6 

Gum resins 7 

Salts constituting the ashes of alfa . 1-5 

Fibre suitable for paper " . 735 

100 

The theoretic loss of 26 - 5, it is true, can only be estimated, according 
to the care and discernment exercised in the use of the chemical agents 
and in the washing manipulations. It is as well, however, to know the 
exact limit to which perfection may attain. 

The analysis of the ashes determines the quantities of the caustic 
agents necessary for the washing of the plant. 

I obtained from 100 kilog. of alfa an ash weighing 1'41. From this 
ash I extracted :— 

SSoda 0-110 
Sulphuric acid . . 0-090 
Hydrochloric acid . 0.030 

2. By washing in aqua ( Lime 0-200 

regia the residue left < Sulphuric acid . . 0.285 

bv the water. ( Oxide of iron Fe 2Q- 3 0-045 

^ftS&Ufc Oxide of iron . . 0-324 
by the aqua regia. ( Slllca 0326 

1-410 

There are also in 100 kilog. of alfa 1-510 of incorporated silicious 
and ferruginous salts, plus 7 kilog. of gum ; in all 8-510 of matter to be 
got rid of, in order to free the fibre. Admitting that the silicates require 
a quantity of alkali, thrice their weight, to make them soluble ; that 
the resin, to become soap, requires weight for weight of caustic soda, 
100 kilog, of the plant must, in theory, be treated with 2'250 of alkali, 
and 7 kilog. of caustic earth. 

In practice, the degree of temperature, and of pressure at which 
the boilings are made, must be considered, in order to increase or 



TO THE MANUFACTURE OP PAPER. 65 

diminish the theoretical proportions. Thus, at the mills of Gueures 
and of Valernier, in operating in open boilers, at a temperature of 100 
deg., a ley of double the theoretic quantity left the plant badly dis- 
integrated, after twenty-four hours boiling. At Mont Saint Guibert, 
where rotary boilers are used, at a temperature of 140 and under a hand- 
pressure of four atmospheres, the plant was burnt and all its cohesion 
destroyed, in leys containing merely the theoretic quantity and even 
less, and after twenty, twelve, six hours of boiling. It therefore requires 
a very careful study, according to the apparatus, to retain in the alfa all 
its value as regards condition and solidity. Is the plant more or less 
green ? Is the pressure more or less high 1 Here are two considera- 
tions which will necessarily vary the quantity of caustic and the 
time of boiling. Again, are the operations carried on without pres- 
sure in coppers where the ley is unagitated? Or are they car- 
ried on with apparatus where the ley alternately rises and falls through 
the mass ? Further, there are modifications in the quantities of chemi- 
cals to be used which practice alone can teach, but which are essential to 
be known. 

We have hitherto supposed that the alfa simply cut i nto four or five 
parts is operated upon : this gives a good result ; but I ought to mention 
a very ingenious machine, which its inventor, M. Edmund Bertin, set 
at work for our experiments. In M. Bertin's machine, the alfa is placed 
lengthwise under a roller, which in rotating, draws it systematically 
between cylinders, where the stalk is crushed, firstly from end to end, 
without being torn. 

From these cylinders, the alfa passes between hinged tables, in which 
are combined two movements — the first movement causes the plant to 
advance lengthwise under the cylinders; the second movement, 
perpendicular to the other, twists the alfa leaf as it advances, and de- 
posits it in grooved receptacles, still without tearing it. The alfa thus 
bruised lengthwise and crosswise, is a mass of loose filament, admirably 
prepared for boiling and washing, without requiring pressure and large 
quantities of caustic agents. 

I believe that M. Bertin's machine will be generally used in esta- 
blishments for the preparation of textile plants. It economises the cost 
of re-agents, the time of boiling, and dispenses with the washing cylin- 
ders for crushing. For the manufacture of unbleached papers the 
method of crushing by vertical mill-stones, organised at Valvernier, 
gives results which no other perhaps, can attain ; dispatch, homogeneity 
of pulp, simplicity of operation and of working, no waste ; such are the 
advantages of this method. For white pulp, the question varies ; the 
mill at Valvernier does not produce fibre, it produces pulp which is taken 
direct to be finished, and which cannot be treated with steam or chlorine 
gas, for this will only pass through spongy and easily permeable masses. 
Without this condition, it either does not operate, or but partially. Con- 
sequently, for white pulp, recourse must be had to sharp-tackle in the rag 

VOL. IV. G 



bb ON THE APPLICATION OF ALFA OR ESPARTO 

engine to laminate the alia rather than to bruise it : well-formed fibre, a 
good reaction with chlorine gas, a perfect elimination of the red colour- 
ing matter, then a final chlorided and acidulated washing ; such are the 
practical means for the transformation of new fibrous plants into paper , 
pulp. 

Are these means sufficiently economical, so that paper, similar in 
quality, may not cost more, when made from alfa than from rags, taken 
at the average prices for the last five years ? Before giving in figures a 
reply on this point, I must be allowed to record my opinion on certain 
ideas that prevail with regard to textile plants. It is said, that alfa, diss, 
&c, instead of being sent to the manufacturer in the raw state, should be 
dealt with where collected, and made into pulp or half- stuff. The waste 
it is asserted, is thus got rid of, and the useful material alone forwarded, 
therefore we should turn our attention to the organisation of such works. 
Certain individuals, even hope to be able to reduce the price of paper, 
by making pulp in France from plants brought from Algeria or Spain, 
and supplying the paper -makers with this pulp. 

My experiments have convinced me that alfa is more bulky in pulp 
than in the fibrous state. We can compress, as is done by M. Ouzel, 800 
kilog. of the alfa plant into a cubic spare of lm. 44, the maritime ton. 
We can compress 500 to COO kilog. of pulp into the same volume, 
when in a humid state, until the mass is like a sheet of cardboard. But, 
if the pulp is humid, the water which it retains, will augment its weight 
at least in equal quantity, perhaps more, to the loss that the raw plant 
gives ; if the pulp is dry, it is unacceptable to the paper-maker, because 
it cannot be reconverted from the condition of cardboard to that of pulp, 
without special machinery and expensive manipulation. 

Allow this first objection to be ill founded, although it is seriously 
felt by certain eminent paper- makers, who have been willing to use pulp, 
prepared elsewhere than in their mills ; I may yet dare to affirm, and 
herein in perfect accord with many master manufacturers, that if on the 
one hand white pulp is used, such as is got from the washing engine, 
and allowed to flow direct into the beating engine, then into the vats, 
then on to the machine, and lastly in the state of dry paper ; the 
operation will be better and more economical than if, on the 
other hand, this same pulp as it comes from the washing engine, 
is allowed to flow into draining pans, then dried, either by pressure 
or otherwise, then suitably packed to protect it from damage, and 
lastly remade at a new mill. In the first case, the paper is finished, it 
is delivered into the warehouse ; in the second case, the pulp has got to 
the rag-store, nothing more. It must again be torn to pieces, and 
washed and, perhaps one-third or a quarter bleached, before it can be 
given over to the beaters. I therefore consider it a faulty proceeding, 
in principle, to separate a paper mill in two ; the general expenses and 
packing charges, interest on capital, transport and cartage cost are doubled, 
and we merely offer to the manufacturer an article that may possibly 



TO THE MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. G7 

be good, but which the paper-maker did not see prepared ; which he 
cannot conscientiously warrant, and which, costing more than the raw 
material, does not economise machinery or labour. Alfa is too high in 
price, at present, to allow of superfluous or faulty methods in its use. 

But if the idea of pulp mills is impracticable, it is not so as regards 
an establishment for cleansing the alfa, before compressing it. The alfa 
when yet green would by fermentation, yield its resin and a great part 
of its colouring matters. Its fibres softened, then dried, could be com- 
pressed with more ease, and the paper maker would find it more econo- 
mical to substitute cleansed alfa for the raw plant. But, in practice, in 
Algeria as in Spain, the scarcity of water in the vicinity of the alfa 
regions makes this a difficult proceeding. 

I will now examine, comparatively, the prices of alfa-paper, and of rag- 
paper ; in the first part of this essay, the plant delivered at the port of 
Havre, is shown to cost 14.38 frs. per 100 kilog. In another paragraph, 
the estimated loss, theoretically, from the raw plant to paper is 26.5 per 
cent. ; according to this calculation, 100 kilog. of alfa would yield 73^ 
of paper, and 136 kilog. of the plant 100 kilog. of paper. 136 kilog. of 
alfa at 14.38 frs. gives 19.55 frs. as the cost of the raw material at Havre. 

Now, rags at the price of 19.55 frs. are not of a superior quality ; 
old cordage, more or less tarred, is worth 24 to 28 frs. (at present 34 to 
35 francs). Bags at 19 frs., linen, wool, cotton of all colours, and mixed 
(whereas the waste on alfa has been considered in our calculation and 
does not exist) give a loss of 30 to 45 per cent., according to the degree 
of whiteness desired ; being on the average 37 per cent. Consequently 
100 kilog. of rag-paper will cost, in respect to raw material (136 kilog. at 
19.55 frs.), the sum of 26.78 frs. If we consider the actual conditions of 
manufacture for certain papers, we shall find that for news-paper the raw 
material is represented by the sum of 32 frs. as the minimum, up to 54 
frs. for certain sorts. Proceeding from theory to practice, and without 
being indiscreet as to the working of the mills where I have made im- 
portant experiments jointly with a skilful maker, we have seen that alfa, 
from the first, without modification of machinery, of re-agents, and of 
labour, advantageously contends with the raw materials habituaUy em- 
ployed in these mills, and even with straw for common wrapping-papers. 
But, in the cost of manufacture, alfa was taken in its raw state, waste 
not included, at the price of 14 frs. the 100 kilog. Consequently, 
practice has verified two things : the practical waste corresponds exactly 
with the theoretic waste, and the various manipulations of the alfa are 
not more costly than those of its rivals. 

In conclusion, the results have been in favour of alfa as regards the 
entire manufacture, and have led to a demand for extensive supplies. 

In the establishment of the price of 140 frs. per 1000 kilog. of alfa, 
delivered at the port of Havre, I have endeavoured to eliminate all 
erroneous expenses arising at the outset of a commercial operation. 
T Jntil now, in fact, the cost of 14 frs. has not been positively realized by 

G2 



68 ON THE APPLICATION OF ALFA OR ESPARTO 

a merchant, although he made the undertaking with his own money, 
and managed all himself. 

M. Cruzel, who remained in Algiers after the completion of my re- 
searches, in which he participated, supported and assisted with the 
greatest activity by the civil and military administrations, for furthering 
our common work, has made and continues to make under his own inspec- 
tion, and without intermediate agents, the first shipments intended to 
encourage the French paper-makers to adopt the use of alfa. The 
various estimates of management have been verified by each department. 
And not to tempt the trade with the show of illusory profits, the 
price of 140 frs. must be taken as the extreme limit in a regular and 
economical undertaking : moreover the freight of 45 frs. per 1000 
kilog. must be retained. In conclusion, it is established that Algeria 
can supply to the French paper-trade a raw material which the inter- 
national customs modifications, necessitated by progress, has made 
necessary. It is a fact that the use of alfa enables the paper-trade 
to keep pace with the progressive decline in the price of any object of 
urgent necessity, without compromising the economy of its constitution. 

Moreover the organised collection of alfa in Algeria offers employ- 
ment to a large number of natives. 

The alfa-trade can, on the one hand, be made such that the welfare 
of the districts and of the inhabitants of the alfa provinces can be pro- 
moted, and on the other hand, the wants of a trade which fears for its 
supplies met, while lastly, commercial operations in the Algerian ports, 
will ere long be largly benefitted. 

[We append to the foregoing article some extracts from a paper on 
" Esparto Grass," which we contributed to the " Paper Trade Eeview," 
for July, which furnish some additional practical information.] — Editor. 
Mr. T. Routledge has been manufacturing paper from esparto exclu- 
sively, at his mills near Oxford, for upwards of five years. On the 28th 
November, 1856, a number of the weekly Journal of the " Society of 
Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce " of London, which contained a lec- 
ture by Dr. Forbes Royle " on Indian Fibres fit for Paper-making, &c." 
was printed on esparto paper made by Mr. Routledge at Eynsham. That 
gentleman has now other mills at Ford, near Sunderland, where he is 
making newspapers and also half stuff, both from esparto, for sale to the 
trade. 

In the Jury Report on Paper, &c, shown at the last Exhibition, we 
find the following remarks on esparto paper : — 

" Mr. Routledge represents that the cost of production, either in the 
condition of half stuff or paper, is below that of rags to produce a simi- 
lar quality of paper, and the power required for reduction much less. 
Jixdgiug from the specimens of paper exhibited by Mr. Routledge, manu- 
factured by him at his mills at Eynsham in Oxford, exclusively from 
esparto as well as from the other specimens of paper manufactured at 
various other mills employing his process, in which esparto is used aB a 



TO THE MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. 69 

blend with the ordinary rag material, the results are very satisfactory, 
demonstrating that a new material has at length been brought into use, 
meeting this long-desired requirement both as regards quality and 
economy. 

" One satisfactory feature in Mr. Routledge's process is the fact that no 
material alterations in existing machinery or appliances are required ; 
no higher pressure boiling in expensive vessels is necessitated ; the silica, 
always more or less combined with a coating of raw fibres, is got rid of 
and the gummo-resinous matter neutralised, permitting the fibres to be 
eliminated and drawn out by the ordinary pulping engine as now prac- 
tised with rags. The assurance of a successful result appears to be de- 
pendent on the proper adjustments of the proportions of the chemicals 
employed : this secured, and the process is extremely simple ; the issue 
appears to be reliable, and, what is of no little importance, invariable 
and constant. The fibres produced from esparto are specifically lighter 
than those from any other paper-making material in use ; their mechani- 
cal structure, moreover, admits of minute sub- division without destroy- 
ing the feathery or mossy arrangement which facilitates the intimate 
feeding or blending of the ultimate fibres on the endless wire of the 
Fourdrinier machine ; then esparto paper, in consequence of this pecu- 
liarity, feels thicker in the hand, and takes a finer surface than that made 
from cotton rags, and in proportion to the blend or admixture with 
other rag or paper-makiDg material, imparts these advantageous charac- 
teiistics. It is to be remarked, however, that its introduction generally 
into the trade, being only, comparatively speaking, of recent date, it 
has not yet arrived at full development, its employment being hitherto 
limited to common and ordinary printing papers and cartridges, and in 
the unbleached state, to brown and cap papers." 

Looking at the scarcity of paper-making material from the cessation 
of cotton imports, it is fortunate esparto came to the assistance of the 
trade, in which it has now taken a permanent position, although, like 
all innovations, both it and the introducer were much sneered at, at the 
outset. It may safely be said that the most of the common printing and 
newspapers in this country, not excepting the ' Times, 1 have a blend of 
esparto introduced into their manufacture. 

At the commencement of last year esparto fibre was selling at 51. the 
ton, but the price fell, owing to the reduction in the price of rags, and 
to the general stagnation of trade caused by the American war. Re- 
cently, however, a fresh impetus has been given to the market, and it is 
now selling at Newcastle-on-Tyne at Gl. the ton, and the imports last 
year were about 18,000 tons. This importation is equal to the manu- 
facture of about 9,000 tons of printing or white papers, but as much 
esparto is used for brown and other unbleached papers, where the loss 
in the chemical treatment is not so great, 1 1 ,000 tons will be nearer the 
mark. 



70 



ON THE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF ILEX EMPLOYED IN THE 

PREPARATION OF THE ' YERBA DE MATE,' OR 

PARAGUAY TEA * 

BY JOHN MIERS, F.R.S., F.L.S. &C. 

Notwithstanding the seemingly authoritative evidence we have on 
record concerning it, I have entertained a doubt for many years past in 
regard to the plant which produces the celebrated Paraguay Tea, the 
favourite beverage of the Spanish South Americans. I will here detail 
the results of my investigations into this subject, and will preface the 
inquiry by a short history of the events wbich had great influence on 
the production and trade of this article of commerce ; these events are 
the more interesting as they are in some degree connected with the bio- 
graphy of the celebrated botanist Bonpland, to whom I am indebted for 
the knowledge of the true plants which produce the Yerba. 

In the settlements of the Indians in Paraguay and along the borders 
of the River Paran£, under the dominion of the Spanish government, 
administered as they were at that period by the Jesuits, the preparation 
of the Yerba constituted the principal branch of industry of the coun- 
try. The plant from which the Mat6 is prepared was first mentioned 
by Azara, as growing wild in many parts of Paraguay. It is found in 
great abundance in all the moist valleys of the ramifications that branch 
from the main chain of mountains called Maracaju, which, rising in that 
part of Paraguay bordering upon Matto Grosso, in lat. 19° S., and 
tending S. E., divides the northern half of the country into two distinct 
watersheds — the rivers flowing westward running into the river Para- 
guay, and those eastward into the Parand. This chain, after a length of 
150 miles, suddenly takes a more easterly course, and is soon cut through 
by the latter river at a place called Sete Quedas, (seven cataracts or 
large rapids,) in lat. 24° S. ; it then crosses into the Brazilian province 
of San Paolo, through which it runs nearly due east for 300 miles, as far 
as Curitiba, where it becomes blended with the main chain of the Serra 
do Mar, that skirts the coasts of the southern provinces of Brazil. The 
Yerba-tree is found more or less abundantly in all the valleys that branch 
out of this extensive range of mountains, but principally, as before men- 
tioned, in the northern portion of Paraguay. Wilcocke, in his ' History 
of Buenos Ayres,' mentions three kinds of Yerba known in commerce — 
" the Cadcuy, Cadmini, and Cadguazd :" the first is there said to be pre- 
pared from the young leaves recently expanded from the buds ; the 
second is from the full-grown leaves, carefully picked and separated 
from the twigs ; and the third from the older leaves, carelessly broken 
up with the young branchlets : all being half-roasted by a crude process. 
But I have always been of opinion that these several qualities were pre- 

* From the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History.' 



ON THE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF ILEX, ETC. 71 

pared from different species of Ilex. The Guarani general term, Cad, 
signifies a leaf or branch ; and in the Missions, the names of Cad-riri 
and Cad-Una or Caima are given to the different kinds of Ilex. The 
prepared leaves have always borne the name of Yerba among the 
Spaniards, its infusion being made in a peculiar kind of cup called a 
MatS. In the Portugese Missions the Yerba is called Caima, and in 
most of the Brazilian provinces it is known by the name of Congonlia, 
pronounced Congonia. 

Under the Spanish government, the principal harvests of Yerba 
were made in the valleys bordering upon the river Ypane, a tributary of 
the Eio Paraguay, — the produce there collected being conveyed to the 
town of Villareal, at its mouthy in lat. 23° 30' S., and thence trans- 
ported down the Eiver Paraguay, in large pontoons, to the metropolitan 
town Assuncion. Although the largest harvests were obtained in Para- 
guay, considerable quantities in addition were raised in the various set- 
tlements of Indians founded by the Jesuits beyond its limits. These 
were called Missions, and were thirty in number, twenty-three being 
situated between the rivers Parana and Uruguay, and seven on the left 
bank of the latter river, in the province of Entrerios. These, as well as 
all the extensive settlements in Paraguay proper, were at their greatest 
prosperity at the period of the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1768 ; but, 
owing to the defective management of the Indians under the subsequent 
rule of the Spanish authorities, the commerce in Yerba languished 
considerably. In 1810 the quantity raised was supposed to amount to 
five millions of pounds ; but Mr. Robertson states that in 1812 (two 
years after Paraguay became independent) the exports of Yerba still 
amounted to eight millions of pounds, or 3,750 tons, from the port of 
Assuncion alone, at which period, too, its cultivation in the Missions had 
become almost annihilated. In all these Missions, during the devastat- 
ing wars then raging throughout the Argentine provinces, the Indian 
settlers were robbed of all their cattle and horses, their farms were 
destroyed, the men forced to become soldiers, and otherwise were so op- 
pressed, that the greater number sought a refuge in Paraguay. 
* * * * 

At this period, Paraguay was governed by the renowned Dictator, 
Doctor Francia. 

Under the Spanish rule, the Paraguayans had cultivated besides the 
Yerba, little beyond a fine kind of tobacco (considered equal to that of 
Havana, and much appreciated in Chile and Peru), and also some sugar 
and yucca (yams). They were soon induced by Francia to extend their 
agricultural pursuits, to cultivate rice, maize, and other vegetables, on a 
large scale, and to raise a sufficient quantity of yucca to satisfy the 
general consumption. Other vegetable products, hitherto scarcely 
known in the country, soon covered the plains : cotton, formerly pro- 
cured from Corrientes, was now cultivated to some extent ; more atten- 
tion was paid to the rearing of cattle and horses, instead of importing 
them from Entrerios, so that in a few years they were able to export a 



72 ON THE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF ILEX, ETC. 

considerable surplus above their own requirements ; and they now made 
cotton cloths for their garments, in lieu of the woollon ponchos obtained 
from Cordova. The Dictator for many years was assiduous in his en- 
deavours to establish permanently this system of industry, which neces- 
sarily supplanted in great measure the trade in Yerba ; he even em- 
ployed coercive measures in order to carry it into effect ; and in 1829 
he decreed that the possessor of every house or farm should sow a certain 
quantity of maize, upon the product of which every one was bound to 
contribute 4 per cent, to the state, no excuse being allowed ; and those 
who sought to evade this obligation became subject to heavy penalties. 

To a policy of restraint, which in a more advanced state of society 
would not have been tolerated, it was certainly one well calculated, in 
the actual state of Paraguay, to attain the objects he had so much at 
heart, and in which he gradually succeeded. The good results of these 
wise measures are well attested by the prosperous advancement of the 
country up to the present time. His success naturally raised up against 
him a host of irreconcileable enemies in all the Argentine Provinces, 
who strove to blacken his character and vilify his conduct. All these 
Provinces, suffering under the extinction of the trade in Yerba, were 
leagued against the policy of Francia ; but their attention being too 
much occupied in their constant internecine wars, they had little time 
or force to spare in the attempt to revolutionize Paraguay. At length, 
however, the Governor-in-chief of Entrerios, having made peace with 
the other provinces, turned his attention to that object, and endeavoured 
at the same time to establish settlements at the former Jesuit Missions 
(then almost depopulated), with the view of cultivating the trade in 
Yerba. And we now come to a knowledge of the state of affairs that 
existed when the celebrated Bonpland visited the River Plate, and how 
the subsequent phases of his life became connected with the history of 
the trade in Yerba. 

The fall of the Emperor Napoleon and the re-establishment of the 
Bourbon dynasty in France were events most galling to Bonpland, and 
he resolved to seek an abode in one of the republican States of South 
America. Accordingly he reached Buenos Ayres in 1817, with a nominal 
appointment of Professor of Natural History in that capital. In 1819, 
Bonpland established himself near Candelaria, one of the old Jesuit 
Missions on the left bank of the Parana, contiguous to Paraguay, where 
he formed a considerable establishment, chiefly, as I understood, with a 
view to the production of and trade in Yerba, under the special auspices 
and protection of the Governor-General Artigas, who, as I have before 
mentioned, intended ultimately to carry out his designs against Para- 
guay. * * * * 

From his long residence in the country, and his great experience in 
all that relates to the preparation of Yerba, no one had better oppor- 
tunities than Bonpland to identify the real species from which that arti- 
cle of consumption is manufactured. 

The system of the merchants in their agreement with the ' habilita- 



ON THE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF ILEX, ETC. 73 

dores ' who undertake the quest of Yerba in the distant forests of Para- 
guay, the manner of hiring the Indian labourers for this work, the 
preparations for feeding them during their long bivouac, the mode of 
collecting and drying the branches, roasting and separating the leaves, 
pounding them, and packing the Yerba, thus prepared, in hide bags, are 
well described in Mr. Lambert's memoir on the Ilex Paraguay ensis, and 
in Mr. Robertson's ' Letters from Paraguay,' and Fiancia's ' Reign of Ter- 
ror.' The same rude methods were employed in all the Spanish Mis- 
sions, and also in the Brazilian settlements, up to a very recent period ; 
but of late years more improved processes, upon a much larger scale, 
have been brought into use about Curitiba ; but in the province of Rio 
Grande the old system is still continued. At Curitiba, I am told, the 
leaves are now roasted more equally, in cast-iron pans set in brickwork, 
much after the manner in which tea is prepared in China, except that 
the pans are much larger. When the leaves are sufficiently dried, they 
are pounded in stamping-mills worked by water-power or steam-engines, 
and packed in bags by means of presses. The quality of the Yerba has 
thus been much improved. 

We owe to St. -Hilaire the first outline of the botanical features of 
the tree, growing about Curitiba, that yields the Yerba ; it was only a 
short diagnosis, published in 1822, when he ascertained it to be a 
species of Ilex, which he considered identical with the Paraguay plant, 
and which was named inaccurately, through a typographical error, Ilex 
Paraguariensis, a name he afterwards abandoned in 1824 for that of 
Ilex Mate, he, however, resumed the former name in 1833. In the 
meanwhile, Mr. Lambert, in 1824, gave a much fuller description of 
the plant, accompanied by a good drawing made from specimens sent 
from Buenos Ayres, and probably obtained from one of the Spanish 
Missions : he called it Ilex Paraguensis. 

I had always been impressed with the conviction that the different 
qualities of Yerba brought to market were prepared from different 
species of Ilex; and hence the doubt occurred to me whether the plant 
described by St. Hilaire from Curitiba be really identical with the true 
Paraguayan type. The grounds for this surmise were founded upon the 
dissimilar colour of the two Yerbas, the difference in their flavour, and 
the higher price always obtained for the Yerba de Paraguay compared 
with the Yerba de Paranagua. The short diagnosis of St.-Hilaire an- 
swered equally to several species that I had seen. Sir William Hooker, 
in 1842 (Lond. Journ. Bot. i. 30), gave a very interesting account of the 
Yerba, describing also the mate or cup, formed out of a small calabash 
(cuy), in which the infusion is prepared, and out of which it is drawn 
into the mouth through a homUlla ; he added the characters of the dif- 
ferent varieties, which he considered identical with the Ilex Para- 
guayensis, and of these he gave two excellent figures with analyses. This 
memoir, instead ef solving my doubts, only rendered the question still 
more enigmatical ; for in it is classed, as a mere variety, a plant which 



74 ON THE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF ILEX, ETC. 

I brought from Rio de Janeiro, which I found growing in the Botanic 
Gardens there, and which I was assured by the Eev. Frey Leandro, at 
that time Director of those Gardens, was the " Arbol do Mate," or 
" Paraguay Tea-tree." This plant, which is well figured in Sir William 
Hooker's memoir appeared to me quite a distinct species, marked by 
very peculiar characters. 

Anxious to remove this doubt, I applied to my friend Senr. Consel- 
heiro Candido Baptista d'Oliveira, soon after I learned of his appoint- 
ment as Director of the Botanic Garden, and begged of him to ascertain 
whether that plant was really identical with the tree which yields the 
true Yerba de Paraguay, as T had been assured twenty years before, or a 
different species, and to send me, if possible, authentic specimens of both. 
He most obligingly forwarded me a fresh specimen of the tree still grow- 
ing in Rio de Janeiro, and at the same time transmitted my application 
to M. Bonpland, as the most competent authority on the subject, who, 
however, did not quite comprehend the object of my inquiry. This 
renowned botanist most kindly responded, and sent six different 
species with their varieties, all collected in the Missions, and all alike 
used in the preparation of Yerba. This at once confirmed my suspicion 
that more than one species of Ilex is employed for that purpose ; and 
as this fact is of some importance in the history of the subject, I will 
copy here verbatim the note of M. Bonpland which accompanied his 
specimens. 

" No. 596. Herbe du Paraguay — Mate — Ilex thecezans, Bonpland — 
Ilex Paraguay ensis, St.-Hilaire. Se trouve dans le Para- 
guay, le Bresil, et Entre Rios. 
" No. 2425. Cauna des Bresiliens — Ilex ovalifolla, Bonpl., nouv. 
espece. Se trouve dans le Faxinal, au sortir de la Picada 
de S a Cruz, a 4 lieues du Rio Pardo. 
" No. 2333. Cauna des Bresiliens — Caachiriri ou Caachiri des 
Guaranis — Ilex amara, Bonpl., n. esp. Se trouve dans 
les montagnes de S a Cruz et dans les forets du Parana. 
" No. 2332. Cauna des Bresiliens — Caachiriri des Guaranis — Ilex 
crepitans, Bonpl., n. esp. Se trouve dans les bois de 
Guaj r araca dans le cceur de S a Cruz et sur les bords du 
Parana. 
" No. 2330. Cauna defolha larga des Bresiliens. 
" No. 2374. Cauna amarga des Bresiliens. 

" No. 2479. Cauna des Guaranis — Ilex gigantea, Bonpl., n. esp. Se 
e trouve dans les bois de Sa Cruz et sur les bords du 
Parana. 
"No. 2471. Cauuina des Bresiliens — Ilex Humboldtiana, Bonpl., n. 
esp. Se trouve dans le Picada de S a Cruz qui conduit a 
Rio Pardo, Prov. Rio Grande, Bresil. 
" Toutes ces especes d'llex sont employees a faire l'herbe Mate. Les 
nos. d'ordre correspondent a mon journal botanique. 

" Corrienti'S., 17 Juin, 1857." " Aime Bonpland." 



ON THE DIFFERENT SPECIES OF ILEX, ETC. 75 

When iu Paris a few years ago, I endeavoured to ascertain whether 
any of these specimens agreed with St.-Hilaire's typical plant ; but the 
latter, unfortunately, had been mislaid or lost in the removal of the col- 
lections exhibited in the great " Exposition " of 1855. St.-Hilaire states 
that he had compared his plant from Curitiba with specimens from 
Paraguay, and found them specifically identical ; this conclusion does 
not correspond with the specimens before me. 

I have since obtained from Curitiba a specimen of the plant there 
used in the preparation of the Herva de Parangua\ On comparing it with 
the true Ilex Paraguayensis sent by Bonpland, I find the two sufficiently 
distinct : this fact is of interest, as it accounts at once for the difference 
in the quality of the tea respectively prepared from these two plants. 

Hitherto, I have spoken only of the Yerba produced from these two 
species. Bonpland, however, states positively that the other species, of 
which he sent specimens, are also employed in the preparation of the 
Yerba of commerce. This fact has lately been confirmed by the assur- 
ance I have received from a Brazilian gentleman from Porto Alegre, 
who trades extensively in this commodity : his information is very in- 
teresting, both as regards the difference in the quality of these products, 
and the districts in which the trees are found ; and from his knowledge 
of this matter and his long experience, his account may be fully de- 
pended on. The other species grow principally in the districts that 
stretch far to the eastward and southward of the long mountain range 
which extends from the " Serra Geral " of Curitiba, in lat. 26° S., to lat. 
32? S., where it is shown in the maps as the " Serra do Herval," so called 
from the abundance of its Mate trees. The summits of this wide-spread 
mountain range are very broad, forming numerous table-lands which 
afford excellent pasturage for cattle. The Mate trees are never found on 
these table-lands, nor in the broad plains that skirt the river beds ; they 
grow invariably on the inclined hill-sides in the numerous gorges inter- 
secting the country, which in most cases are densely wooded ; and it is 
in these woods that the different species of Ilex abound. In some places 
the Mate trees attain a considerable size, often exceeding 100 feet in 
height. These larger trees grow especially on the declivities of the 
western side of the same mountain-range, where all the streams flow 
into the river Uruguay. The Yerba here produced is of an excellent 
quality, that called by the Brazilians " Herva de Palmeira " is renowned 
as being equal to the best Paraguay tea. 

It is in this region that seven of the far-famed Missions established 
by the Jesuits are situated, where the Mate is extensively collected. 
Upon the eastern declivities, along the tributaries of the rivers Pardo 
and Jacuhy, are the ' Hervales ' of Faxinal, Santa Cruz, and Guayaraga, 
to which Bonpland's specimens refer. Here also is that of Butacarahy, 
equally renowned, where the Ilex gigantea of Bonpland abounds, and 
where it attains a height of 70 feet : the other four kinds, with smaller 
and more lanceolate, punctate leaves, rarely here exceed the height of 



76 SUBSTITUTES FOR WAX. 

30 or 40 feet. The latter are more irregularly branched, with a more 
straggling growth, and they produce the sort called by the Brazilians 
Herva brava (wild Mate), while the larger-leaved species, such as the 
Ilex (jigantea, yield a kind of tea called Herva mansa (mild Mate) ; such 
trees have straighter trunks, with more regular and rounded heads. The 
former sorts have a more bitter and stronger flavour, and want the 
peculiar and more agreeable aroma of the Paraguay type. AVhen, how- 
ever, the Herva brava is mixed with the Herva mansa in the proportion 
of 1 in 3 or 1 in 4, it produces a kind of Mate which is hardly dis- 
tinguishable from the genuine Paraguay Yerba ; and it thus forms a 
considerable object of commerce. 

Still further to the southward of the Serra do Herval, in the moun- 
tain districts of the Taypes or Canguassu, some species of Ilex abound 
which are said to produce a tea as valuable as the best sorts of Herva 
de Palmeira, or even vying with the Paraguay tea, being equal to them 
in fragrance, flavour, and strength. This fact is worthy of notice when 
we take into consideration the great difference in the latitude of these 
districts. The quality of the tea of all these various kinds depends 
greatly on the time of year in which the leaves are gathered, the best 
season for the harvest being well known to the natives. 

Dr. Reisseck has lately published, in Martius's ' Flora Brasiliensis,' 
a Monograph of the Brazilian species of Ilex. He evidently had not 
Been any specimen of the true Ilex Paraguay ensis ; for his diagnosis 
under that name refers to some of the smaller, more lanceolate, and 
punctate-leaved species of the genus, and certainly not to the celebrated 
true Paraguayan plant. 



SUBSTITUTES FOR WAX. * 

BY BARNARD S. PROCTOR. 



Some months ago, I published a short article drawing attention to 
the adulteration of white wax : t the present paper follows as a natural 
sequel to the former, and is designed to indicate the relative merits of 
various substances which may be considered suitable for replacing wax 
in one or other of its uses. With regard to the fitness or otherwise of 
any of these substitutes to take the place of wax for medicinal purposes, 
I shall say nothing, such a substitution being both unnecessary and 
illegitimate. It is also unnecessary to say anything with regard to their 
fitness for making candles, &c, that being unimportant to the chemist 

* From the ' Chemist and Druggist.' 
t See Technologist, vol. iii. p. 332. 



SUBSTITUTES FOR WAX. 



77 



and druggist. But for perfumery purposes, for the polishing of furni- 
ture, and the " waxing " of thread, substitutes may with advantage be 
looked for ; and the fitness for any of these purposes will indicate pretty 
well the fitness of the material in hand for other special purposes, which 
it would add too much to the length of the present paper to notice in 
full. I have also indicated the prices (quoted a few months ago, and, 
of course, subject to variation), and the melting point. 

Spermaceti is too well known to call for any remark : stearine and 
paraffin greatly resemble it when pure, but the former is subject to a 
greasy, rancid odour, and the latter to the odour of coal tar ; they are 
both more crumbly than spermaceti, the paraffin especially, being readily 
rubbed to powder, and both are purely white. China and Japan wax 
greatly resemble good block white wax in their general appearance, but 
are liable to become coated with a fine white efflorescence resembling 
the bloom upon many kinds of fruit ; they have a toughness somewhat 
inferior to wax, and when a knife is forced into them, they break with 
a crackling sound ; they are both almost destitute of odour, and what 
they have is not objectionable : of the two, the Chinese wax most nearly 
resembles the product of the bee. 

Carnauba wax, on the other hand, differs greatly from all the others. 
It is hard, brittle, and darker coloured than the others ; in physical 
properties it seems to hold a position between white wax and sulphur ; 
it takes a fine polish when rubbed with any soft material ; and it is so 
hard as not to take finger-marks with the heat of the hand : it is suitable 
for furniture polishes, either alone or mixed with Japan wax or beeswax. 

Table op Wax Substitutes, Showing their Comparative Merits 
and Prices. 



For thread. 



Furniture. 



& 


£ 


a 


n 


<5 






to 
3 




deg. 


Good 


145 


Good 




Good 




Good 




Good 


112 


Good 


144 


Good 


115 


Good 


118 


Bad 


192 


Bad 


131 



Price. 



Genuine Block White Wax 
White Cake Wax (adult.) 
Jamaica Yellow Wax . . 

English ditto 

Spermaceti 

Stearine 

Tree Wax, Japan .... 
Insect Wax, China .... 
Carnauba Wax .... 
Paraffin 



Good 
Medium 

Good 

Good 

Bad 

Bad 
Med. Good 
Med. Good 

Bad 
Med. Bad 



Good 
Medium 

Good 

Good 

Bad 

Bad 
Medium 
Medium 

Good 

Bad 



s. d. 
2 10 
2 4 

1 10 

2 1 
1 5 

1 4 
10 

2 8 

10 

1 5 



The quality of some of these materials is subject to considerable 
variation : thus, paraffin may be obtained quite free from odour ; and if 
so, might possibly be used without disadvantage in the preparation of 



78 ON ALGERIAN PRODUCTS. 

cold cream or pomades. It is probable that there are other variations 
besides odour and colour, judging from the melting points. Miller 
quotes the melting point of paraffin at 110 deg. : I found it melt at 
133 deg., and congeal at 103 deg., China wax he states to melt at 182 cleg. : 
I found it melt at 133 deg., and congeal at 103 deg. Japan wax I found 
melt at 128 deg., and congeal at 102 deg. ; the melting point quoted in 
the table being the mean of the two observations. 

The melting point of stearine is liable to vary from very slight 
causes (see Miller's Chemistry) ; but so great a discrepancy as indicated 
above for China wax must surely be the result of a difference in the 
nature of the sample. The price quoted for Japan wax seems much 
below what its good properties would seem to justify. The qualities 
would probably become more uniform, and the prices would find a 
more reasonable level, if more extensive trial were made of these 
materials for the various purposes for which wax is at present used.' 

11, Grey-street, Newcastle-cm-Tyne. 



ALGERIAN PRODUCTS. 

BY PAUL MADINIER. 
(Late Editor of the 'Annales d' Agriculture des Colonies.') 

In commencing this communication, I have to thank you for the 
translation of mj article on the Plantain, which you published in the 
Technologist for October last (vol. iii. p. 112). 

Since my arrival in Algeria, 1 have pursued my researches on that 
plant with the view of making a monograph of it ; but the more I look 
into the matter, the more difficulties I find. 

The description of the species of Musa by botanical authors is very 
fallacious — what is defined as a species is often but a variety. Indeed, 
the whole subject is what we call in French " la bouteille a l'encre," so 
difficult is it to throw light on it. It is the'same, however, with several 
other cultivated plants of tropical countries, such as the sugar-cane, 
cotton, rice, sorgho, &c. 

With regard to the plantain, I must admit from my own experience 
that the great number of varieties, and the absence of well-defined 
characters among them, makes their proper classification a most trouble- 
some labour, to which it would be necessary to devote several years 
in visits to the different regions of their growth. 

I append hereto some remarks on a South African tree, from which 
I have obtained a colouring gum, and of this I send you a small sample. 

While I remain in Algeria I am at your service, should you wish for 



ON ALGERIAN PRODUCTS. 79 

any detailed information on its productions. You are "probably aware 
that the tonnage duty on foreign ships in Algerian ports is now reduced, 
and is levied only on the number of tons loaded in the colony. This 
reform, I hope, will increase the commercial intercourse between Algeria 
and Great Britain. The latter needs principally raw materials, which 
are abundant products of Algeria. She can supply you with cereals, 
wheat, oils, fibres, mineral ores, &c, and will take in exchange 
cotton cloths, fuel, iron, materials for building, machinery, &c. The 
relations of the two countries are already advantageous. The English 
who come to make Algeria their winter quarters are each year more 
numerous, and it is said that in a short time the Peninsular and Oriental 
Company's steamers will touch at Algiers. 

Looking at the profitable business connections which can be esta- 
blished, I think that it is the office of a journal like yours to accpiaint 
the British trader with the raw materials of Algeria. If you will under- 
take that duty, I will esteem it a pleasure to furnish you with full par* 
ticulars, and all necessary documents and information. 

I think that some information on the Lawsonia inermis, of which the 
leaves, dried and bruised, constitute the cosmetic dye so universally used 
by the women from the East, would be acceptable to you. The henna 
is a very interesting product, which will be in great request when better 
known ; I will send you shortly a communication on this plant, its cul- 
tivation and uses. I have seen mentioned in the quarto Indian cata- 
logue for the London Exhibition of 1862, by Mr. Dowleans, p. 45, that an 
essential oil has been obtained from the petals of Lawsonia inermis. Now 
the flowers of this plant are without smell, and it appears to me that the 
essential " oil of Mehudee " is rather the produce of some other species, 
such as Lawsonia spinosa, L. alba, or others, &c. If you have any infor- 
mation on this point, I should be obliged if you would inform me of it. 

Gum from the Schottia latifolia, Jacq. — I have had occasion to 
examine lately, in the Garden of Acclimatization of Algiers, a small tree 
from the Cape of Good Hope, the usefulness of which has not yet been 
pointed out, as far as I know, and to which I think it right to draw the 
attention of scientific men, who will be better able than I to decide what 
it may be applied to. I allude to the Schottia latifolia, Jacq., of the 
family of the Cisalpina. It is a tortuous tree, with thick branches, and 
the specimen of it in the Garden of Acclimatization of Hamma is nearly 
twelve feet high. The leaves are persistent, pennate, with four folioles, 
small, oval, rounded, terminating with a short point, of a pale green at 
the nervures, almost blueish in the young shoots, becoming dark green 
with age. The flowers, disposed in bunches, are of a pretty, ornamental 
aspect, and diffuse a fragrance of "vanilla, which attracts the visits of 
bees and other insects. They bear four sepales, green, convex, and un- 
equal, and four to five white petals, unguiculate. The stamens, as in all 
the plants of this group, are ten in mvmber, three of which are larger 
than the others. Their filaments are only joined at the base, and in the 



ttU ON ALGERIAN PRODUCTS. 

part where tliey are free are of a bright scarlet colour. The style is fili- 
form, ascending, and terminated by a single stigma. The fruit is a 
pod, with wrinkled skin, three to four inches long, and one to one and a 
quarter in width, containing two or three albuminous seeds, as large as a 
harico bean, and of a light brown colour. These seeds possess a 
remarkable peculiarity. The funiculum which connects them with the 
pod, and through which passes the nutritive juices which serve to develop 
them, attains a considerable growth, and forms a prismatic arils with 
rounded angles, fixed by its point to the pod, and on the base of which 
is attached the seed, by means of the radicle. These funicular arils are 
of a light yellow colour, and of a pietty firm consistency, when the pod 
has just been plucked, and has not gone much beyond the point of 
maturity, but they soon become soft when placed in a heap. The 
largest do not weigh quite one gramme (6 to 9/10). 

Some time ago, Mr. Hardy, Director of the Garden of Acclimatiza- 
tion of Hamma, gave me, as a subject for study, a handful of those 
arils proceeding from the last pods gathered from the tree contained 
in the garden. I brought them home and placed them in a large glass, 
intending to examine them on the following day ; but the following day 
being a Sunday I for got my arils, and when on the Monday I went to 
examine them, the mass had begun to ferment, and gave a very acid 
reaction on test-paper ; the surface was completely covered with mildew, 
which I removed, and found at the bottom a liquid portion, which I 
separated. This liquid, exposed to the sun, gave me a gummy substance, 
of a greenish yellow hue, which retained a soft consistency even after a 
long insulation, and which had the characteristics of similar bodies 
(gums and dextrines) — viz., soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol and 
ether, and precipitated by acetate of lead. Under the influence of 
alkalies, a solution of this substance acquires a fine yellow colour, which 
possesses all the brilliancy of gamboge ; acids discolour it completely. 

The quantity of gum at my disposal was too small to enable me to 
undertake more complete researches. I confined myself to this preli- 
minary examination, with the intention of continuing it when the tree 
in the Garden of Hamma shall yield a fresh crop of pods. 

The proportions of gummy matter contained in these arils must be 
very large, if I may judge by the quantity obtained from the few arils 
which had been given to me. Whether this substance can be utilized 
or not as a gum, or as a colouring substance, it appears at all events to 
me to constitute an interesting product. If I may judge by the abund- 
ance of flowers, one tree alone may supply a considerable quantity of 
gum, and it is so easily extracted that it could be obtained at a cheap 
rate. It would be sufficient to gather the pods, separate the arils, heap 
them together for a day or two, in order to soften them, and then to 
press them. The liquid thus obtained could be solidified by the action 
of the sun. The seeds could also be saved, for it is to be presumed some 
use could be found for them, if only, at first sight, to extract meal from 



RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE HOSIERY MANUFACTURE. 81 

them. I am not aware whether they possess any alimentary value, 
either for men or cattle, not having had a sufficient number to experi- 
mentalize upon. Lastly, if, according to the vulgar idea, all that smells 
strong is good in medicine, the odour, sui generis, of the Schottia latifolia 
gum might indicate some therapeutical properties. 

These are the points which I should like to see investigated by the 
scientific men who reside in the Cape Colony. P. M. 

11 Impasse Darfour, Alger. 



RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE HOSIERY MANUFACTURE. 

BY WILLIAM FELK.IN. 

It is not possible to fix the epoch of the invention of the art of 
weaving, or of the first use of a weaving-loom. But there can be little 
doubt that in the ages immediately following the flood, the employment 
of rushes and twigs in weaving articles for domestic use, by plaiting or 
otherwise wattling them, and of twine or threads spun from hair, wool, 
fibres of trees, flax, cotton, silk, and other suitable materials, by netting 
or looping them, had become general. By these kinds of rudimentary 
weaving, fringes, fishing-nets, girdles, and other useful or ornamental 
articles, were obtained. The use of these materials by handicraft skill 
led, at a very early period, to the construction of a rude apparatus for 
weaving cloth, by extending threads longitudinally as warp, probably 
from one branch of a tree to a neighbouring one, and passing a woof 
thread across them, over one or more and under one or more of the 
adjoining threads, till all had been thus traversed ; and then the 
warp threads, having been altered as to their position by raising 
some and lowering the others, the woof-thread was repassed through 
them back again, and so on till the warp was entirely filled up. 
In Chinese and Indian annals, as also in the Bible, the loom, or one or 
more of its important parts, as the beam, the shuttle, &c, are mentioned ; 
and there is reason to believe that the Tabernacle veil of the Jews, the 
priests' vestments, as also the mummy cerements of the Egyptians, 
were wrought in looms of a construction very similar to those now in 
use. Babylon and Damascus were seats of these manufactures of cloth ; 
the latter continues so to this day. Some are, however, of opinion that 
a looped fabric was then known. In weaving, or rather knitting hosiery, 
by hooks or long skewers of wood or iron, it is supposed we have the 
ancient practice perpetuated whereby Joseph's " coat of many colours," 
and the "garment woven without seam," taken from the person of 
Christ, were wrought. In this operation one continuous thread only is 
used, of which successive loops or stitches are formed, and the loops of 

VOL. IV. H 



82 RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE HOSIERY MANUFACTURE. 

each round or row are drawn in turn through those of the preceding row. 
Though it has neither warp nor weft, and can scarcely be called cloth, 
except it be felted, yet this tissue is superior to any other for many pur- 
poses from its elasticity and closely fitting the holy in wear. The art 
x>f knitting hosiery continued to be practised by hand only, and mainly 
as a domestic employment, working up thread spun from the long wool 
of sheep or goats until the sixteenth century of the Christian era. Its 
highest attainment was to furnish, at high prices, a few silk- knitted hose 
for our Henry VIII. and his daughters Mary and Elizabeth. Before 
that time, if stockings were desired to be cool and elegant, they were 
shaped out of linen or silk cloth by scissors, and then sewn up. 

About 1589, the Rev. William Lee, M.A., a clergyman then living at 
Woodborough, near Nottingham, finding a lady to whom he was attached 
always more attentive to her knitting than to his addresses, in grief and 
anger determined to supersede her employment by constructing a machine 
which should, by its power and speed render hand-knitting useless. He 
made the attempt, and met with difficulties so great in the complex 
movements and nice adjustment of parts requisite in the machine to be 
made, and so unlike any then known or thought of in mechanical 
science, that he was long greatly baffled and almost in despair. With- 
out previous practical knowledge himself, he could not find the needful 
skill and experience in others. The knitting mesh or loop is so different 
from the simple crossing of the threads in common weaving, that to effect 
it mechanically was an operation which required original power of 
analysis and combination of an extraordinary kind. Instruments and 
forces must be applied in ways and for purposes which, for aught that 
appears, were before unattempted. At length he succeeded ; and the 
stocking frame still remains in attestation of the greatest triumph of 
mechanical genius then, or for many ages afterwards, known. A minute 
description of this machine would be out of place here : it will be suffi- 
cient to mention that Lee placed a series of hooks of peculiarly inge- 
nious form and adaptation side by side in a uniform line and firm posi- 
tion. He passed the weft thread, of which alone the fabric was to con- 
sist, along these hooks (called also " needles "), and by the use of a row 
of cleverly formed moveable instruments, called " jacks " and " sinkers, 1 ' 
rows of loops were formed one after the other on the hooks, and others 
on them in succession. This was done with surprising rapidity com- 
pared with the usual hand piocess. By the use of the hand-knitting 
pins or skewers, 100 loops may be formed in a minute : on Lee's first 
frame, using coarse materials, 500 loops, and in his second from 1,000 
to 1,500 loops were made per minute ; by the machine now worked by 
hand, even when the loops are of such fineness as can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished by the naked eye, 10,000 loops may be made per minute ; 
but, by circular power, 60,000 in the same time. The first machine was 
soon taken by its inventor to London ; and having formed great expec- 
tations proportionate to the profound thought and skill he had shown in 



RISE AND PROGRESS OP THE HOSIERY MANUFACTURE. 83 

its conception and completion, and his consciousness of the immense 
step he had made in administering to the comfort and advantage of his 
countrymen, he sought the approval and countenance of his sovereign. 
She visited him, attended by her kinsman Sir William Carey and Lord 
Hunsdon, and saw him work his machine at Bunhill Fields. The frame 
was a twelve-guage, and working upon coarse worsted yarn, altogether 
unfit for royal or fashionable use. Elizabeth was disappointed, because 
she hoped to have found silk hose making on it. Lee had desired a 
patent monopoly in acknowledgment of his so-far successful effort. The 
Queen is said to have thus written — " My Lord, I have too much love 
for my poor people, who obtain their bread by the employment of knit- 
ting, to give my money to forward an invention which will tend to their 
ruin, and thus make them beggars. Had Mr. Lee made a machine that 
would have made silk stockings, I should, I think, have been somewhat 
justified in granting him a patent which would have affected only a 
small portion of my subjects ; but to enjoy the exclusive privilege of 
making stockings for the whole of my subjects, is too important to grant 
to any individual." Lee was stimulated to alter his frame in order to 
produce silk stockings. After throwing aside his wood jacks for iron 
ones, and increasing the fineness from six to twelve needles, and as 
many loops in an inch in width in each row, he, in 1597, produced silk 
hose : these the Queen accepted and wore, praising their agreeable elas- 
ticity and beauty of texture. Nevertheless she refused the entreaties of 
Lord Hunsdon, and granted neither money nor patents. Perhaps her 
Exchequer was poor, or she might dislike to seem careless of employ- 
ment for her subjects by creating further monopoly of labour. It is 
probable that afterwards a patent was issued of a limited character. 
Such large hopes of profit from this new invention were entertained, 
that Lord Hunsdon, a descendant of the Tudors, bound himself by 
deed to Lee, learnt the art of frame-work knitting, and became the 
first stocking- maker's apprentice. There can be no doubt that this 
nobleman supplied the funds necessarily expended in the improve- 
ment of the first stocking-frame, and in the construction of several 
others. Lee had given himself wholly to them, neglecting clerical 
duties and all other means of existence. He was never seen at 
Court, and seldom anywhere else but in his workshop. His prospects of 
profit and success gradually faded away. He soon saw Ms great but 
politic and parsimonious patroness laid in her grave ; and after wait- 
ing patiently for some years to ascertain whether her successor would 
encourage him to keep the invention at home, also having lost his 
patron, Lord Hunsdon, the continued neglect of James I., and his 
refusal to grant patent or money, he decided to accept, though with 
much regret, the pressing offers of the illustrious Sully, and transfer 
it and himself to France. 

The manufacture was established at Rouen ; and Lee was introduced 
by the Duke de Rosny to Henry IV., who gave him a gracious recep- 

H 2 



84 RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE HOSIERY MANUFACTURE. 

tion. That great monarch was, unhappily, soon assassinated ; his 
minister retired from puhlic life, and all Lee's bright hopes were at once 
destroyed. Again having been flattered and disappointed, his fortitude 
forsook him and he fell into a deep melancholy. An alien, almost an 
outcast, he sickened, and sent for his brother James from Kouen ; but 
it was too late. -After twenty-two years of deferred hope and severe 
effort, he died alone, of a broken heart, at Paris, in 1610. " Many a 
heart has been broken upon the wheel whose revolutions have made the 
fortunes of thousands." James Lee returned to England, leaving one 
frame at Rouen, and set up the others at Old Square, London, where 
they were soon sold to a merchant of Italian extraction, and the trade 
became established in that city. Mead, an apprentice of James Lee, was 
sent with a machine to Venice. For want of tools, needles, sinkers, and 
workmen, the manufacture failed there in 1620. Leaving London, 
James Lee settled in Nottinghamshire, and with the money he had re- 
ceived for the frames he had sold, and 5001. for cancelling Mead's in- 
denture, he began to construct others, and so established the business of 
frame-work knitting in that county ; from thence it spread over the 
counties of Leicester and Derby. Aston, a miller of Thornton, Notts, 
joined James Lee, and they added the "lead-sinkers, thumb-plate, and 
lockers " to the machine, which greatly simplified it, and have been in 
use ever since. In 1670, " trucks " were placed on the " solebar," by 
Needham, a London workman. In 1711, the " caster back and hanging- 
bits " were added by Hardy, of London, and are still used. W ith these 
improvements, the stocking-frame seemed to have reached an almost 
perfect state as to the quality and rapidity of construction. It was com- 
posed of 2,066 pieces, and required eleven movements to form one course 
of loops. No increased power or facility of operation was acquired by 
any subsequent contrivance until towards the middle of the present 
century. London continued for ages to be the , centre of the hosiery 
manufacture. A Frame-work Knitters' Company was established by 
royal charter, dated 19th August, in the fifteenth year of Charles II. 
This still survives, but is powerless for any useful trade purposa Its 
arms are a stocking -loom, supported on the right hand by a clergyman, 
and on the left by a woman presenting a knitting-pin. 

The stocking-frame soon spread in great numbers all over France — 
there are now at Troves 5,000 or 6,000 — Spain, Austria, Saxony, in which 
latter kingdom there are at present upwards of 30,000 frames at work. 
Th^se still continue to furnish employment to many industrious mecha- 
nics. In 1669, there were 660 English frames, 400 of which were in 
London, and three-fifths of the whole wrought upon silk. 100 only of 
these frames were then in Notts. In 1695, there were 1,500 frames in 
London, of which 100 were destroyed on account of disputes about 
wages. These had increased in 1714 to 2,500 in London, 600 in Leicester, 
and 400 in Nottingham. Altogether there were about 8,600 in this 
country. The trade soon began to escape from the London Company's 



RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE HOSIERY MANUFACTURE. 85 

coercive j>rotection, and rapidly increased in the midland counties. This 
portion of the history of stocking- weaving is curious and instructive. 
Its results were, that, hy 1753, the frames in London had declined to 
1,U00, and increased in Nottingham to 1,500, in Leicester to 1,000 ; the 
total number having risen to 14,000. Meantime cotton hose, first woven 
in 1730, were getting into notice and demand. Specimens of stockings 
made at intervals during the years 1790 to 1850 from Arkwright's yarn 
for the most part, of great excellence, and quaintly fashioned, are shown 
in the present Exhibition. They are the manufacture of the late John 
Allen, Esq., of Nottingham, and are well worth careful examination. 
Invention, having for its object to vary by the improvements of this 
frame, the kind and style ol production, began about 1750, and has con- 
tinued ever since in vigorous operation, reaching a very high point 
indeed. The midland counties have long been famous for mechanical 
skill and invention. 

The " tuck-presser," which was attempted in 1730, and applied in 
1745, was followed by Jedediah Strutt's Derby rib-patent in 1759. By 
this invention a variation of the uniform or plain-looped work of the 
stocking-frame was effected by machinery, which applied " points " to 
such of the " hooks " or needles as held the Ioojds it was desired to 
operate upon, and then removed these loops to the hooks to the right or 
left hand, which would cause an alteration in the face vf the work, and 
if repeated, produce interstices. The principle to be carried out was 
simple, but required great skill in its application by Mr. Strutt. An 
addition was thereby to be made to the machine, breaking in upon its 
uniform action. It involved the entire control of any loop and conse- 
quently over each hook across its face. This principle lies at the bottom 
of Morris's patents of 1763 and 1781, whereby "eyelet" (oeillet) hole- 
work was produced, as seen in the open work in the ankle and insteps 
of ladies' hose. Under Crane's patent, 1768, looped nets were made. 
Else, in 1770, made the " pin " lace machine by further change in this 
machinery. This principle of control and selection, modified in its ap- 
plication, produced the "knotted," by Horton, 1776 ;" twilled," 
" stump," " mesh," and "point," machines, the latter by Lindley, in 
1778. Indeed, although Lee's machine was, considering his times and 
circumstances, an astonishing effort of genius, it was succeeded after the 
time of Strutt by very extraordinary variations and additions. By some 
of these, adaptations were made of the stocking-frame to the production 
of fancy hosiery ; by others to make imitations of pillow-lace. Thus 
in 1769 and 1777, Robert Frost patented machines, in one' of which he 
introduced perforated hollow long squares of wood, and in the other a 
long solid square of wood having knobs on the surface, workiug on the 
principle of a barrel organ upon the loops at pleasure. On this plan 
the first machine-wrought lace was made by him. Is it possible that 
Jacquards grand idea came from knowledge of this important inven- •- 
tion? In 1 782, the warp-machine was constructed by Tarratt, on the 



86 KISE AND PROGRESS OF THE HOSIERY MANUFACTURE. 

plan of operating upon every thread of a warp, using these warp threads 
only and looping them one to another, instead of using only one con- 
tinuous weft thread looped upon itself and without warp threads at all. 
By the warp-machine either a solid tissue or lace meshes, or a conibina- 
tion of both, may be obtained. It is a curious machine, and is now 
adapted to make an innumerable variety of articles. Dawson patented 
his improved warp-frame in 1791. These efforts to modify the machines 
were made for the most part by working men, with a view to obtain a 
perfect imitation of twisted pillow lace. They issued at length in the 
construction by John Heathcoat, in 1809, of the bobbin-net machine, 
which after many improvements, and the application of the Jaccpiard 
apparatus and steam power to both bobbin and warp-net machines, has 
given to Great Britain the present machine -wrought lace trade, in which 
a return has been made of nearly 5,O00,O00Z. sterling per annum, and 
to France and Austria very important branches of their manufactures. 

But to return to the more direct history of the hosiery trade. It 
sustained many depressions. These led to " under fashioning," and so- 
called " spurious " work. About 1776, 300 frames were broken in or 
near Nottingham on this account. Out of 20,000 English frames in 
1782, 17,350 were in the midland counties. Lowered wages caused 
increase of speed to be obtained ; and the machinery was so increased 
in numbers, that in 1812, Blackner enumerated 29,590 ; though in the 
deep distress of 1811 there had been 687 destroyed by Luddism. Wages 
continued to fall in the hosiery trade, and the value of machinery de- 
creased to less than a third of the cost. About 1834 the pressure on 
wages was so great that the trades 1 union, bound by a secret oath, de- 
cided on a general turn-out of the three counties. This would have 
thrown at least 50,000 people out of work. They, however, at the 
instance of the writer of this paper continued at work, and gave up the 
oath, which it is believed has never been re-imposed. 

In 1844, such was the depression and suffering of the people in this 
trade, that the writer was induced by sympathy with them to take an 
actual census of the machines in their gauges, widths, materials worked 
up, and actual wages received after charges for rent, standing, &c, were 
deducted. 240 parishes were visited in the counties of Nottingham, 
Leicester, and Derby, and the frames enumerated. To these were added 
returns from other parts of the three kingdoms. This account has been 
reprinted in Muggeridge's Reports as Commissioner to inquire into the 
condition of the hosiery trade, and has been accepted as the basis of 
later estimates of the trade. It will be used accordingly in the statistics 
which are given below. In 1844 there were in Leicestershire 6,933 
frames using cotton materials ; 9,875 woollen ; 1,582 mixed ; 168 silk ; 
and 2,303 not at work. Total, 20,861. In Derbyshire, 4,380 cotton ; 
1,454 silk ; 171 mixed ; and 792 out of work. Total 6,797. In Not- 
tinghamshire, 12,440 cotton ; 2,094 silk ; 299 mixed ; 46 woollen ; and 
1,503 not at work. Total 16,383. In other parts of England, 1,572. 



RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE HOSIERY MANUFACTURE. 87 

111 Scotland, 2,605. In Ireland, 265. Total stocking looms in the three 
kingdoms, 48,482. In all former estimates the number of frames not 
at work had not been taken into account. This will in some measure 
give the reason ior the large apparent, though not real, increase under 
long-continued bad trade. 

The number of persons directly employed by these machines would 
be when fully at work, about 100,000, one at each, and another winding, 
seaming, &c, the rest taking work out and in. The wages did not 
average in 1844 quite 7s. a week for those at the machines throughout 
the trade, a lower sum than earned by any other staple trade. The 
hours of work were long, and the labour severe. The returns were* 
calculated to be for silk hosiery, 383,763/. ; cotton, 998,700/. ; worsted 
and mixed, 1,223,750/. ; flax, 6,500/. Total, 2,562,763/. Composed of 
materials, 705,780/. ; wages, expenses, and profits, 1,856,983/. 150,000 lbs. 
weight of silk ; 6,000,000 lbs. of cotton ; and 8,000,000 lbs. of worsted 
and mixed were consumed. Up to the date of that census these frames 
had been almost entirely worked in dwelling-houses, or collected in 
small shops only. Since. 1844, the demand for hosiery has exceeded the 
supply ; and thus a gradual but most important improvement has taken 
place throughout the trade. But the years 1861-2 have been exceptional, 
from the dearth of cotton wool ; depriving us also of the United States 
market, where previously we had a most important outlet for our goods. 
The hours of labour have been lessened, and the rate of wages has 
risen from fifty to 100 per cent, since 1844, according to the classes of 
goods made. By an invention orignated by Mr. Brunei, but improved 
and made more useful since, a circular head, garnished with hooks at 
its circumference, is used to produce a looped sack — therefore without a 
seam. It works with almost incredible speed. One of these will turn 
off, using eight feeders to deliver the yarn, 350 rounds, or a yard in 
length, of medium quality per minute of a head twelve inches round ; 
or 150 dozens of women's hose in a week. Several of these heads can 
be managed by one person. The quantity of yarn used and number of 
dozens produced are immense. The prices at which they are sold is 
according to weight, but very low indeed. They are cut into shape by 
scissors, and are sewn up by hand or by stitching machines. Instead of 
ruining the trade as was feared, they have proved to be pioneers of the 
use of stockings in lands where they were previously not known or 
not worn : and have helped to raise wages through the trade. Women 
overlooking these "roundabouts" earn 12s. to 20s. a week with ease. 
The men employed about them gain 20s. to 35s. weekly. There are 
1,500 sets (each averaging ten to twelve heads) in the trade, making 
hose, shirts, drawers, &c. They are worked in factories, and by steam. 
That is the case also with the " rotaries," which are forty inches and 
upwards in width, making goods in a straight line from side to side, and 
producing four, six, or eight hose at once. Of these there are probably 
1,500 at work, at which the men set 20s. to 30s. a week wages. Those 



88 RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE HOSIERY MAN CFACTURE. 

are making hose principally. The " circulars " and " rotariea " are 
believed to have increased five per cent, per annum in number for some 
years. 

There are about 800 warp frames making pieces for gloves, &c. The 
■wages are from 16s. to 35s. per week. The number of this class of 
machines thus employed is about as it was ten years ago. Many hands 
are employed in finishing hosiery goods; cutters, stitchers, menders, 
bleachers, pressers, folders, &c. Women earn in some of these opera- 
tions 16s., and men 25s. to 30s. weekly. In the whole English machine- 
wrought hosiery trade there are directly and indirectly employed in 
ordinary times, 120,000 hands. In 1850 there were 1,230 frame-smiths, 
600 needle-makers, and 340 sinker-makers. The wide steam rotary 
machines are costly, and require highly-skilled hands to keep them in 
order. Yet it is thought not impossible, that gradually the greater part 
of the English hosiery frames may be brought into factories. Attempts 
to construct wide rotaries, so as to put in fashion — i.e., to widen or narrow 
by the machine, and without stopping it for the removal of the loops, 
have been at length successful. One such machine, patented a few years 
since, has been improved upon by M. Tailbuis, of Paris, was at 
work in the International Exhibition of 1862. It is calculated to pro- 
duce very regular goods in fine qualities, if not driven at too great 
speed. Another improvement of the same patented machine had been 
made by Messrs. Hine, Mundella, and Co., of Nottingham. Their 
machine of 100 inches wide, worked by power, makes while narrowing 
thirty or forty courses of loops per minute, and when not narrowing, 
fifty to sixty courses. Fourteen dozen of medium size pantaloons, 
fashioned by narrowing, have been made upon it in a week. The effect 
of so large a measure of success may be to diminish the cost of many 
fashioned articles ; and so, by enlarging demand for them, cause 
" rotaries " capable of giving fashion perfectly, combined with regularity 
of loops and due elasticity, to be more and more sought after. 

It may be here stated, in dismissing the subject of inventions, that 
the justly celebrated mechanican, Mr. Josh. "Whitworth, amidst his other 
inventions, constructed a very ingenious circular knitting machine. 
This is the only one put together on different principles to that of Lee. 
Though many years at work, it lias not come into general use. 

Much of the. cotton yarn used in making English hosiery, is supplied 
from Staleybridge, Ashton, and Bolton. The amount consumed is so 
large as to have contributed much to the business of that district. Any 
difficulty in obtaining a supply at reasonable prices, is of serious moment 
to the hosiery trade. The consumption of animal wool has also increased 
in this business. Silk has remained stationary for some time. 

X arrow- hand frames have not been fully employed of late. Probably 
twenty-five per cent, have not been at w r ork for some time. They are 
not generally rendered unavailable if required by the wants of the 
trade. The amount of the consumption of materials, and the returns 



RISE AND PROGRESS OF THE HOSIERY MANUFACTURE. 89 

have been very largely increased by the greater number and speed of 
the power machinery employed. The entire returns of the trade of this 
country in hosiery, which in the reports of the Exhibition of 1851 
were stated to be 3,600,000/., amounted in the last average year 1860 to 
6,480,000/., consisting of materials, 2,630,000/., and wages, finishing 
expenses, and profits, 3,850,000/. This great increase has been in 
the lower and medium classes of goods. The trade in shirts and 
drawers has progressed with surprising rapidity. In many of these 
things the materials constitute from five-eighths to three-fourths of the 
entire cost. 

How much of this return is consumed at hom e, and what may have 
been our exports, it is hard to say. The Custom-house returns of 
exports, whether of hosiery or lace, are so much below the mark as to 
be useless. The export of hosiery from this country has certainly 
increased considerably to most parts of the world since 1851. The 
most steadily enlarging markets have been our colonies of India, Aus- 
tralia, Canada, and the Cape of Good Hope. The demand for our 
hosiery under the French treaty has fallen far short of general expecta- 
tion. The duties and expenses are too heavy to admit of competition 
in France, with French manufacturers. 

Were the whole of our actual production consumed at home, it 
would only be 4s. a year for each individual of the population. If 
cotton and animal wool be regularly obtained, in sufficient quantities 
and at moderate prices, this entire trade may double itself in the next 
ten years, as it has done in the last. 

It is gratifying to observe the advance made in the physical condi- 
tion of the work-people in this trade. The worn and anxious counte- 
nances by which these men were during the first half of this century 
easily distinguishable, are only seen among the relics of the past gene- 
ration of stocking-makers. They now know their rights ; but, contrary 
to the practice of former evil times, employ only peaceful means to 
obtain them. Of late, disputes have not often occurred, and have been 
in most cases settled by joint arbitration of the masters and the men. 
During the commercial crisis through which this business has been 
passing in the last year, (1862), tranquility and good feeling have pre- 
vailed, though the privations have in many cases been severe. These 
are hopeful signs of future profit and satisfaction both to employers 
and employed, as well as to the communities dependent on their opera- 
tions. With our brother manufacturers abroad we trust our rivalry 
will a] ways be amicable, and even mutually advantageous, increasing 
the usefulness and excellence of the articles produced by each, and 
issuing in enlarged demand from us all for labour, and securing fair 
profits from its employment. 

Gloves. — The manufacture of gloves is principally carried on in the 
towns of Worcester, London, Yeovil, and Milborne Port. In Wood- 
stock and Witney the gloves made are what are known as beaver — viz., of 
buck and doe leather for military and hunting purposes. In Hexham 



90 STAINED GLASS AND GLASS USED FOR DECORATION. 

and Nantwich a trade still lingers for tanned gloves, known by these ' 
names, and in Leicester and Nottingham for cotton and cashmere gloves. 
In the old gloving towns of Ludlow, Leominster, and Derby, the trade 
is quite extinct. 

The introduction of foreign kid gloves many years ago stimulated to 
improvement the principal manufacturers, who, by studying the proper 
fit and good wearing qualities of their gloves, have maintained their 
position in the face of competition ; but now that all gloves are admitted 
entirely free, many small makers have given up. 

The number of hands employed is very considerable, particularly of 
women in rural districts, occupied in the sewing, who have the great 
advantage of working at home ; and in the intervals of domestic duties 
are enabled to earn four or five shillings per week, as an addition to the 
family income. 

In recent years a large and increasing trade has arisen in gloves cut 
from cloth of woollen thread or silk, made specially elastic for this pur- 
pose in the towns of Nottingham, Trowbridge, and Norwich. The 
manufacture of gloves not having extended to our Colonies, this article 
forms an item in our list of exports both to the Colonies and America. 

The export to France under the recent treaty has not had time for 
development, and is affected by the large quantities of kid gloves made 
there by many makers of excellence -who compete very closely together. 

A demand is springing up for what are called " dogskin gloves," an 
English speciality. 

Cotton-gloves, made in Saxony, being produced at very low prices, 
owing to the cheap supply of labour, are becoming a considerable item 
of import, affecting the trade in Leicester and Nottingham. 

Belgium has only been a producer of gloves within about twenty 
years, and was previously dependent on France for them. The manu- 
facture has been largely developed at Brussels, which ranks high for ex- 
portation. As the glovers also dress their leather, they are enabled to 
produce them cheaper in consequence. — Report of Jurors. 



STAINED GLASS AND GLASS USED FOR DECORATION. 

BY APSLEY PELLATT. 

The adoption of painted windows* was concurrent with the improve- 

* "The terms ' Painted Glass/ and ' Stained Glass,' are commonly used as 
if they were synonymous. I have, however, adopted the former, from a belief, 
that although not strictly correct, it is, on the whole, a more correct expression 
than the latter. For a glass painting may be entirely formed of painted glass, 
that is, painted with an enamel colour, but it would be impossible to execute a 
glass painting merely by staining the glass. Most glass paintings are formed by 
combining the two processes of enamelling and staining, &c." — 'An Inquiry into 
the Ancient Glass Painting,' &c, by Charles Winston, Esq. J. H. Parker, Oxford. 



STAINED aLASS AND GLASS USED FOR DECORATION. 91 

nient in architecture and especially iu the introduction of the early 
English and Gothic, which succeeded the Saxon and the Norman. 

From the 12th to the 13th centuries, the large expenditure in Eng 
land and on the Continent on cathedrals, churches, and religious houses, 
induced a demand for decorated glass windows, and the early archaic 
style was then generally introduced into windows, which were not only 
beautiful in themselves, but conferred a beauty upon the interior archi- 
>3ctural decorations of these ecclesiastical buildings. 

At this period, and for centuries subsequently, the archaic style was 
adopted ; it consisted of a perfect mosaic of rosettes, flowers, leaves, and 
other designs. The borders consisted of small pieces of variously 
coloured glass, secured by lead to the iron framework of the windows, 
in conformity with the outline of the design. In the centre, secured in 
a similar manner, were the medallions of a single or group of figures. 
The borders were usually harmonious and pleasing, the drawing of the 
figures were often grotesque, and in some cases almost amounting to 
caricature. The leading of the glass, being arranged to follow the out- 
lines of the pattern, appears hard when viewed in close proximity ; but, 
like the severe outlines of Raffaelesque subjects on china, when viewed 
at a proper distance this harshness nearly or wholly disappears. Many 
patrons still adhere to this severe archaic style, while others, in keeping 
with the taste of the present time, admit a modification of more correct 
outlines of the figures. A good specimen of the coloured mosaic treat- 
ment, with its borders of a flowery kind, the lesser spandrils being fitted 
with a flowing ornament of various colours upon a red ground, is to be 
found in the circular window of the north transept of Lincoln Cathedral 
as recently restored by Messrs. Ward and Hughes. The lower lights are 
in contrast with those above, on the gray or grisaille mosaic treatment, 
the chief parts of the white glass being shaded or worked with brown or 
black lines of enamel colours, intersected with small portions of coloured 
mosaics, the gray chiefly predominating. 

The manufacture of coloured glass in small effigies, opaque mosaics, 
and vessels, dates as far back as the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Romans, 
&c. Its introduction for windows in the style termed archaic was during 
the 12th century. The art was considered not merely as decorative, but 
as a pictorial representation of Scripture history, aiding Christian teach- 
ing. The repose and solemn subdued effect of light passing through the 
varied coloured glass contributed to the character of the subject sought 
to be impressed upon the mind. The first or archaic style commenced 
at the latter end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. 
Examples are to be found at St. Denis and Bruges, and in Canterbury, 
Lincoln, and Salisbury Cathedrals. The second or decorated style was 
introduced about the end of the 13th century. Good examples may be 
seen at Strasburg and Gloucester (recently redeaded by Messrs. Ward and 
Hughes). The third or perpendicular style, from 1380 to 1430. Another 
style, the cinque-cento, dates from 1500 to 1550 ; examples of which are 



92 STAINED GLASS AND GLASS USED FOR DECORATION. 

chiefly to be found on the Continent. — viz.. at Brussels, Liege, &c. The 
examples oi' the perpendicular being at Cologne, Winchester, York, and 
at St. Margaret's, Westminster. 

In the early English, such as the north transept of Lincoln Cathedral, 
the figures are less grotesque than in most other examples of that date 
The figures were generally placed in medallions, canopies having not 
then been introduced. The next period, the decorative, is marked by 
an extensive use of canopies ; the drapery was more flowing and grace- 
ful, especially in the coloured mosaic and grisaille borders. About this 
period the yellow stain was introduced, which pleasing colour softened 
the white used in the earlier styles, and had a good effect when stained 
in portions, the cased red or blue being taken out to receive the yellow. 
The third, or perpendicular style, is marked by its being more soft and 
silvery, and also more delicate and refined than the preceding, having 
no rounded or projecting cornices. The cinque-cento style is of Italian 
origin, and more picturesque, being evidently influenced by the progres- 
sion of oil painting. All these styles obeyed the spirit of their times, 
glass-painting agreeing with the state of the arts of each period, and in 
harmony with the architecture and the taste of its various epochs. 

The principal difference between ancient and modern glass windows 
arises from the latter being brighter and of a higher key than the 
ancient, while it has less tone and richness, which, like the paintings of 
Titian and the old masters, may be viewed for any length of time with- 
out fatigue to the eye. Continental glass being thinner and of a higher 
key than the English, a fictitious surface and tone is obtained by enamel 
painting, which takes off the lurid glare, but deadens and too much 
lowers the tone ; this ineffective imitation is easily detected. Modern 
windows of inferior materials, being charged with bright colour at a 
higher key, transmit too readily through the glass bright rays of different 
colours antagonistic to each other, which fatigue the eye and form an 
unpleasant contrast to ancient glass, or to that which has been recently 
made on the same principle, and which for want of a better term we 
shall call antique. 

Although homogeneous flint glass is so essential for chandeliers and 
household use, and especially for optical purposes, the reverse is required 
for coloured window glass, technically called pot metal, to imitate that 
of the thirteenth century. Every colour of the spectrum, viz., violet, 
indigo blue, green, yellow, and red, are produced in glass by the use of 
the oxides of the following metals — viz., gold, silver, chromium, tin, cop- 
per, iron, manganese, cobalt, antimony, nickel, and uranium ; carbon 
also produces yellow for pictorial purposes. Window glass, although 
almost indestructible by time, whether coloured or of a greenish white, 
when long exposed to the action of the atmosphere, is liable to partial 
surface decomposition, and if not too much decomposed, prevents advan- 
tageously the too free passage of the rays of light through it : old glass 
thus affected softens and blends the pictorial effect, and the colours 



STAINED C4LASS AND CLASS USED FOR DECORATION. 93 

remain sufficiently vivid and brilliant without fatiguing the eye. Modern 
amateurs and glass-painters have had their attention drawn to the fact, 
that the agreeable blending and harmonising effect of ancient glass, 
although occasionally due to surface decomposition, owes its chief charm 
to the retention of the striae and small bubbles in the body of the glass. 
The constituents of such glass have been perfectly vitrified, and the 
colours fully developed, but being less transparent than when thoroughly 
fined (like the ordinary clear coloured glass) becomes less dazzling and 
more subdued. To succeed in making striated and bubbly-coloured 
glass, having a horny or gelatinous appearance similar to the ancient, the 
fining process must be arrested during the latter part of the fusion, by 
reducing the heat of the metal to a sufficient consistency for working, 
before the bubbles and striae are fully driven off : great attention is 
necessary on the part of the manufacturer to reduce the temperature 
of the furnace just at the right time to prevent the metal becoming too 
clear. This imitation of the ancients constitutes the chief improvement 
since 1851, as regards the vitrified material. 

Although these gelatinous striae and bubbles are quite apparent on 
close inspection, they disappear when seen from a proper distance, a 
portion of the light becoming absorbed, but retaining the full richness 
of the colours. Pot -metal blues, greens, and rubies, &c, by this system 
of embodying in the mass the hindrances to the too free passage of the 
light, are far superior in effect to those of the ordinary, cheap, modern, 
clear, bright-coloured glass. No person of taste should require the latter 
which will fail to produce what is termed the peculiar " dim religious 
light" of the ancients, resembling the reposing colours of the spectrum. 

Blue is often used as a background to groups or single figures, as 
well as to the drapery and borders, and may therefore be considered the 
prevailing colour ; and after this are ruby and green, all pot-metal 
colours. 

About the year 1850, Messrs. PoWell and Son commenced manufac- 
turing antique glass, of white and various pot-metal colours, a consider- 
able portion of which, especially the blue and ruby, was equal to the 
best specimens of ancient glass of the thirteenth century. This was 
selected by Messrs. Ward and Hughes for the four windows painted by 
them, and erected in the Temple Church, London, about the years 1853 
and 1854. 

Messrs. Hartley, of Sunderland, and Messrs. Lloyd and Summerfield, 
of Birmingham, have also produced antique glass. This glass is striated, 
bubbly, and gelatinous, and sometimes the ruby is streaky. Pieces of 
dark and light ruby are occasionally leaded separately, and placed side by 
side, to give the effect of shading without the use of enamel colour. 
A national debt of gratitude is due to Charles Winston, Esq., author of 
a work on ' Ancient Glass Printing,' in two volumes, for his long, perse- 
vering, and successful efforts to revive the rich colours and low tone of 
ancient glass, the best specimens of which are to be seen in the four 
windows of the Temple Church, painted at his suggestion and under 



94 STAINED GLASS AND GLASS USED FOR DECORATION. 

his superintendence. If the colours in these windows equal the best of 
the ancient, of which there is little doubt, it is owing to the various 
specimens he caused to be analyzed, and the synthetic experiments he 
made, which enabled him to reproduce the glass, and furnish recipes 
gratuitously to the glass maker. 

Foreign manufacturers have no doubt, availed themselves ere this of 
Mr. Winston's liberality, and as wood fuel and open pots succeed best 
for glass dependent upon carbon as a colouring constituent, no doixbt 
they will ere long rival our productions of antique glass for windows. 

Messrs. Clayton and Bell, in their artistic treatment of the severe 
early archaic style ; Messrs. Ward and Hughes, in their window for St. 
Anne's Church, Westminster, of the style of the 13th century, the 
figures of which are treated in keeping with modern taste, similar to 
those in the Temple Church ; Messrs. Powell and Son, in a window 
wholly of antique glass, of their own manufacture ; likeAvise Messrs. 
Lavers and Barraud, Heaton, Preedy, and other artists, have aA r ailed 
themselves of English antique glass, much of which rivals the ancient 
in rich colour and low tone, and has a crispness and shellac appearance, 
so well calculated to absorb the rays, and retain the richness and beauty 
of the ancient colours. 

While, therefore, most of our continental neighbours exhibit windows 
of inferior material, fully equal or superior in artistic merit to their 
painted windows of 1851, the English, availing themselves of the 
superiority of the antique glass, excelled their exhibits of 1851. The 
Exhibition of 1862 may be considered so far as a triumph over that 
of 1851 ; the artistic progress has, however, been less than might have 
been anticipated. 

" The various attempts which have been made to imitate the rich- 
ness and depth of the ancient material, by coating the glass with 
enamel paint, have produced no other effect than that of depriving it 
of its brilliancy, and, consequently, the glass paintings in which this 
expedient has been resorted to, of one of their chief distinguishing 
merits. 

" In all the glass paintings of earlier date than the last quarter of 
the 14th century, until which period the glass was not over clear, sub- 
stantial in appearance, or intense in colour, the artists seem to have 
relied for effect principally on the richness and depth of the colouring. 
In these works the means of representation may be said to have been 
reduced almost to the lowest degree. 

"We are strongly impressed that the difference of effect between 
such ancient and modern glass does not depend on the state of the 
surface, but on the composition of the material, and this result has 
been strengthened by the result of some experiments recently made, by 
which the very great difference in the composition of modern glass of 
the 13th century is clearly demonstrated." 

The cheaper sorts of white and coloured glass, as alluded to in the 
foregoing extract, from the Report of the Commissioners of 1851, 



STAINED GLASS AND GLASS USED FOR DECORATION. 95 

counterfeit the ancient glass, by coats of enamel colour, which only 
produces a misty and cloudy effect, merely blinding or shutting out a 
portion of light ; but it cannot give the depth and richness of ancient 
colours. If varnish colour be used for such a purpose it will only serve 
a temporary object, and even if the enamel colours be burnt in, they 
are not always to be depended on, being liable to crack off by long ex- 
posure to the action of the atmosphere. 

Bertini and others obscure a portion of the back by roughing, or by 
a layer of white or neutral colour, so that little or no light may pass 
through the main figure of the subject, which rather resembles fresco 
than transparency. The latter is generally considered to be one of the 
essential conditions of glass painting. 

Brown enamel colours, more or less dense, are used for stippling and 
shading white or coloured pot-metal, but if too thickly laid on at one 
time will be liable to crack off in a few years ; several coats and frequent 
firing are necessary to produce permanency in the various dark shades. 
Examples of coloured enamel painting, by Backler, may be seen at 
Arundel Castle, the seat of the Duke of Norfolk. They are wholly 
enamel, and have no pot-metal colours ; similar also are several glass 
paintings designed by West, and painted by Jervis, in the Royal Chapel 
at Windsor. These may be considered as simply semi-transparent 
pictures, wholly out of the category of what is generally known as 
stained or painted glass, by mosaic or grisaille treatment for ecclesiasti- 
cal purposes. 

Referring to former explanations on the striated gelatinous colours, 
called antique, used since 1851, as they were then shadowed out by Mr. 
Winston, and since produced by him and adopted by many of our Eng- 
lish artists, but as yet feebly followed by continental painters, it is 
somewhat remarkable, that while clearness of metal constitutes the 
greatest improvement in flint glass, the reverse should be the case for 
window glass : in fact, that while homogeneity should be the essential 
property of flint glass, impurity is equally necessary for the successful 
imitation of the ancient glass, in attaining the same depth of colouring, 
and the absorption of the rays to be found in the coloured glass of the 
13th century : it, therefore, seems anomalous that the inferior fuel, for 
melting the materials, also that the metals, sands, and alkali possessed 
by the ancients, which was less pure than those used by the moderns, 
should have furnished greenish white, and pot-metal coloured glass, so 
exactly suited to produce the best effects for pictorial windows. 

Resuming our remarks upon enamel painting, there was the brown 
painted smear, and stipple shading, also a darker enamel for lines and 
shadows by hatching, or repetition of lines, serving as shadow upon 
white or pot-metal eolours. There are several methods of shading, 
some being smooth, employed in early examples, and the latter being 
darker, employed in the later grisaille of larger works. 

It may be asked, does the grotesque style of the past age harmonise 



yb STAINED GLASS AND GLASS USED FOR DECORATION. 

with our present mode of thought ? How far does'the recent Exhibi- 
tion, considering the present advanced state of the fine arts, meet the 
requirements of the 19th century ?. We reply, it is the contrast between 
1851 and 1862 that affirms the fact, that in most of the English exhibi- 
tors, and several of the foreign, the art of glass painting has advanced 
with the times both in style and artistic execution. It is, however, much 
to be regretted, that few of the windows can fairly be seen to advantage, 
owing to too much interior light, and the exterior borrowed lights of 
the Exhibition building being so inferior. 

Continental glass artists generally adhered to the early grotesque, 
style in imitation of the past age: and in that respect in 1851 were 
superior to the English; and with the exception of the beautiful win- 
dows painted by Bertini and his school, that style is still retained. 

Bertini's windows in 1851 and 1862, may be classed in the mixed 
style of the old Mosaic, and the enamelled style of the 19th century. 
The excellence in design and execution of the former was generally 
admitted, although insufficient transparency was occasioned by the too 
great opacity of the principal central figure. The Madonna and Child 
of Bertini, of 1862, may be considered as one of the gems of this 
Exhibition. 

The art of glass painting should have a special mode of treatment, 
impressed upon it by the nature of the material, as oil for canvas, and 
fresco for ceilings and walls. Glass being the medium through which 
the light passes, transparency must be its condition ; different degrees 
of transparency are admissable, but when a large portion of the glass is 
so opaque as almost wholly to preclude the transmission of the Tays, an 
essential condition is infriuged. 

The style of the 16th century, or earlier periods, modified by the 
taste, and feeling of the 19th century, should be supported by our 
designers and glass painters. With good original designs, improved 
antique glass, judiciously leaded, with a proper degree of transparency, 
first rate drawing, good shadows, and well arranged colours, forming as 
a whole, a work of art, rich, harmonious, and impressive, patrons will 
not be wanting for the decoration of our ecclesiastical or domestic 
buildings. 

Kb doubt artists are influenced considerably by their patrons, each 
of whom may have his settled convictions as to style, &c. We should, 
however, endeavour to preserve the beauties, and avoid the defects of 
the drawing of the earlier ages ; but no reason exists, that, as pottery, 
carving, statuary, and the fine arts have generally advanced, why glass 
painting should be impeded, or restricted in its progress towards the 
perfection of the art. 

(To be continued.) 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



EXPLOSIBILITY OF COAL OILS. 

BY T. ALLEN. 

So recent has been the introduction of coal oil into general use for 
burning in lamps, that few persons have as yet had satisfactory oppor- 
tunities of obtaining a knowledge either of its peculiar properties or 
of the peculiar processes lately invented for extracting oil from coal 
in quantities sufficient to constitute a new and important article of 
commerce. 

Some of the qualities of coal oil sold in the market having proved 
dangerously explosive, the directors of fire insurance companies have 
become alarmed, and have increased the rates of fire insurance on pro- 
perty where such oil is stored or burnt in lamps, deeming it to be 
extra hazardous, like camphine and " burning fluid." But a manifest 
difference being discoverable in the inflammability of the oils sup- 
plied from different establishments, it is evident that some mode of 
distinguishing the safe from the unsafe oils has finally become indis- 
pensable for the security of the insurers as well as for the satisfaction 
of the insured. Accordingly, in compliance with a request of the 
board of directors of the Rhode Island Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, the following investigations have been made to determine, by 
practical experiments, the comparative explosibility of coal oils, and 
the consequent probable danger of the use of them in lamps for 
lighting manufactories and dwellings. 

Several of the experiments may appear to be very simple ; but as 
they serve to exhibit instructive facts for popular information, they 
are none the less valuable for dispelling unfounded fears of danger, and 
for inducing due caution where there may exist causes for alarm. 

All the liquid products of the distillation of coal are popularly con- 
TOL. IV. I 



98 ON THE EXPLOSIBrLITT OF COAL OILS. 

sidered as " coal oils ;" but there is an extraordinary difference in 
their volatility and inflammability, from the explosive flash of volatile 
spirits, resembling ether and alcohol, to the dull heavy blaze of a 
smoking tar. The several peculiar qualities of the products of the dis- 
tillation of bituminous coal will be most readily learned from a de- 
scription of the processes practically adopted by the distillers for 
obtaining them. 

The process of making common coal gas by the distillation of bitu- 
minous coal in red-hot iron retorts or ovens, set over furnaces, is well 
known ; but it may not be generally known that before the iron 
retorts become heated red-hot, a tarry liquid or oil first comes ' over 
into the main gas-pipes, and is collected in a separate cistern. This 
dark liquid has an exceedingly strong and disagreeable odour, and the 
only use of it at first was that of making coal tar. A nearly similar 
tarry oil had previously been discovered in ancient times flowing 
naturally out of crevices of rocks on the surface of the earth like 
springs of water. This peculiar tarry oil received the name of " pe- 
troleum," from the original Greek words signifying " rDck oil," as 
being descriptive of the source from whence this extraordinary liquid 
was first obtained. 

The natural petroleum so nearly resembles the artificial tarry oil 
obtained by the distillation of bituminous coal, as above described, 
that the same name will be applied to designate both of these products, 
as being alike the results of the distillation of the. same material. 
The question is often asked, Whence is this petroleum produced 1 

The region of our country where the oil-springs are found gushing 
forth on the surface of the earth is near the frontier line dividing the 
anthracite coal-fields of the seaboard of the United States and the bitu- 
minous coal-field of the great valley of the Mississippi. In this 
Intermediate region are vast beds of bituminous coal, originally com- 
posed of the woody fibres of peat and other vegetable bodies, organ- 
ised by the action of sunshine on the surface of the earth, and then 
covered over securely from accidental combustion. The coal is, how- 
ever, exposed to a heat in the depths of the earth, which is in- 
creased regularly 1 deg. from fifty to seventy feet of descent, the 
temperature at 200 feet depth having been found to be 85 deg. in an 
English coal mine. The decomposition of the coal at great depths is 
constantly going on, and the coal gas is often heard in the galleries of 
coal mines rushing in hissing streams through crevices, and forming the 
explosive " fire-damp," which renders the safety-lamp of Sir Humphrey 
Davy a blessing for the preservation of the miners. 

One of the deserted coal mines near Newcastle, having a 4-inch 
pipe connected with its chambers, has continued to distil sufficient 
coal gas to form a jet of flame from its open aperture on the surface 
of the ground " nearly sufficient to light a small town," as a recent 
writer has stated. From the end of a similar pipe, inserted in a drill- 



ON THE EXPLOSIBILITY OP COAL OILS. 99 

hole in the rocky strata on the banks of the Kanawha river, in West- 
ern Virginia, perforated to the depth of about 1,000 feet to obtain 
salt water, sufficient coal gas to light a city has continued for several 
years to rush forth, commingled with the salt water. The gas is used 
as fuel to boil the salt water for the production of salt. In a 
furnace beneath a salt pan, 100 feet long and five feet in width, the 
writer beheld the flame of burning coal gas, sweeping throughout in 
one continuous sheet, waving and flashing in wreaths of resplendent 
brilliancy, whilst at the same time a steam-engine was operated 
briskly by the same natural flow from the earth into an adjacent fur- 
nace beneath a steam-boiler. Sufficient coal gas was here discharged 
to evaporate the brine for making about 400 bushels of salt per day. 
Happening to arrive at a spot where another similar drill-hole had 
just been completed, an equal volume of coal gas and salt water ap- 
peared jetting upwards from the drill-hole in the rock thirty or forty 
feet into the air, with loud belching sounds resembling the asthmatic 
pantings of a powerful locomotive engine. The coal gas here naturally 
elaborated, was perfectly pure and free from the disagreeable odour 
which characterises the coal gas artificially elaborated in city gas-works. 
The petroleum being separable by distillation from the coal at a 
more moderate tenq^erature than coal gas, there is reason to believe 
from aualogy that the same process of elaboration of petroleum goes 
on naturally beneath the earth as is artificially accomplished on its 
surface. The fact of the increased heat of the interior of the earth, 
in the vicinity of both the gas -springs and oil-springs in the valleys of 
the Alleghany mountains is manifested in the numerous "hot-springs," 
which gush forth unceasingly between the adjacent mountains in 
Western Virginia, together with numerous " sulphur springs." Indeed, 
this distillation of the carburetted hydrogen gas and oil from the 
bituminous coal, under intense pressure at great depths in the earth, 
constitutes a natural process of coking, whereby the flaming bitu- 
minous coal becomes gradually converted into anthracite or flameless 
coal. 

The constantly decreasing supply of whale oil, and correspondingly 
increasing price of it, has recently stimulated industrial enterprises to 
seek out other sources of supply of this necessary article. The long- 
neglected oil-springs freely offered in tiny streams naturally flowing 
from the earth, have at last attracted attention. Impatient, however, 
of the stinted supply thus freely offered without labour, even some of 
the same resolute men who have pursued the whales among the icebergs 
of the polar seas and to the remotest waters of the globe, have laid 
down their harpoons and taken up steel drills to tap the very fountains 
of coal oil, in the hidden depths of the earth, in the western valleys of 
Pennsylvania. 

The results of some of the attempts to obtain a more abundant 
supply of coal oil, or petroleum, have proved so successful as to appear 

12 



100 OX THE EXPLOSIB1LITY OF COAL OILS. 

marvellous and incredible. From one of these recent drill-holes, 
termed " oil-wells," the petroleum gushed up with such violent force 
as to discharge the stream high in the air, and the flow continued so 
abundant that it reached the furnace of the steam-engine used for 
working the drill-rods. Becoming thus kindled, a vast flame lighted 
up the surrounding country at night. Before the conflagration could 
be extinguished many hundreds of barrels of petroleum flowed in a 
blazing flood into the adjacent rivers. In another instance, the reser- 
voirs of petroleum being tapped by the drills earlier than anticipated 
and before a supply of empty casks was provided, the gushing stream 
was turned into a ravine and there collected by a dam to preserve it 
for use. Over considerable extents of valleys an abundance of pe- 
troleum has been thus obtained from reservoirs, in which it has been 
gradually accumulating from the natural process of distillation of 
bituminous coals in the depths of the earth. The ample supply of pe- 
troleum available from these sources has cpuite recently reduced the price 
of it to about fifty cents per barrel, and has nearly superseded recourse 
to the artificial distillation of bituminous coal. This unexpected gift 
to the children of men may well excite their wonder and their admira- 
tion of the provident care in anticipating human wants thus manifested 
by a bountiful Creator. 

Both the artificial and natural petroleum in- the crude state of a tarry 
oil are found unfit to be burnt in lamps. After numerous attempts to 
refine the crude petroleum by a second process of distillation, three re- 
markably different products were separately oblained. Each one of these 
three substances having a different evaporative or boiling point, like 
water and alcohol, they are readily separable during one continued pro- 
cess of distillation, by gradually increasing the heat beneath the still. 

The first product that comes over from the condenser is the volatile 
spirits resembling ether and alcohol, called naphtha, benzole, benzine, 
&c, which boil at a lower temperature than alcohol (about 150 deg. to 
160 deg. Fahrenheit). Naphtha evaporates as rapidly as ether, pro- 
ducing similar lethean effects on breathing the vapour, and even ex- 
ceeds ether and alcohol in inflammability. 

It appears to be the common practice of the distillers of petroleum, 
or coal tar, to keep the heat beneath the stills very low until this 
naphtha has time to become evaporated at its boiling point of 160 deg., 
and to flow, from the condenser in a crystalline stream into a cistern 
arranged to receive it. When, by the test of a hydrometer, its specific 
gravity is found to become increased to a certain degree by containing 
some of the heavier coal oil, the stream from the condenser is diverted 
into another cistern designed, for receiving the second product of the 
distillation, being a heavier coal oil, commonly known as " kerosene." 

The exact point where the naphtha becomes exhausted and the kero- 
sene begins to flow, is a nice question to be decided upon by the dis- 
tiller. The extreme inflammability of the naphtha renders it unsafe 



ON THE 13XPL03IBILITY OF COAL OILS. 101 

for burning in lamps ; and it cannot be advantageously reduced to 
vapour to be mized with coal gas, because it does not form a permanent 
gas ; for the vapour, like that of alcohol, becomes condensed to a liquid 
whenever it is cooled, as occurs on its passage through cold iron gas- 
pipes under ground. The only available use of naphtha is for dissolv- 
ing India-rubber, and for mixing with painters' oil as a substitute for 
spirits of turpentine. For these reasons naphtha is nearly worthless for 
sale in the market ; and as it constitutes ten or fifteen per cent, of the 
petroleum used for distillation, there is a strong temptation to the 
distillers to divert the current of naphtha into the kerosene oil- 
cistern to gratify the cupidity of purchasers by thus affording the oil 
at a low price. Thus both sellers and buyers are alike tempted to 
disregard the danger resulting from mixing the naphtha with the kero- 
sene oil. 

To gratify purchasers of coal oil by an extraordinary low price, it 
has been stated that dealers have contracted for the waste naphtha and 
residuary heavy coal or tar for preparing a mixture of about the same 
specific gravity as kerosene oil, and resembling it in appearance. The 
hydrometer is not, therefore, available for detecting this spurious article, 
and there remains no other mode of ascertaining its dangerous cha- 
racter than by actually testing its inflammability experimentally by 
the degree of heat indicated by a thermometer, at which it will become 
kindled by the application of a lighted match, and begin to exhibit a 
lambent flame flickering over its surface, as over that of blazing alcohol. 
If the sample of oil contains much naphtha, it will be found capable of 
emitting sufficient gaseous vapour to take fire at the ordinary tempera- 
ture of the air on plunging a burning match in a cup of the oil. Other 
samples will require to be heated at 90 deg., and even to 160 deg., be- 
fore they can be similarly kindled. There is all this difference in the 
inflammability of the article sold in the market for coal oil. Judging ot 
all the qualities of coal oils by some few cases of the explosive inflam- 
mability of the lowest grade in the market, they have all been subjected 
alike to doubts and suspicions. As the coal oils offered for sale by 
establishments of known respectability are really most valuable and eco- 
nomical substitutes for whale oil for purposes of illuminations, it is 
unwise, as well as unprofitable, to embrace them all in one sweeping 
clause of condemnation without experimental examinations to determine 
the facts in relation to this novel subject of inquiry. 

The presence of naphtha in kerosene oil essentially contributes to 
the brilliancy of the light for illumination, whilst at the same time 
it improves the combustibility of the oil by a less tendency to emit 
smoke. It is, therefore, for the interest of the consumer of coal oil to 
retain as much of this light volatile spirits as can be safely used ; for it 
really seems like throwing away bread to reject so valuable an element 
of human comfort and enjoyment available as a source of light and 
warmth. The present waste of this material, which is now suffered to 



102 ON THE ESPLOSIBILITY OF COAL OILS. 

take place from fear of its wonderful combustibility, will probably be 
obviated ere long by new artificial chemical combinations, as ether has 
been reduced to alcohol and wood sawdust to a kind of sugar, so that its 
violent explosive tendency may be thus subdued to a more cafe and 
manageable condition for general use in lamps. 

It has, therefore, now become an exceedingly important and interest- 
ing question for insurers as well as for the insured, having property ex- 
posed to risks of fire from burning kerosene oil in lamps, to investigate 
carefully and judiciously the real extent of the danger and hazards re- 
sulting from this use of it for illumination, so as not needlessly to re- 
strict the general enjoyment of this economical and valuable substitute 
for whale oil, and even coal gas. This investigation has become the 
more important as the source of supply of coal oil appears to be limited 
only by the supply of the vast beds of bituminous coal stored up in 
reserve in the depths of the earth for future generations of mankind. 

To ascertain the comparative qualities of the kerosene oil made in 
different parts of this country, samples were procured and tested by 
the simple process of pouring some of each kind of oil into a cup by 
itself, and by placing them all afloat together in a basin of water heated 
by a spirit lamp, and with a thermometer immersed in the water to 
indicate the temperature while gradually rising from 60 deg., to 212 deg. 
During the progress of the increase of temperature, blazing matches 
were passed over the surface of the oil in each cup successively at short 
intervals of time, until the increased heat caused sufficient gaseous 
vapours to arise from each to take fire ; which they all finally did, at 
degrees of temperature varying from 80 deg. to 162 deg., exhibiting faint 
flames quivering over the surface of the oil, precisely like those hover- 
ing over the surface of spirits of wine or alcohol when similarly 
kindled. The flames were quite as readily extinguished by a blast of 
the breath, and not the least symptom of anj r explosive character be- 
came manifest when each one took fire. Until the evaporative point 
of each sample of oil was produced by the increase of heat applied, and 
until lambent flames were kindled, burning matches were extinguished 
when plunged into the coal oil, as effectually as if they had been simi- 
larly plunged into water. The average heat at which all the samples 
emitted sufficient vapour to admit of being kindled was about 125 deg. 
of Fahrenheit's scale. 

After ascertaining the temperature requisite to kindle the several 
samples of coal oil, it next becomes an interesting subject of investiga- 
tion to ascertain the heat to which coal oil is ordinarily elevated whilst 
burning in lamps. The results of actual experiments showed that in 
glass lamps the temperature is increased about 6 deg., and in metallic 
lamps but 10 deg. or 12 deg., above that of the apartment ; which, 
being 67 deg., produced a heat in the oil of about 71 deg. to 79 deg., 
leaving a considerable range of temperature below the average of 
125 deg., above stated. 



ON THE EXPLOSIBILITY OF COAL OILS. 103 

Finding by actual observation that only the gaseous vapours arising 
from the heated oil exhibit the phenomenon of flame whilst ascending, 
and combining chemically with the oxygen of the air, it became mani- 
fest that no explosive action could be anticipated to take place from any 
kind of oil or inflammable spirits, unless these gaseous vapours were 
first evolved by a previous increase of temperature, and then brought 
into contact with the atmospheric air before applying a match thereto. 
There being no room left for either the gaseous vapour of the oil or for 
atmospheric air to combine therewith, in the chamber of any lamp 
entirely filled with oil, every attempt to produce explosive action with 
a full lamp, at all temperatures up to the boiling point of water, utterly 
failed when lighted matches were applied to the open orifice of the 
lamp. The only result produced by increasing the heat of the coal oil 
was an increase of the evaporation of the gas, and a higher jet of flame 
steadily rising, as from the jet of a gas-burner. So long as lamps are 
kept full of oil, or even of explosive camphine and " burning fluid," 
there can be no explosive action whatever. For this special reason it 
may be adopted as a safe rule to cause all lamps containing highly in- 
flammable liquids to be kept as full as practicable by being daily re- 
plenished. 

As nearly all the published accounts of the explosions of camphine 
lamps, and of the consequent dangerous and frequently fatal conse- 
quences that have ensued, represent the occurrences to take place during 
the process of filling them whilst empty, the chamber of the lamp or of 
the feeder being then occupied by gaseous vapour commingled with 
atmospheric air, an experiment was made with a glass factory lamp under 
similar circumstances, as being favourable for exhibiting the most 
violent explosive action producible by means of coal oil. Accordingly 
a lighted match was plunged into the orifice oi a burning lamp contain- 
ing a little kerosene oil of the ordinary temperature, without producing 
any perceptible explosive effect. In this state it was also filled safely. 
To test the effect of increasing the heat of the coal oil higher than 
80 deg., the lamp, whilst still burning, was placed in a basin of water, 
the temperature of which was gradually raised to the boiling point. 
During the progressive increase of temperature burning matches were 
continually inserted into the orifice of the lamp without perceptible 
effect in kindling vapour, until the heat became increased to nearly the 
temperature at which the oil had been found susceptible of being 
kindled in an open cup. The only mode of producing a slight ex- 
plosive puff on inserting a burning match, was by violently skaking the 
lamp to increase the evaporation and mix the gaseous vapour more 
thoroughly with the atmospheric air. But when the temperature of 
the coal oil became further increased to about 160 deg., the rising 
gaseous vapour entirely filled the chamber of the lamp and expelled 
the atmospheric air so completely as to cause lighted matches to be ex- 
tinguished within the chamber, whilst the ascending gas continued to 



104 ON THE EXPLOSIBILITY OP COAL OILS. 

blaze with a slight flame above the open orifice. Indeed with the sample 
of oil which did not emit sufficient gaseous vapour to become kindled at 
a temperature below 125 deg., it required dexterous manipulation to so 
apportion the gaseous vapour and the atmospheric air as to exhibit the 
faintest action of an explosive character. 

Continuing the experiment with the kerosene at a still higher tem- 
perature than 212 deg., by pouring it into an iron ladle over a hot fire, 
the gaseous vapour arose therefrom still more rapidly, until it became 
a visible smoke ascending regularly in a column from the ladle even 
whilst heated red-hot, without becoming kindled into flame until a 
lighted taper was brought into contact with it ; then the gaseous vapours 
became resolved into a bright column of steady flame without any 
evidence of an explosive tendency. 

Whale oil, tallow, rosin, and pine sawdust were similarly exposed 
in the same heated ladle with precisely similar results, showing that the 
kerosene was no more explosive than either of these substances, and 
that they all alike became decomposed at a high temperature, into their 
constituent elements of carbon and hydrogen, or carburetted hydrogen 
gas. One measure of this inflammable gas is found to form a new 
chemical combination with about three measures of atmospheric air 
when kindled, and to exhibit the phenomenon of an elongated flame 
whilst the combination is taking place between the ascending particles 
of the surface of the gas and the particles of air in immediate contact 
therewith. This result is manifested in the form of the flame of a 
lamp or gas-burner. But if one measure of carburetted hydrogen be 
thoroughly mixed with four or five of atmospheric air, so that the 
particles be all brought into intimate contact with each other, then the 
combination takes place simultaneously throughout, producing the 
sudden and violent expansive action denominated an " explosion." 
In order, therefore, to produce an explosion of a lamp or of any other 
vessel, it is only necessary to mix the gases of decomposed oil, coal, 
or wood with this combining portion of atmospheric air, and then to 
apply a lighted match to the mixture. 

Dangerous explosions are thus often produced in common stoves on 
suddenly decomposing the wood, shavings, or paper used therein for 
kindling, by throwing red hot coals upon them. The carburetted 
hydrogen, rising in the form of a dense smoke, becomes commingled 
with the atmospheric air occup\dng the chamber of the stove, and on 
being kindled the whole simultaneously flashes into flame. In " air- 
tight stoves" these explosions have often proved destructively violent 
to persons and property. 

Thus there may ensue dangerous explosions even in lighting a fire 
in a stove ; and most fearful explosions have often taken plaoe in 
apartments of dwelling-houses, when about one-fifth part of the space 
therein becomes occupied by coal gas escaping from leakages of gas- 
pipes. The difference in the extent of the violence in such cases is 



ON THE EXPL08IBILITY OF COAL OILS. 105 

simply due to the greatly increased quantity of the explosive gas accu- 
mulated in large rooms, as compeared with the diminutive chambers of 
common lamps. The extent of the danger to both life and property 
is thus correspondingly magnified. Even adjacent buildings have thus 
been damaged and many lives destroyed by such explosions of coal 
gas. 

There is, therefore, the same danger of explosions in the use oi coal 
gas in houses as in the use of coal oil in lamps where ordinary care 
and caution are not exercised. Were about five parts of atmospheric 
air mixed in a city gas-works with one part of the coal gas, and thus 
distributed for use, the jet of gas kindled at a burner would;; communi- 
cate the flame to the interior of all the main pipes and gas-holders, 
and a general siumltaneous explosion of all would ensue. The same 
parallel has been applied to excluding atmospheric air from the chambers 
of kerosene oil lamps by keeping them filled with oil. 

To compare practically the violence of the explosion of common 
coal gas with that of the inflammable kerosene coal gas and of naphtha, 
a small tin vessel of the capacity of a factory lamp was made for the 
experiments ; the results of which showed that the coal gas was the 
most readily explosible, the extent of the explosion, however, being 
only a slight puff from the orifice of the tin vessel. 

The slightness of all the explosions in the experiments that have 
been recapitulated, is ascribable to the small proportion of one-fifth 
pure oxygen gas contained in the atmospheric air, the remaining four- 
fifths being composed of incombustible nitrogen. Were pure oxygen 
substituted for the diluted atmospheric air, the explosions would have 
been dangerously violent. Indeed, were the atmosphere composed of 
pure oxygen, the iron grate-bars of a furnace would burn more bril- 
liantly than the most combustible fuel placed thereon, and explosions 
and conflagrations would continually occur with irresistible violence. 
It is owing to the presence of the pure oxygen gas evolved by heating 
saltpetre, and commingled with the carburetted hydrogen gas evolved 
from the ignited pine floors and partitions of warehouses, that the most 
frightful explosions have occurred, which have often blown up great 
warehouses and destroyed many lives. This fact appears to have been 
lost sight of in the numerous discussions of the questions of "the 
explosibility of saltpetre," which have been published, and in the ex- 
periments that have been made to solve practically this unsettled 
question. These experiments have shown that where fragments of char- 
coal, not finely pulverised, such as are produced from burning wood, 
and from cloth commonly used for bagging, are thrown upon heated 
saltpetre, a prolonged vivid combustion has ensued, termed deflagration 
in contradistinction to explosion, the contact of the two substances 
being confined to the surfaces of the solid masses. To produce ex- 
plosive action with saltpetre and charcoal when ignited, it has therefore 
been found necessary to pulverise both substances very finely and then 



106 ON THE EXPLOSIBILITY OF COAL OILS. 

to commingle them, atom to atom, artificially with, the utmost care, as is 
practically accomplished in the manufacture of gunpowder. When 
thus prepared, the saltpetre sets free sufficient pure oxygen to be 
chemically combined, atom to atom, with the charcoal or carbon in the 
confined chamber of a cannon, independently of a supply in the oxygen 
gas from the external atmospheric air. In this way only is an explosion 
directly producible by saltpetre. But indirectly, as occurs in a burning 
warehouse, a still more violent explosion than that of gunpowder is pro- 
ducible by simply mixing together the gaseous products of saltpetre and 
burning wood, as the following experiment, made in the laboratory of 
Brown University, with the co-operation of Professor Hill, will forcibly 
demonstrate. 

Some saltpetre was put into a retort, and subjected to the heat of a 
furnace, to represent the action of the intense heat of ' a burning ware- 
house on saltpetre stowed therein. The gas evolved from the saltpetre 
was collected in a glass receiver. Some fine sawdust was put into 
another retort, similarly heated in a furnace, and the rising carburetted 
hydrogen gas was collected in another receiver inverted over water. The 
two gaseous products were commingled in the proper combining pro- 
portions, and introduced into a small tin tubular chamber, with a cover 
loosely fitted on its top, and a small hole pierced in its side, to which a 
lighted match was applied. An explosion ensued so violent and rapid 
that the top of the circular cover was burst off, from its soldered edge 
before it was lifted up, and the hoop of it split open and thrown to a 
distance with a deafening report. 

After witnessing the violent and stunning explosion thus produced 
by a minute quantity of the mixed gases of pine wood and saltpetre, 
the Professor remarked that a room full of such an explosive mixture 
might produce the terrific effect of the explosion of a magazine of gun- 
powder. 

The dense smoke of burning floors, constituted of carburetted 
hydrogen, and the pure oxygen evolved by the heat of them from the 
saltpetre, might ascend into some adjacent room and remain com- 
mingled, ready to explode by the first flash of flame which might reach 
them there. 

The explosiveness in this case manifestly originates from the 
chemical combinations of the oxygen gas, set free by heating the salt- 
petre, with the carburetted hydrogen gas, set free by the heating of the 
pine wood, and not from any explosive property in the saltpetre itself. 
For this special reason saltpetre stored by itself, without the proximity 
of wooden floors beneath it, should not be considered in the class of a 
hazardous risk for fire insurance, or intrinsically dangerous. 

As the dangerous inflammability of coal oil appeared to be ascribable 
to the naphtha not separated therefrom, the following experiments 
were made to ascertain the extent of the inflammable properties of pure 
naphtha. 



ON THE EXPLOSIBII/ITY OF COAL OILS. 107 

Finding that the liquid naphtha evolved sufficient vapours at the 
ordinary temperature of the atmosphere to become instantaneously- 
kindled into flashing flames, the cup containing it was immersed in a 
freezing mixture of snow and salt to reduce the temperature to the 
zero of Fahrenheit's scale. At this low temperature, the naphtha 
appeared to blaze with equal violence. Then a quantity of snow was 
mixed with the liquid naphtha and thoroughly stirred, for still further 
reducing the temperature. Even at this extreme degree of cold the 
naphtha contin tied to flame so furiously that it was necessarily thrown 
from the cup, upon the ice covering the ground where the experiment 
was made, in the open air, whilst the thermometer indicated an atmo- 
spheric temperature of 19 deg. below the freezing point. The naphtha 
still continuing to burn upon the surface of the ice, a covering of snow 
was thrown over it to extinguish the flame. Through this covering of 
white snow the bright flames still continued to shoot up, presenting to 
view the extraordinary spectacle of burning snow. 

On repeating similar experiments on the comparative combustibility 
of spirits of wine or alcohol, camphine, and burning fluid, they did 
not emit sufficient gaseous vapours at the freezing point, or 32 deg. to 
become kindled into flame, when burning matches were plunged 
therein, but with a little increase of temperature they all became 
kindled. 

The preceding experiments seem to exhibit impressively the extra- 
ordinary inflammability of naphtha, arising from the facility with 
which it emits gaseous vapours. Susceptible of being readily kindled 
into flames, even through a mantle of snow, naphtha, like ether, emits 
gaseous vapour, which, with surprising facility pervades the air, and 
the odour of it being rather pleasant than offensive, like that of arti- 
ficial coal gas, the utmost caution is requisite to prevent not only 
unexpected explosions, but also the almost unextinguishable violence 
of its conflagration ; for, practically, the application of water does not 
subdue the conflagration of naphtha in quantity, and only the exclu- 
sion of atmospheric air appears to quench the fury of its flames. To 
prevent the escape of the gas through the porous wooden staves, it 
has been found necessary to coat the inside of the barrels with a solu- 
tion of glue. 

. The insidious nature of the gaseous vapour of naphtha is therefore 
its most dangerous quality, for when stored in barrels in a warehouse, 
with the bungholes of the barrels open, sufficient vapour escapes into 
the air of a close apartment to produce a violent explosive action on 
introducing a lighted candle. In this way, notwithstanding the pre- 
cautions used at the distilleries of coal oils, several of them have been 
first shattered by explosions of the naphtha vapour and then burned 
down. 

Petroleum contains a considerable per-centage of naphtha, and con- 
sequently partakes in a degree of its dangerous properties There 



108 ON THE EXPLGSIBILITY OF COAL OILS. 

appears to be sufficient reason for classing these liquids as specially 
hazardous. 

In making experiments with the tin vessel of the capacity of a 
common lamp (before described), a single drop of naphtha was found 
to yield sufficient vapour to produce as much explosive action as could 
be produced by the most inflammable coal oil for sale in the market, 
when similarly experimented with ; and after every experiment failed 
to exhibit the slightest explosive tendency of the best kerosene oil, 
a single drop mingled therewith rarely failed to yield sufficient vapour 
to manifest its presence by a slight explosive puff, when kindled by a 
lighted match. The combustion in this case was confined to the 
minute quantity of naphtha gas, without either kindling the kerosene 
oil, or dangerous results. 

In all the accounts of the explosions of camphine and burning fluid 
lamps there appear to be no statements of any damage or injury to 
life or property by the mere mechanical force developed. The prin- 
cipal disastrous residts are caused by the scattering about of highly 
inflammable liquids, which instantaneously spread the conflagration 
over surrounding combustible substances. It is sufficient to produce 
the most disastrous consequences, if a lamp containing any of these 
highly inflammable liquids, produce only a sufficient gust of an ex- 
plosive character to disperse the blazing contents over the dresses of 
adjacent persons, or surrounding combustible matter. The rapid 
communication of the flames has in this way often proved fatal to life 
and destructive to buildings. For this reason the rates of premium 
for fire insurance have been enhanced on property jeopardised by the 
use of camphine and burning fluid in lamps for lighting factoiy build- 
ings. As the accidental fall and breakage of camphine or burning- 
fluid lamps on a floor have often produced the loss of life and property 
by communicating fire, as above stated, an experiment was made to 
test the comparative results which might be anticipated from a similar 
accident to a burning lamp containing coal oil, which required to 
be heated to 125 deg. before it emitted sufficient gaseous vapour to be 
kindled by a lighted match. Some coal oil of this quality was poured 
out of a burning lamp upon a floor and the blazing wick dropped 
therein. There it continued burning until the heat of it raised the 
temperature of the surrounding coal oil to 125 deg., when the blaze 
began gradually to spread over the surface of the oil on the floor in an 
enlarging circle, but no sudden flash of flame spread over the whole sur- 
face at once, as was the case when burning fluid and camphine were 
similarly experimented upon. 

To represent the effect of accidentally spilling the kerosene oil from 
a burning lamp upon a cotton dress, a piece of calico cloth was moist- 
ened with the oil, and then held up in contact with the flame of a lamp. 
The kerosene required a little time for its temperature to become raised 
to the evaporative point of 125 deg., before the blaze began to spread 



OX THE EXFLOSIBILIT'E OF COAL OILS. 109 

over the surface of the calico, and it was readily extinguishable by the 
breath when first kindled. Although a single calico dress may of itself 
be deemed dangerously inflammable, yet it requires more time to 
become ignited whilst wet with kerosene oil, but the intensity of the 
flame becomes finally much greater. 

When a similar experiment was repeated on cotton cloth moistened 
with burning fluid, camphine, and spirits of wine, the blaze spread 
instantaneously over the surface of the cloth with terrific violence, 
affording ample reason for the belief of an increased hazard in using 
them in lamps even for household illumination ; and yet how few are 
the disastrous accidents which have occurred from this cause, in 
comparison of the vast number of cases where lamps supplied with 
these inflammable liquids have been harmlessly used with ordinary 
care. 

. An important incidental security, resulting from the use of kerosene 
in lamps, is an exemption from the crusts of coal which are found to 
collect on the wicks where whale oil is burnt, and which not only 
obscure the radiance of light, but frequently sparkle off upon adjacent 
combustible bodies. It is necessary often to trim the wicks of whale 
oil lamps, which in manufactories is frequently done by workmen im- 
patient at the waning glimmer. The burning crusts of the wick, 
knocked off without regard to surrounding combustible matter in 
cotton mills, has often set them on fire and burned them. Turpentine 
is also used for lighting the wicks of such lamps, which increases 
the danger in cotton mills. For these reasons it is believed that the 
comparative hazard from fire by the use of whale oil in lamps in cotton 
mills, is greater than where coal oil is similarly used, of the quality 
before stated. 

Although pure sperm oil may be free from the preceding objection, 
yet, so great is the temptation of a profit of about one dollar per gallon 
from mixing the cheaper whale oil with sperm oil, that it has become 
nearly impracticable to obtain a sufficient supply of the latter, even for 
oiling machinery. So great, indeed, has been found the difficulty of 
procuring pure sperm oil in England for this purpose, that the heavier 
coal oil has been there successfully substituted in place of it for this 
special purpose. 

Ample capital and skill have recently been applied to the new 
branch of business of the distillation of coal oils, and no deficiency 
of an abundant future supply will hereafter occur for purposes of 
illumination, or, when properly prepared, for lubrication of ma- 
chinery. It appears that an entire cargo of coal oil has recently been 
exported to Italy. The supply of coal oil will not fail until the 
supply of coal in the depths of the earth becomes exhausted. How 
long this may continue has already become a curious subject of calcu- 
lation. 

The consumption of coal for purposes of navigation, and for motive 
power in the useful arts, is manifestly destined to go on, increasing with 



110 ON THE EXPLOSIBILITT OP COAL OILS. 

an increasing population to a vast extent, whilst no compensating 
supply is accumulating in new deposits or formations of fresh beds of 
coal to replenish the decreasing stock. In anticipation of the exhaus- 
tion of the coal mines of England, the question of restricting the 
exportation of coal has heen debated in Parliament, and a recent 
writer has published in the i London Quarterly Review ' an estimate, 
limiting the supply to a period of about one thousand years, and 
then, he observes, "recourse must be had to the vastly more exten- 
sive coal fields of North America." In a sort of geological inventory 
of the stock of coal on hand in the possession of some of the principal 
nations of the earth, it appears that there are about 135,000 square 
miles of area of coal fields in the United States, 18,000 square miles 
in British North America, 12,000 in Great Britain, 3,500 in Spain, 
and only 1,700 in France. The possession of abundant supplies of 
coal and iron by races of men having the intelligence and vigour to 
use them effectively, constitutes, at the present day, the basis of 
natural greatness, as exhibited in the effects of the annual production 
of seventy millions of tons of coal by Great Britain for the develop- 
ment of manufactures, commerce, and physical comforts of the people. 

These facts impart to the present subject of inquiry exceedingly 
interesting as well as instructive considerations connected with the 
probable future supremacy in the useful arts and national power of 
the people of different countries of this earth. The coal fields of this 
western continent have only recently began to yield up their hidden 
treasures of mineral coal and petroleum. Our country is still literally 
"the new world." Provided with a tenfold greater supply of coal 
and iron than Great Britain, and with far more than all the rest of 
the continent of Europe besides, this physical power is destined to 
be developed with a paramount influence on the affairs of men in 
remote ages of futurity, after the present wilderness of North America 
shall have been made to " blossom as the rose." Inspired with 
glowing anticipations of the future destiny of America, resulting from 
the possession of vast regions of fertile land and mineral treasures 
hidden beneath its surface, Bishop Berkely inscribed his prophetic verse — 

"Westward the course of empire takes its way." 

The preceding experimental facts have been investigated for the 
special purpose of showing that all these bountiful provisions, stored 
up for the future well-being of man on earth may be safely used with 
due care and forethought, without which even a draught of cold 
water might prove a fatal beverage. The minuter details have also 
been added, to dispel unfounded apprehensions of danger in the use of 
coal oils properly distilled at establishments of known credit and 
respectability, and to awaken caution where there is real cause for alarm, 
that these gifts of a bountiful Creator may be rendered subservient to 
human enjoyment and happiness. 

Providence, Rhode Island. 



Ill 

PHOSPHATE NODULES.* 

BY THE REV. GEORGE HENSLOW. 

Like all other sciences, that of agriculture has of late years made 
rapid strides in advancement, and one of the most important points that 
has engaged the attention of scientific agriculturists is the employment 
of manures specially adapted to particular crops ; amongst which are 
those derived from artificial and mineral sources. It is our purpose to 
narrate the discovery and introduction of the use of "phosphate 
nodules," or " coprolites," (as they are generally but wrongly called), 
as a manure more particularly requisite for root crops. Although thou- 
sands of tons are annuallyt prepared from different localities, but few of 
our farmers, who derive vast benefit from them, have any idea that my 
father, the late Professor Henslow, of- Cambridge, merited their thanks. 

In the year 1839 Professor Liebig first suggested the use of super- 
phosphate of lime from bones for agricultural purposes.J 

Again, in 1843, he strongly advocated the more general use of phos- 
phates. " A field," he says, " in which phosphate of lime, or the alka- 
line phosphates, form no part of the soil, is totally incapable of pro- 
ducing grain, peas, or beans.' ' § 

Again, he declares that "if a rich and cheap source of phosphate of 
lime were open to England, there can be no question that the importa- 
tion of foreign corn might be altogether dispensed with after a short 
time." He here (p. 176) speaks in allusion to the coprolites|| discovered 
by Dr. Buckland in 1842. The enthusiastic chemist concludes his letters 
with the following remarks : — " What a curious and interesting subject 
for contemplation ! In the remains of an extinct animal world, England 
is to find the means of increasing her wealth in agricultural produce, as 
she has already found the great support of her manufacturing industry 
in the remains of a vegetable world. May this expectation be realised, 
and may her excellent population be thus redeemed from poverty and 
misery !" 

Previous to Dr. Buckland' s discovery, guano had begun to be imported 
(1841) from islands in the South Seas, where it forms a stratum many 
feet thick, T being the accumulation for ages of the excrement of many sea- 

* From the 'Leisure Horn'.' 

f An estimate, taken by Mr. C. W. Johnson, of the annual consumption of 
superphosphate of lime made from "nodules," miscalled "coprolites," gives 
72,000 tons, at an expenditure of £360,000 ('Midland Counties Herald,' Feb 20, 
1862). 

J ' Organic Chemistry of Agriculture,' p. 184. Taylor and Walton. 1840. 

§ ' Familiar Letters on Chemistry.' Taylor and Walton. 1843. 

|| Fossil excrements and bones, etc., of saurians, in the lias near Clifton, con- 
taining about 18 per cent, of phosphate of lime. 

TJ The author has in his collection a small penguin that was embedded in the 
guano, possibly above 3,000 years ago ! 



112 OX PHOSPHATE NODULES. 

fowl. It was at that time used as a manure with great advantage on the 
coast of Peru, where the soil i3 otherwise extremely sterile. 

The percentage of phosphate of lime in guano is about 29. Its first 
trial in England (in Mr. Skirving's nursery at Liverpool, upon grass and 
turnips) established its reputation as far superior to any known manure ; 
the price, moreover, of its importation being only from 20s. to 25s. per 
cwt. 

By the year 1844 the application of guano had become various and 
abundant. But hitherto Liebig's speculations had not been realised in 
England. It was in the year 1843 that Professor Henslowand his family 
were staying for a few weeks at the pretty and retired village of Felix- 
stow, on the Suffolk coast ; and, though at that time generally con- 
demned as a watering-place, yet it is seated on one of the noblest bays 
in England, with excellent and safe bathing, possessing a maritime Flora 
of much interest, with a fine denudation of one of the most remarkable 
of our British strata ; having, moreover, the alluvial soil filled with 
fragments of Roman pottery, mixed with the well-preserved remains of 
deer, oxen, and every description of animal, including snails (!), which 
the Romans had fed on 1,400 years ago, intermixed with coins and other 
objects of antiquarian curiosity. On the north of Felixstow high cliffs 
face the sea, the lower and greater portion consisting of " London clay," 
a blueish grey bed crumbling under exposure to the atmosphere, and 
abounding in large septaria or nodular masses of stone, of about three 
feet in diameter. Vast quantities of these are collected for the purpose 
of making cement. A little flotilla of boats may often be seen a mile or 
two out at sea dredging for them. 

Superimposing the London clay is the " red crag," so called from its 
peculiar yellowish-red colour, due to the great prevalence ot oxide of 
iron. It is for the most part a sandy bed, abounding in vast quantities of 
rolled and water-worn organic remains. Numerous sharks' teeth, varying 
in size from half an inch to four inches in length ; portions of whales' 
bones, especially the ribs, and the petrous tympanic bone of the ear ;* 
innumerable fragments of marine shells, together with layers of nodular 
masses of indurated clay, the miscalled " coprolites," constitute the cha- 
racteristic features of the red crag. These nodules appear to have 
derived their origin from the London clay, in which many were found, 
by the late Mr John Brown, of Stan way ; differing, however, from the 
former, in the absence of the peculiar dark-brown colour on the exterior 
surface, and from bright yellow being often disclosed in the interior by 
fracture.f 

In consequence of the sea's encroachment at this point of the eastern 

* So abundant have these " whales' ears" subsequently proved, that the Pro- 
fessor had at one time in his collection no less than 32 dozen ! A description of 
them may be found in Owen's ' British Fossil Mammals.' 

+ Hence the names of "eggs" and "fruits," locally given to those of a some- 
what roundish form. 



ON PHOSPHATE NODULES. 113 

coast, and beating violently against the basement of tlie cliff, landslips 
frequently occurred, thus causing a succession of little semicircular 
" bays" in the London clay,* the fallen parts shelving from within a few- 
feet of the beach, to as many from the summit of the cliff, some seventy 
or more above — the width and depth of these depressions being about 
100 feet each. The surface of this sloping portion was strewed over with 
the debris of the red crag, including vast quantities of " nodules." It 
was these latter that drew the Professor's attention when geologizing, 
accompanied by the writer, then first initiated into the delights of this 
science. Taking a few home that struck him as being peculiar in form, 
he examined them carefully ; finding that not unfrequently some fossil 
organic body was embedded in the nodules, he strongly suspected them 
to be phosphoric in their nature, more especially as his first impression 
was that the majority, if not all, were genuine coprolites. This view he 
communicated to the Geological Society, and he also published a few 
remarks in the 'Gardener's Chronicle' (p. 43, 1844). He, however, 
subsequently considerably modified this idea, being by more extended 
observation convinced that they were either nodular concretions, or 
mere hardened masses of London clay, which had been rolled into 
various shapes at the time the crag was deposited, and which had subse- 
quently undergone some alteration in their mineral character, being 
highly " charged" with phosphate of lime. Some of these nodules were 
transmitted to Mr. W. H. Potter, Fore street, Lambeth, who proved, as 
the Professor suspected, that they contained a large proportion of phos- 
phate of lime (58 per cent.) He at once saw that now was the time for 
Liebig's anticipations to be realised, and that there was a vast source of 
profitable material opened for any enterprising agriculturist. Deeming 
it inconsistent, as a Christian minister, to engage in any pecuniary specu- 
lation, he did not hesitate a moment to lead others to profit by his 
discovery. He communicated it to an eminent manufacturer, who im- 
mediately desired a ton of nodules to be forwarded to him ; and although 
the idea of manufacturing on any large scale could not then be enter- 
tained, in consequence of an exaggerated notion of their value being 
afloat, so that a higher price was often demanded for the raw material 
than for the manufactured article, yet, as soon as a more reasonable value 
was assigned to the nodules, they became a staple commodity of 
trade. 

Thus was the dream of Liebig's fond imagination realised; a dream, 
indeed, as many, including the Professor himself, considered it to be ; 
for thus he spoke of it : " Devotedly as we may all desire suchaconsum 
mation, let us neither too hastily adopt, nor too hastily reject, these 
speculations of the German chemist. If he is correct in supposing that 
the phosphate of lime contained in fossil bones and coprolites, can be 
economically converted to the same purposes as that in recent bones, his 

* Since the year 1813, this peculiar feature has almost entirely disappeared, 
VOL. IV. K. 



114 ON PHOSPHATE XODULKS. 

observations will be worthy of the most serious attention of agri- 
culturists." 

This, too, has proved to be the case ; nearly twenty years have 
elapsed since those words were penned, and a new era was opened in the 
history of agricultural science. Experiment after experiment has been 
tried, and the value of this new artificial manure has ever been more 
and more highly appreciated.* 

In 1848 a new discovery was made. " It had long been a remark of 
common notoriety, that the soil of the lower part of the chalk forma- 
tion possesses remarkable powers of fertility, very little or no manure 
being required to produce many crops ; especially in the application of 
bone manures, in most instances it was positively useless."! This occirrs 
upon the out-cropping of the " upper green sand" deposit, which is im- 
mediately below the chalk at Farnham, in Surrey. Mr. T. Mainwaring 
Paine, in December, 1847, forwarded some " marl" to an eminent che- 
mist, and the result proved that a large percentage of phosphate of 
lime was contained in the soil ; nor was this all : in trenching for drains 
through the gault, the lower green-sand was exposed, upon which the 
former reposes. This, too, proved to contain layers of " mortar-like" 
substance, with nodular masses interspersed, highly charged with earthy 
phosphates. 

On the publication of Mr. Paine's interesting discovery, Professor 
Henslow called attention, in the ' Gardener's Chronicle,' to the Suffolk 
nodules, which were then being raised at the rate of sixty tons a week ; 
as well as to the fact that he had previously suggested to Mr. John Deck, 
a practical chemist of Cambridge, to analyze some of the nodules so 
abundant in the upper green-sand stratum in that neighbourhood. 
Having followed the Professor's suggestion, they were proved to contain 
earthy phosphates, in proportions varying from fifty-seven to sixty-one 
per cent. The Professor had communicated his views in a letter to the 
' Bury Post,' July 3rd, 1845, nearly three years previous to Mr. Paine's 
re-discovery, concluding with the words — " Whether these various no- 
dules, thus abounding in phosphate of lime, can be made available for 
agricultural purposes, must depend upon the possibility of their being 
collected at a cheaper rate than an equal quantity of bones can be. 
Perhaps this is a point not yet sufficiently determined ; though my own 
opinion is decidedly in favour of their being sufficiently abundant in 
some places to make it worth while to collect them." This was soon to 

* An interesting paper"(amongst many) may be found on page 155 of the 'Gar- 
dener's Chronicle' for 1846, by Mr. J. B. Lawes, on the relative effect of this manure 
upon turnips and grain crops, in which he shows that the latter will receive little 
or no benefit unless nitrogenous matter be in the soil as well. At the present day 
we believe it to be pretty generally abandoned for manuring corn : its great use 
consists in hurrying the young turnips over the ten 'er and critical age of child- 
hood, when they are mercilessly attacked by "the fly." 

f From an article in the ' Agricultural Gazette,' page 121. 1848. 



ON PHOSPHATE NODULES. 115 

be realised. A few years have since elapsed, and now every tenant who 
owns a scrap of " upper green-sand" in the neighbourhood of Cambridge 
riddles his acres with pits. "Walk from Cambridge along any of it; 
roads into the country, and within distances varying from the suburb 
to two or three miles, the eye will not fail to see one, two, three, or n.oi( 
pits in the adjoining fields. The process of acquiring the nodules there 
is considerably more laborious than in Suffolk. Pits are dug, and tht 
"marl" or clay is thrown into circular trenches, in which a rake or har- 
row is drawn round and round by a horse, while water is continually 
being pumped into it. By this means the clay is washed away, and fossil 
shells and nodules are left behind. At Felixstow, all that is requisite is 
to sift the sand from the nodules, which are then thrown together into a 
heap, to be conveyed at once to the manufactory. 

When residing lately at Steyning, in Sussex, the writer himself found 
a pit from which sand had been excavated in the lower green-sand 
deposit, containing a mortar-like band,* with a few characteristic fossils, 
and an abundance of balls of indurated clay, about one and a half feet 
beneath the surface. Suspecting them to contain phosphate of lime, as 
they much resembled specimens from Farnham, in his collection, he 
transmitted them to Messrs. Barton Brothers, chemists, of Brighton, who 
kindly undertook to analyze them. The result proved that they con- 
tained over eighty per cent, of phosphate of lime — higher, in fact, than 
any the writer has yet heard of. 

Such is a brief account of the discovery of " phosphate nodules," 
which in less than twenty years has formed a new epoch in the history 
of agricultural manures. Practical men have reaped golden fortunes 
from the discovery, though few of the thousands who have benefited by 
it, know where the phosphate nodules originally came from, or that it 
was Professor Henslow — ever ready to impart his scientific knowledge 
and discoveries — who first pointed them out. He rests from his labours, 
but the results of his active disinterested mind will be of lasting benefit 
to his country. 

* This "band" is recognised by geologists, and described as a "phosphate 
paste" intermediate between the gault and lower green-sand. It is abotit lj feet 
in thickness, and remarkable for its uniform continuity. It was doubtless this 
same band which Mr. Payne discovered re-appearing on the south side of the North 
Downs at Farnham, Steyning being situated on the north side of the South 
Downs. 



K 2 



116 
ON THE EDIBLE FISHES OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

BY DAVID HUMPHREYS STOKER, M.D. 

The Flounder (Platessa plana, Storer). — This is the most common 
flat-fish taken in the waters of Massachusetts. It is captured in con- 
siderable quantities throughout all the warm season of the year near the 
shore from the wharves and bridges ; and in the winter is speared through 
the ice. The finest brought to Boston market are taken from around 
Deer Island — and those from that locality frequently measure from 12 
to 18 inches. The largest specimen of this species I have ever seen 
measured 21 inches in length and 17 in width. 

The Flounder of New York (P. dentata, Storer). This species is 
frequently taken in the winter season at Province Town, and is occa- 
sionally brought to Boston market. It is a sweet fish, but is not 
generally relished as well as the P. plana. It is known as the Sand- 
dab. The largest specimen I have seen, measured 21 inches in length, 
and weighed 3| pounds. * 

The rusty flounder (P. ferruginea, Storer), is from 18 to 20 inches 
long. This species is occasionally brought to Boston market in the 
winter and early part of spring, from the north-western coast of Massa- 
chusetts' Bay, and principally from the vicinity of Cape Arm, where it 
is taken in about 30 fathoms of water. P. glabra is not a common 
species. It is taken in company with the plana, and is generally known 
as the plaice. 

The American Turbot {Platessa oblonga, Dekay). — This species 
is quite common during the summer and early part of autumn. It is 
taken along shore in very shallow water, and frequently weighs from 15 
to 20 lb. At Province Town it is known as the plaice ; in Boston market 
it is called the turbot. It is an excellent fish, and is considered by 
judges to be fully equal to the Rhombus maximus, English turbot. For 
a number of years a few specimens had occasionally been yearly brought 
to Boston market, when Captain Atwood, about the year 1841, conceived 
the project of bringing them alive by the cargo in the well of his smack. 
For three years he succeeded well in disposing of several loads in 
this manner — some being bought, by those who knew their value as 
turbot, and others as young halibut. When, however, in the year 1844, 
the fishermen commenced packing in ice halibut taken upon George's 
Banks, and were thus enabled to keep the market supplied with that 
fish in a state of perfect preservation, the species we are consider- 
ing could not be sold. In the lattter part of 1847, Captain Atwood 
brought to Boston a smack load of most excellent turbot, alive, and sold 
but two hundred weight — the remainder died upon his hands, while 
species of infinitely inferior quality met with a ready sale in the 
market. 

The Spotted Turbot [Pleurouectes maculatus, Mitchill), is not used 



ON THE EDIBLE FISHES OF MASSACHUSETTS. 117 

here as an article of food, although Dekay informs us that in New York 
it is considered a delicate fish. 

The New York Sole (Aclrirus mollis, Cuvier.) — Although Dr. Dekay 
speaks of this species as being common in the waters of New York, it 
is rarely found in Massachusetts. It is considered a very delicate fish 
for the table. Its length is about six inches. 

The Lump Fish (Lumpus anglorum, Willoughby). — The whole ap- 
pearance of this fish is very forbidding. Richardson tells us that " the 
Greenlanders eat its flesh, either cooked or dried, and its skin raw, 
•throwing away only the tubercles," and Dr. Neal observes, " that it is 
purchased at Edinburgh for the table." With us, however, it is not used 
as an article of food. 

The Common EeI of Massachusetts is taken along our entire coast, as 
well as in the rivers and ponds of the State. At some seasons, spring 
and winter, for instance, great numbers are brought to market from the 
mouths of the neighbouring rivers, upon the muddy bottoms of which 
they live. So great is the demand, that, sometimes, it cannot be answered. 

During the winter this species is speared, holes being cut through 
the ice for this purpose. In spring the markets are usually supplied 
from the rivers, where they are taken in nets. At Medford nets are 
stretched across the river, having in their middle a large bag capable of 
containing from 15 to 20 bushels ; as the eels are going up or down the 
river they are caught, and are kept alive for the supply of the market, 
in large ditches, excavated near the river, which are supplied by the 
tide- water. About 3,000 pounds are yearly taken at Watertown. Those 
taken in summer, when they are able to procure the brill and other 
fishes upon which they feed, are much the larger and richer, weighing 
from one to nine pounds. 

The Sun-fish (Ortkagoriscus mola, Schneider). — This inedible fish is 
occasionally met with during the summer season in Massachusetts Bay, 
sluggishly swimming near the surface. It sometimes weighs 500 lbs. 
Its liver, which weighs eight or ten pounds, is very oily, furnishing two 
or more quarts of oil, which is used by the fishermen to grease their 
masts ; it is also sometimes used by painters, although not preferable in 
this respect to other fish oil. It is considered by many fishermen a 
valuable application for sprains and bruises, and by such it is preserved 
for these purposes. 

The Sharp-nosed Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrincJms, Mitchill). — 
This fish is sometimes taken measuring even ten feet. But little atten- 
tion has as yet been paid in this country to the value of the sturgeon 
fishery in an economical point of view. The several species we possess 
might unquestionably be made useful. The following observations of 
Professor B. Jaegar contained in the 19th vol. of Hunt's Merchant's 
Magazine (New York), for 1848, are worthy of perusal : — 

" The principal sturgeon fisheries are without doubt those on the 



tl8 ON THE EDIBLE FISHES OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

Volga, near Astracan, and those on the Don, which are carried on chiefly 
by the Cossacks of that country, who find this occupation much more 
lucrative than agriculture, which they neglect entirely, iri spite of the 
very fertile soil of their lands. 

" The fish forms an important object of fishery and commerce to 
many nations, as well for its flesh, as for the caviare prepared from its 
roe, and the isinglass from its swimming bladder. 

" The city of Astracan exports every year several thousand tons of 
pickled sturgeon and caviare, for consumption in the Russian empire ; and 
Odessa much larger quantities for Greece, Italy, France, and other 
parts of Europe. When the catching of the sturgeon on the Oby, the 
Volga, Jaik, and Don begins, there arrive at these places from the 
remotest parts of the Russian empire, a considerable number of 
merchants, who purchase the fish and prepare them for transpor- 
tation. 

" The average price of one fish, without the roe and swimming-blad- 
der is generally 12s. 6d. A large one, which weighs over 200lbs., is 
sold from 12s. to 25s., and contains 40lbs. of caviare, or prepared roe 
which is sold for 6s. 

" The flesh is fat, very palatable, and much better in the summer 
after the fish has been some time in fresh water. That which is not 
eaten fresh is cut into large slices, salted, peppered, broiled, and put in 
barrels, when it is preserved in vinegar and fit for transport. A con- 
siderable quantity of this fish is smoked. The wholesale price of 
pickled sturgeon is from 25s. to 50s. a hundred weight. The caviare 
is prepared in three different manners, namely : — 

1. Two pounds of salt are added to 40 pounds of roe, and dried upon 
mats in the sun. The price for 40 pounds is 4s. 

2. Eighth-tenths of a pound of salt are mixed with 40 pounds of 
roe, then dried upon nets or sieves, and pressed into barrels. Thi? is' 
sold for a little more. 

3. The best caviare is that where the roe is put into sacks made of 
tow-cloth, and left for some time in a strong pickle. These sacks are 
then suspended, in order to let the salt watery substance run off, and 
finally squeezed, after which the roe is dried during twelve hours, and 
pressed into barrels. This roe, of which 40lbs. are sold for 6s. at the 
place, is that which is sent all over Asia and Europe, as a considerable 
article of commerce, and known by the name of caviare ; — it is eaten with 
bread like cheese. 

" Another very profitable part of the sturgeon is the swimming-blad- 
der, of which isinglass is made. For this purpose it is cut open, 
washed, and the silvery glutinous skin exposed to the air for some 
hours, by which process it can be easily separated from the external 
kin, which is of no use. This glutinous skin is placed between wet 
cloths, and shortly after each piece is rolled up and fastened in a ser- 



ON THE EDIBLE FISHES OF MASSACHUSETTS. 119 

pentine form on a board ; after they are partly dry they are hung up 
on strings in a shady place. 

" This valuable and extensive article of commerce is the isinglass of 
our shops, and is sold there for about 101. a hundred weight. There is 
also isinglass made from the swimming-bladder of the cat fish, and 
of some others ; but as this is very inferior to that from the sturgeon, 
it brings scarcely 21. a hundred weight. 

" The sturgeon is found in immense quantities in the United States 
and North America, from Virginia up to the highest habitable northern 
latitudes, where they ascend the rivers from three hundred to five hun- 
dred miles up. The Potomac, Delaware, Hudson, and principally the 
Kennebec, as well as many other rivers, contain such a quantity of 
sturgeons that from these rivers alone, without counting those farther 
north of -Maine, according to my calculations, the annual export 
of pickled sturgeon, caviare and isinglass, would be worth nearly 
100,000?. Pickled sturgeon and caviare is a favourite food of the 
descendants of Spain and Portugal in South America, as well as of the 
inhabitants of the West India Islands, .principally during Lent ; and 
isinglass would be an article of home consumption, as well as for ship- 
ment to the European market. 

" But the sturgeon is not a very favourite dish in our country, it 
brings scarcely 2|d. a pound in the market, and the roe and swimming- 
bladder are always thrown away — our fishermen, therefore, are not 
much encouraged in catching these fishes, though, according to careful 
observation, from 30,000 to 40,000 sturgeons could be annually taken 
in the rivers of the United States. 

" The sturgeon was lv'ghly appreciated by the ancient Romans and 
Greeks. It was the principal dish at all great dinner parties, and Cicero 
reproved epicures on account of spending so much money for this fish. 
Pliny says that this fish was served at the most sumptuous tables, and 
always carried by servants, crowned with garlands of flowers, and 
accompanied by a band of musicians. Even at this time one pound 
of fresh sturgeon costs about 16s. in Rome, where the fish is very 
rare." 



120 
GLASS FOR HOUSEHOLD USE AND FANCY PURPOSES. 

BY APSLEY PEL1ATT. 

Before entering upon the consideration of the various descriptions 
of glassware, it may be convenient to state a few of the distinctive 
properties of good glass, and the difficulties the manufacturer has to 
overcome, in order to produce superiority of quality. 

Glass has become of immense importance : it is technically termed 
metal, and is conducive, from its many and important qualities, alike to 
the comfort and convenience of man, and to the elevation of his mental 
powers. To the property of translucency, &c, possessed by glass, man is 
indebted for his knowledge of the most exalted as well as -the most 
minute of the great Creator's works ; other properties of glass, its 
power of resisting acids, and its non-conduction of the electric fluid, 
constitute it a material of great value and importance. Glass is 
materially divided into two specific classes — simple and compound. 

Simple glass is that in which only silica and flux are the con- 
stituents, the flux being either soda, potash, lime, magnesia, alumina, 
or mixtures of some of them, in which case the glass is simply a 
silicate of an alkali. Of such is plate, window, and bottle glass of 
every description ; the difference of quality depending entirely upon 
the character of the materials. 

Compound glass* is that in which, besides silica and alkali, 
the oxide of a metal is also a component part. This glass is called 
in England, flint glass, and on the Continent crystal, and from it, in 
England, are made all articles of luxury and domestic use. The 
object of introducing a metallic oxide into glass is to add to its 
density (an object of great importance for achromatic purposes), whereby 
greater brilliancy is obtained, the rays of light not being allowed to 
pass so straightly through, as in the simple glasses, but being more 
refracted or broken (so to speak), as they pass through. This quality 
is further taken advantage of by the glass cutter, who aims to produce 
such patterns upon the objects he manufactures, as further tend to break 
the rays of light. Flint glass being usually employed for the manufac- 
ture of articles of luxury, quality is of immense consequence, as but a 
very trifling inferiority in any of its properties renders it of compara- 
tively little commercial value ; whereas, the price is looked upon as a 
secondary object, if the quality is decidedly superior. The manufac- 

* 'Traite sur l'Art de Vitrification et des Verres Colores,' &c. — D'Aude- 
nart, Paris, 1825. ' Cyclopedia of Useful Arts and Manufactures,' hy Tom- 
linson, under the head Glass.— G. Virtue. Lardner's ' Cyclopaedia,' Porcelain 
and Glass Manufacture. — Longman and Co. Pellatt's 'Curiosities of Glass 
Making.'— Bogue, Fleet Street. 



GLASS FOR HOUSEHOLD USE AND FANCY PURPOSES. 121 

turer has, therefore, to turn his first attention to the production oi 
quality. This is not easily attained, for two special reasons : 1st, the 
difficulty of procuring the materials in a state of perfect purity ; and 
2ndly, the difficulty of anticipating the exact amount of deoxidation, 
which may take place during the fusion of the materials into glass. 
Deoxidation alone, supposing all the materials to be perfectly pure, 
will affect the colour of flint glass ; and if oxygen be not supplied, 
the materials, when fused, will produce not a white, but a green tinted 
glass. 

It is, therefore, found necessary to employ oxygen in all mixtures of 
flint glass ; and this important agent exists most conveniently in the 
black oxide of manganese ; which substance has a very strong affinity 
for oxygen, parting with it so slowly, that it is only as the other ma- 
terials in fusing become quite deoxidised that it furnishes them 
gradually with the necessary oxygen. If too much of this material 
is used, the glass takes a light purple tint, and is also rendered of 
a more frangible character, in consequence of having an excess of 
oxygen. 

With these few preliminary observations, the prominent question 
before the Jurors is, has there been progress in the quality and mani- 
pulation of glass, since the last International Exhibition ? Does the 
glass exhibited in 1862 show progress, as compared with 1851 '] The 
Jurors have great pleasute in stating, from their knowledge of the 
goods produced for several years past in their various localities, and 
from their recollection of the goods exhibited in 1851, that laudable 
progress has been made in all branches of this class. 

The Jurors have had brought to their notice no improvement or 
alteration in the constituents of flint glass. At the International Exhi- 
bition of 1851, a Council Medal was awarded to Mons. Maes, of Clichy, 
near Paris, for the employment of zinc in place of lead, under the im- 
pression that this mixture would be superior to the ordinary one, 
especially for the manufacture of glass for optical purposes ; it being 
considered that glass of zinc would be more homogenous than glass of 
lead. It does not now appear that any advantage has arisen from the 
use of zinc, as far as the Jurors know, for flint glass. The want of 
brilliancy of zinc glass is not compensated for by any special advantage 
it was thought to possess, although Mons. Maes was fully entitled to an 
award for his specialite. 

In comparing the manufactures of glass in England and other coun- 
tries, consideration must be had to habits, tastes, and local advantages 
or disadvantages. Without in the least degree depreciating the efforts 
of foreign countries in the manufacture of glass, the Jurors would 
submit that the- quality of the British glass* ranks so high, chiefly 

* D'Audenart states that the English preceded the French in the art of 
making glass with the oxide of lead. " Cela vient, dit-on, de ce que le com- 



122 GLASS FOR HOUSEHOLD USE AND FANCY PURPOSES. 

because the quality of the fuel, and the materials generally, ave 
superior. The first enables the manufacturer to use a greater propor- 
tion of silica in his glass, thereby producing a closer and stronger 
texture of body, preventing what is technically known as " sweating " 
in plate glass ; and by the second, the greater purity and brilliancy of 
colour iu flint glass is obtained. Another great advantage secured by 
the country possessing fuel of the greatest power, is that in superior 
qualities of glass, the manufacturer is enabled to fuse his materials in 
covered and larger crucibles, entirely protected from the action of the 
fuel ; and this is a great advantage, inasmuch as the colour of the glass 
is very much deteriorated by the carbon of the fuel passing over the 
fluxed materials, the carbon absorbing oxygen rendering the glass of a 
green tint. The same cause (the presence of carbon) prevents the use 
in uncovered crucibles of the oxide of lead, except to a small extent, 
the deoxidation of the metal resulting in the formation of metallic lead, 
which byits own density falls to the bottom of the crucible. In judging, 
therefore, of the comparative value of the qualities of glass made by 
this and other countries, allowance must be made for these as well 
as for other considerations. Again, as to the formation of glass into 
objects of general utility or luxury , the Jurors would remark, that to 
the habits Cdomestic or social) of different nations, the progress in the 
manufacture of specially useful or ornamental articles ia to be 
ascribed. 

Whilst from the more domestic habits of this country, much pro- 
gress has been made in the production of works of every day life, our 
continental friends have, from their more social habits and mode of 
living, been engaged in the manufacture of articles of ornament, suited 
to the drawing-room, boudoir, &c. The Jurors regret that the same 
attention has been found wanting in the foreign department to articles 
of general use ; they must at the same time admit the superior excel- 
lence of the foreign manufacturer in articles of luxury and vertu. The 
Jurors would particularly notice the advance made by the British 
exhibitors in the forms of articles for general use, which is in a great 
measure to be attributed to the taste nurtured by the schools of design 
throughout the country; the endeavours by many manufacturers to 
encourage a better appreciation of form on the part of purchasers, and 
the general advance of the public in Art knowledge. Much of this 
also is due to these National and International Exhibitions, particularly 
to the latter, in which the exhibitors learn from each other by com- 
petitions in the arts of peace. 

The greatest advance the Jurors have to notice, is that made in 
engraved glass. In the English department much taste is shown in the 

bustible le plus abondant chez eux, le charbon de terre, &c. Mais enfin ils virent 
qu'il etait temps d'imiter nos voisins d' outre mer, et d'empecher l'introduction 
de leurs cristaux dans notre patrie. Nous fimes done l'analyse de leurs produits 
et nous reeonnues distinctement les substances qui les constituaient." 



GLASS FOR HOUSEHOLD USE AND FAXCY PURPOSES. 123 

Captation of the antique and other styles of ornamentation to articles 
of daily use, and some fine specimens of high art on tazzas, &c, are 
also shown. The foreign department contains some very fine specimens, 
particularly of figure engraving. It must be admitted, that to foreign 
workmen this country is much indebted for manipulation in this ex- 
ceedingly delicate and pleasing art, which promises to take an equal 
place if not to excel that of the glass-cutter. Certain it is, that the 
manufacturer, by the taste and style of the modern engraved ornamen- 
tation, is driven to the use of finer and more classical shapes. 

Under the head of flint glass, the Jurors would notice the improve- 
ments in it for optical purposes, made by Messrs. Chance, Brothers, aud 
Co., a member of which firm was one of the Jurors, and Mons. Bon- 
temps, one of the experts of this class. These gentlemen, as far back 
as the Exhibition of 1851, had made great progress, having patented 
twenty-five years since the process first discovered by Mons. Guinand,* 
in Switzerland. It had long been suspected that the want of homo- 
geneity in flint glass, whereby it was rendered of but comparatively 
little use for optical purposes, was not due to any want of chemical 
mixture of the materials, but solely to the precipitation by gravitation 
of the heavier ingredients of the mixture. This had been successfully 
proved by Professor Faraday. Many years since, Sir Humphry Davy 
sought to remedy this, endeavouring, by long continued and excessive 
heat, to boil the mixture, so to speak, and thus to overcome the want 
of homogeneity. 

This, as might be conjectured, failed, and for a very good reason ; 
it being almost impossible to subject the whole body of the materials 
to the same degree of heat at the same time ; by a natural law, the 
portions subjected to the greater heat are constantly replaced by those 
in a lower state of caloric ; this constant interchange of particles pro- 
ducing striee. They also absorbed the alumina of the pot, and the glass 
became of a gelatinous app.arance. To obviate this defect, Messrs 
Chance and Bontemps followed out the experiments of Guinand, and 
Professor Faraday, and by constant mechanical agitation during the 
fusion of the materials, overcame the gravitation of the heavier matters, 
and thereby a much greater homogeneity of the mass was obtained. 
This discovery has led to a much greater certainty in the manufacture 
of flint glass for optical purposes, which previously was a matter of 
, ccident. 

In plate glass, the Jurors remark, with satisfaction, the superior 
piality which both the British and foreign departments continue to 
Toduce. This is a manufacture almost perfected. That there has been 
no retrogression is certain, although advance now becomes very difficult. 
In the attempt to improve the colour of plate glass, the Jurors would 
warn manufacturers against the use of manganese, or other materials to 

* 'Some account of the late Mr. Guinand, of Brenets, Neufchatel, Switzer- 
land." by S. P. de B.— Longman and Co., 1825. 



124 ON IMPROVEMENTS IN MACHINERY AND APPARATUS 

whiten or destroy the greenish tint of the glass ; because in all cases in 
which extraneous matters are used for the purpose, the glass so treated, 
after continued exposure to light and to the action of the atmosphere, 
rapidly becomes discoloured, and such productions obtain a bad charac- 
ter. Purity of material, and great care in the chemical atomic propor- 
tions of the matters used, should alone guide the manufacturer to a 
good and useful glass. The Jurors would also caution the plate- glass 
maker against using an excess of alkali, which he is tempted to do to 
save time in fusing. Such glass readily " sweats ;" that is, the alkali 
effloresces upon the surface of the glass, rendering it soon cloudy, and 
requiring constant wiping. This description of glass is unsuited to 
many purposes, and consequently obtains a reduced price in the market. 
The specimens of crown glass, German sheet glass, both white and 
coloured, as well as of bottles in every variety of metal, are all, most 
creditable to the manufacturers who exhibit them. 



ON IMPROVEMENTS IN MACHINERY AND APPARATUS FOR 
CLEANSING AND PURIFYING CASKS * 

BY ROBERT DAVISON, C.E. 

In the paper which the author had the honour of reading before this 
Association in the year 1849, on the " Desiccating Process " he took 
occasion to mention its application amongst others to the purifying of 
brewers' casks, and further stated that upwards of one million casks had, 
at that time, undergone the process. It was not, however, made 
clear that the cask had to undergo a previous operation — namely, that 
of cleansing — which was effected by machines of peculiar construction 
which completely removed all adhering matter from the inside without 
resorting to the expensive and injurious system of unheading. 

The object of the present paper is not only to confirm all that was 
then stated as to the efficiency of the hot air system, by stating that 
upwards of eleven millions of casks have since been treated in like 
manner ; but to illustrate still further the importance of a proper 
system of cleansing casks before any purifying process is applied. 

It may seem at first sight but an indifferent matter to bring before 
an important Association like the present. But when it is considered 
that there are no fewer than 2,400 public brewers in the United 
Kingdom who brew something like 20,000,000 barrels of beer annually, 
and assuming that at least an equal number of casks require to be 

* Read before the British Association. 



FOR CLEANSING AND PURIFYING CASKS. 125 

cleansed, it becomes a matter of considerable importance how and at 
what cost this enormous amount of work is acomplished. 

As regards the cleansing process — it is worthy of note, that the first 
successful introduction of machinery for this purpose was in the year 
1843, when the author, in concert with Mr. W. Lymington, produced the 
machine already referred to, as well as the improved mode of purifying. 
Previous to this period the only known method of cleansing was by 
the introduction of steam or hot water, or both, assisted by a chain 
placed inside, and a rolling motion given to the cask by hand. By 
such means it will not be difficult to see how uncertain would be the 
internal state of the cask. 

The machine invented in 1843 consisted of a double frame suited to 
the form and size of each cask, revolving one within the other, and at 
right angles to each other, in such a compound manner as to cause a 
chain of peculiar construction, assisted by hot water, to traverse com- 
pletely over every portion of the cask and so effectually remove all ad- 
hering matter. These machines still continue to be held in high repute 
in many first-rate establishments — and, so far as cleansing is concerned, 
they are nearly, if not quite, equal to anything which has since 
been attempted in this way. There is, however, one objection to them 
— namely, they are only calculated to cleanse one cask at a time ; 
this, in such establishments as the two leading Burton hoitses (whose 
demand for casks each day amounts to thousands), has been a complete 
bar to their introduction and use. 

The new machine now placed before the Association not only gets 
over the difficulty in respect to the number of casks cleansed at one 
time, but is superior to the old machine in point of speed generally. 

This machine consists mainly of two circular discs, with an upright 
shaft or spindle in the centre, which has a screw at each end (the 
threads being cut right and left handed). The two discs have likewise 
eacli a corresponding female screw, which, when turned round on the 
upright spindle (the same being temporarily fixed) it will be easy to 
see, will cause the discs to advance or recede from each other, according 
as they are turned to the right or left hand. Such is the mode by which 
, the casks are either secured or released from the machine — that is, by 
turning in one direction the casks are effectually secured between two 
discs ; by turning the reverse way, they are released. 

Any number of casks which the bottom disc will contain, and 
even a second tier (if desired), can be fixed and afterwards cleansed at 
one operation — say two sets of 5 or 10 casks. 

A compound motion is given to this machine not dissimilar (so far 
as the outer action is concerned) to the old machine ; but from the fact 
of the cask being placed in an upright position in the machine, and 
likewise surrounding the middle shaft or spindle, the casks themselves, 
when the machine is set in motion, are twirled about in a manner 
altogether peculiar and effective. The best cleansing medium is found 



126 OX IMPROVEMENTS IN MACHINERY, ETC. 

to be a small quantity of sharpshingle along with two or three gallons of 
hot water. 

The time occupied in cleansing ordinary dirty casks is 5 minutes, 
and very had mouldy casks about 12 minutes. Thus it will be seen 
that one of these machines is calculated to cleanse easily 100 ordinary 
dirty casks, or 60 mouldy ones per hour, at the mere expense of two 
or three labourers and an insignificant amount of engine power. In 
large establishments, where unheading is still resorted to, the saving to 
be effected by this new machine must of necessity be great. 

With regard to purifying both new and old casks, there can be no 
doubt that the wisest course for new casks is to divest the wood as much 
as possible of the coloured juices before it is made up into casks, which 
is easily done by hot water or steam, and afterwards drying by currents 
of hot air. Old and tainted casks are found to be ciu'ed (within 1 in 
200) by partial steaming and afterwards applying currents of hot air 
at 450 degrees Fah. 

Experience, having sufficiently proved the soundness of this mode 
of preparing casks for a most important branch of trade, it may seem 
almost needless to suggest any other method of performing the same 
work. But the author being the first to discover the importance of 
applying heated currents to such a purpose, he feels it incumbent on 
him to state that there is still another element which he believes must, 
ere long, supersede, to a considerable extent, the one before referred 
to ; it is that of superheated steam, the use of which was discovered 
lately by the author in rather a singular manner : While engaged 
in some experiments with superheated steam, it occurred to him, 
seeing that there was an indicated temperature at the time of between 
600 and 700 Fah., that it would be well to try its effect upon a very 
bad stinking cask which, being obtained, was subjected to the heat 
for 10 minutes, when it was pronounced perfectly sweet. It is only 
necessary to add that the same result has followed many repetitions of 
the system, and although all have not been attended with the same 
success, the author feels that it has not arisen from any fault in the 
principle, but rather from a want of sufficient practical data as to the 
exact temperature and the amount of time which the casks can be safely 
exposed to this powerful agent. 



127 
CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE * 

BY MESSRS. J. C. STEVENSON, R. C. CLAPHAJ1, AND T. RICHARDSON. 

Salt. — Salt works were formerly very numerous in this district, 
establishments having been formed at Howden Pans, Hartley Pans, 
Jarrow, North and South Shields and other localities. This trade was 
carried on by several of the most wealthy families in the neighbour- 
hood, in the beginning of the last century, and about 200 pans were 
employed in producing salt, which was extracted from sea- water and 
brine springs. Shields salt was the most celebrated salt in the kingdom, 
and was, produced in such quantities at South Shields as to give a 
character, and even a nomenclature to this town, which to this day is 
divided into East Pan and West Pan Wards. The remains of a large 
hill are still to be seen, formed from the ash of the salt paus. After a 
time these ashes took fire, and Mr. JR. W. Swinburne — to whom we are in- 
debted for this information — states that the Chapter of Durham are in 
possession of a picture representing the burning hills of South Shields. 
The production of salt from sea-water in this locality has given place to 
that obtained from the brine-springs and rock-salt of Cheshire, and 
illustrates what great changes took place in altering the locales of manu- 
factures. A considerable quantity of white salt is still made on the 
Tyne from sea-water, in which rock salt from Cheshire and Ireland is 
dissolved, in order to diminish the cost of evaporation. Two improve- 
ments have been successfully introduced in making white salt, which 
have the saving of fuel as tlieir object. Mr. Wilkinson employs the 
waste heat of coke ovens for this purpose, and Mr. Fryer dries whitening 
with the heat which escapes from his salt pans. 

Alkali (for this and the last century). — Two gentlemen, Mr. W. Losh 
and Mr. Thomas Doubleday, were engaged, unknown to each other, 
with a series of experiments on the best plan of converting common salt 
into carbonate of soda. Each of these chemists appears to have used 
very similar processes, and when the late Lord Dundonald came to reside 
in the neighbourhood, he was soon on intimate terms with both parties. 
Both Mr. Losh and Mr. Doubleday tried numerous plans at his lord- 
ship's suggestion ; but after spending upwards ot 1,000?., Mr. Doubleday 
would seem to have tired of making an outlay which promised little or 
no result. The first plan tried was to effect the decomposition of 
common salt by means of oxide of lead, and to carbonate the caustic 
soda, while the insoluble chloride of lead was heated to form a yellow 
pigment, long known as Turner's yellow. Another process consisted in 
decomposing common salt by sulphate of iron. The resulting sulphate 
of soda was fluxed with coal, and the sulphide of sodium which was 
formed was carbonated with sawdust. This plan was also worked some 
time afterwards at an alkali manufactory situated near Blyth. Another 

* Read before the meeting of the British Assoeiation. 



128 CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 

process tried was founded on the neutral decomposition of common salt 
and sulphate of potash. This operation was regularly carried on by Mr. 
Losh and Mr. Doubleday, whenever the price of the two potash salts 
allowed a profit being made, and the chloride of potassium was as regu- 
larly sold to the Yorkshire alum makers. Mr. Losh resided in Paris in 
1791, where he acquired a knowledge of chemistry, and soon after his 
return home a company was formed to manufacture soda at Walker. 
The original partners were Lords Dundas and Dundonald, Messrs. 
Aubany, and John Surtees, and John and William Losh. They obtained 
their salt from a brine-spring found in a coal pit at Walker, and the 
heavy duty upon salt at that date, which was 36Z. per ton, was avoided 
by evaporating together a concentrated solution of the*brine-spring and 
sulphuric acid, thus forming sulphate of soda, and avoiding making salt. 
Another plan adopted by Mr. Losh to avoid the duty was to add ground 
coke or ashes to the concentrating salt pan before the salt was formed, 
and use it in this damaged condition for the manufacture of sulphate of 
soda. This was about the year 1796 ; Messrs. Doubleday and Easterby, 
in 1808, commenced making sulphate of soda by decomposing the waste 
salts from the soap-boilers, which consisted chiefly of common salt and 
some sulphate of soda. Their chief supply was obtained from the 
Messrs. Jaiuieson and other soap-boilers at Leith. They purchased their 
sulphuric acid at first, but between 1809 and 1810, they got the plans of 
chambers from Messrs. Tennants, of Glasgow, and erected the first 
chamber on the Tyne at Bill Quay. They imported the first cargo from 
Sicily about the same time, and its arrival in the river excited great 
attention. At first the Government returned them the import duty on 
the sulphur, which was used in making acid, and the present Mr. 
Doubleday remembers having received, at the end of the year, as much 
as 1,500/. This however only lasted some three or four years, when 
the duty was repealed. This firm, then trading under the name of 
Doubleday and Easterby, also erected the first platina retort for making 
rectified vitrol, and which cost them 700Z., and before long they had 
three retorts in operation. The alkali which they made was used 
in the crude form in the manufacture of soap, in which they 
were also engaged. In 1816, after the conclusion of peace, Mr. Losh 
returned to Paris, where he learned the details of the present plan of 
decomposing sulphate of soda, winch he immediately introduced in his 
works at Walker, and thus may be said to have been the father of the 
modern alkali trade in this country. Mr. Doubleday gave the plans of 
his chamber, furnaces, &c, to the Messrs. Cookson when they 
commenced their alkali works at South Shields, and these gentlemen 
made Wright, Mr. Doubleday's foreman, a present of a silver tea service 
in consideration of the services he had rendered. This trade has been 
developed in an extraordinary manner in this locality, where about 47 
per cent, of the whole produce of the United Kingdom is now manufac- 
tured. The peculiar advantages of the district are also being recognised 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 129 

by the fact that the celebrated firm of Messrs. Tennant have purchased 
land with the intention of removing the greater part of their works 
from Glasgow to the banks of the Tyne. Charles Cooper, an overman 
at Walker Colliery, informs ns that he was employed by Mr. Losh in 
1798, and that crystals of soda were then manufactured and sold by Mr. 
Losh. The salt obtained from the brine spring on the premises was 
evaporated in small lead pans, and was afterwards decomposed by 
litharge. The soda so produced was crystallised in small lead cones, 
and when it had stood sufficiently long to crystallise, the cones were 
turned up side down to run off the mother liquor. The crystallising 
process was then only carried on in the winter months. C. Hunter, 
Esq., of Walker, further informs us that in 1816 he sold about half a 
ton of soda for Mr. Losh to a Mr. Anderson, of Whitby at 601. per ton. 
The following details will embrace a brief account of the source of 
the raw materials, and the various improvements which have been 
recently introduced : — 

Source of Sulphur. — Until within the last few years Sicilian 
sulphur was almost exclusively employed in this district for the manu- 
facture of sulphuric acid — the pyrites from Wicklow being the only 
other source of supply. This latter, however, was not sufficiently abun- 
dant to render the manufacturer independent of the great fluctuations 
which have recently taken place in the price of sulphur, on account of 
the demand consequent on the vine disease. During the last few years 
the following additional sources of supply have become available : — 1st, 
Belgian ; 2nd, Norwegian ; 3rd, Spanish or Portuguese ; 4th, Italian ; 
5th. Westphalian pyrites. 1. The Belgian pyrites has the advantage 
of being shipped at Antwerp at a moderate freight to the Tyne. It is a 
very hard, compact material, containing about 50 per cent, of sulphur, 
and therefore nearly approaches a pure bi-sulphuret of iron. The burnt 
residue from one manufactory on the Tyne (the Walker Alkali Works) 
after being roasted in a lime-kiln to burn off the small remaining 
portion of sulphur, is regularly used as an iron ore at the adjoining iron 
works. It contains no copper, and from three to five per cent, of arsenic. 
2. The Norwegian pyrites is shipped at Levanger. It contains 44 per 
cent, of sulphur, is easily broken, and does not readily flux in the kiln. 
The quantity of copper it contains being less than 10 per cent., the burned 
residue cannot be profitably smelted for copper. 3. The most exten- 
sively used pyrites is shipped from Huelva, in Spain, and Pomeron, in 
Portugal. The mines are situated on each side of the boundary between 
the two countries. They were most extensively worked in ancient 
times, but their recent development has arisen from the use of the 
ore as a source of sulphur. Containing only 2 to 4 per cent of copper, 
it was unable to compete with the richer ores which from time to time 
became available in different parts of the world, but the mining is now 
rendered profitable by the value of the sulphur being realisable as well 
as that of the copper. The percentage of sulphur varies lrom 46 to 50 
VOL. IV. L 



130 CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 

The practical difficulty in burning this ore, namely its great fusibility 
at the point where the combustion of the sulphur gives rise to consider- 
able heat, has been overcome by the adoption of kilns, first used in 
Lancashire, in which the area of the surface is large in proportion to the 
weight of the charged pyrites. The use of cupreous pyrites has led to 
the introduction of the manufacture of copper on the Tyne, which will 
this ye.ir amount to between 700 and 800 tons. The ordinary process 
of smelting is employed — but the moist method is also being tried, the 
advantage being that, by this method, all the ingredients of the mineral 
are utilised, the oxide of iron making an ore of similar quality to hema- 
tite. The smelting process, however, is still preferred in the large 
manufactories. In 1860 several cargoes of an ore containing free 
sulphur imbedded in gypsum were imported from the Island of Milo, in 
the Archipelago. From the small quantity of sulphur contained in it (19 
up to 24 per cent.) there was great difficulty found in burning it, except 
the large masses. Subjoined is an analysis of one parcel of it : — Siilphur 
24-00; gypsum, 62-20; sand, &c, 6 00; water, 7'00. Still more 
recently, Professor Ansted has discovered a deposit of free sulphur in 
Corfu, of which he has been kind enough to forward a sample, but we 
believe it has not been used in commerce. When sulphuric acid is 
wanted quite free from arsenic, Sicilian sulphur must be used. So 
largely has pyrites displaced sulphur in the production of sulphuric acid, 
that in 1862 only 2,030 tons of sulphur were consumed, against 72,800 tons 
of pyrites ; and, reckoning the above quantity of sidphur as equivalent to 
4,500 tons it appears that 77,300 tons of pyrites are annually used for the 
manufacture of sulphuric acid, along with 2,500 tons of nitrate of soda. 
Assuming a produce of 120 per cent, on the pyrites, this is equal to a 
production of 92,760 tons of sulphuric acid, calculated as concentrated. 
This quantity of sulphuric acid is nearly all consumed where it is made, 
for the manufacture of other chemicals, such as soda and manures, the 
quantity sold being 6,440 tons, but this might be more correctly described 
as consumed in other works, for the quantity sent to a distance is very 
small. Four-fifths of the sulphuric acid is used for the decomposition of 
common salt. 

Salt and the Alkali Trade — The ordinary Cheshire salt is 
almost exclusively used for the manufacture of alkali, the exception 
being in one manufactory, where the waste heat of coke ovens is utilised 
in evaporating the liquors formed by dissolving rock salt. The anciently 
extensive salt works of Shields are now represented only by one or two 
comparatively small manufactories of salt, intended entirely for domestic 
use. Nearly all the salt used in the alkali works is carried by canal to 
Hull, Goole, or Grimsby, whence it is brought to the Tyne at a nominal 
freight, generally by foreign vessels, that take it as ballast when coming 
to the Tyne for an outward cargo of coals. This is the only practical 
result of the repeal of that portion of the navigation laws that pre- 
vented foreign ships carrying cargoes coastwise. The annual decompo- 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 131 

sition of common salt in the district is 90,000 tons, requiring 73,800 
tons of sulphuric acid, and producing 100,000 tons of dry sulphate of 
soda. The whole of this quantity is used in the manufacture of alkali. 
A few hundred tons are consumed in the glass manufacture, hut are left 
out of this account, as no account has been taken of the sulphate of 
soda made from the nitrate of soda in the sulphuric acid process. The 
alkali is produced in the four forms of — 1. Alkali or soda ash, 43,500 
tons. 2. Crystals of soda, 51,300 tons. 3. Bicarbonate of soda, 7,450 
tons. 4. Caustic soda, 580 tons. The manufacture is so well understood 
that only local peculiarities and recent improvements need be noted. 

Alkali. — All the Tyne soda ash is fully carbonated, sawdust being 
generally used in the furnace for this purpose, so that it contains merely 
a trace of hydrate of soda. The greater part of it is also refined by dis- 
solving, settling, evaporating, and calcining ; producing thus an article 
of great whiteness and purity. 

Caustic Soda. — This manufacture is as yet quite in its infancy in 
this district. In Lancashire very large quantities are made from the 
" red liquors " which drain from the soda salts. These liquors always 
contain caustic soda, sulphuret of sodium, and common salt. In Lan- 
cashire, where a hard limestone is used for balling, the percentage of 
caustic soda is large, while the sulphuret exists in small proportion, and 
it is easily oxidised. It would seem that the London chalk which is 
used here produces a lime, chemically much less energetic, forming less 
caustic soda, and holding sulphur more loosely in combination. Con- 
sequently, the Tyne red liquors require a very large quantity of nitrate 
for their oxidation, and yield so little caustic that this process has been 
abandoned in favour of the well-known method of boiling a weak solu- 
tion of alkali with lime. This has the advantage, however, of producing 
a richer and very pure article, sometimes as strong as 74 per cent. 

The improvements (besides such as have been already noticed) which 
have been introduced into the alkali trade since the last meeting of the 
British Association in Newcastle, may be divided into those which have 
been generally adopted, and the special improvements of individual 
manufacturers. 1st. Economy of labour has been attained by using 
larger furnaces, in which a workman can manipulate a larger charge 
with less toil, and by various other appliances purely mechanical. 2nd. 
Economy of fuel has been largely attained by the application of the 
waste heat and flame from the ball furnaces to the surface evaporation 
of the tank or black ash liquor. Formerly this was evaporated in 
hemispherical cast-iron pans, each with a fire below. 3rd. Economy of 
water and fuel by the adoption of the circulating tanks for lixiviating 
balls, first introduced at Glasgow by the late Mr. Charles Tennant Dun- 
lop. They are so arranged as regards their connections with one 
another that water runs into the tank which has been most nearly ex- 
hausted, and liquor of full strength runs off the tank which has been 
most recently filled. The balls are always under the surface of the 

L2 



132 CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 

liquor, and thus escape the partial decomposition and consequent forma- 
tion of sulphuret ' which resulted from the halls being subjected to suc- 
cessive washings and drainings off. 4th. Use of cast iron decomposing 
pans. 5th. Gay-Lussac's process for recovering and using again the 
waste nitrous acid in the manufacture of sulphuric acid has been adopted 
by several manufacturers ; others consider that the expense of the erec- 
tions and of working the process may be better applied in providing an 
additional amount of space in the leaden chambers. Special improve- 
ments. — 1st. Eevolving ball furnaces, invented by Messrs. Elliott and 
Eussel, of St. Helen's, and used in the Jarrow Chemical Works. (See 
Jury Eeport by Dr. Hofmann.) 2nd. In the Walker Alkali Works the 
waste gas (carbonic oxide) from the blast furnaces of the adjoining iron 
works is conveyed by flues to the evaporating and calcining furnaces. 
The advantage obtained is not only economy of fuel, but a hot flame 
free from smoke and dust, and dispensing with the stoker's labour and 
tools. For easily regulating the bottom heat of the cast iron pan in 
which salt is decomposed it is found very useful. The carbonic oxide 
is, however, found not to burn very well in the presence of muriatic 
acid gas. 

Hyposulphite op Soda. — The manufacture of hyposulphite of soda 
has largely increased of late years, and we believe in 1838 it was not 
made at all upon the Tyne. In 1854 the produce only amounted to 50 
tons a-year. It has gradually risen to 400 tons per annum. In addition 
to being used in photography, it is largely employed as an "anti-chlor" 
in paper-making, and from the Tyne the markets of Europe and 
America are chiefly supplied. In 1852 Mr. W. S. Losh obtained a patent 
for the manufacture of hyposulphite of soda from soda waste, which has 
been the means of greatly lessening the price, and consequently extend- 
ing its application in the arts. On account of its greater stability, 
hyposulphite of soda has nearly superseded the use of the older salt of 
sulphite of soda as an " anti-chlor," the latter being chiefly confined to 
sugar refineries as a deoxidiser. Dr. Jullion has recently obtained a 
patent for the production of hyposulphite of lime, to be used as an 
" anti-chlor," but it has not yet been introduced in commerce, the appa- 
ratus for its manufacture, in course of erection at the Jarrow Chemical 
Works, being not yet completed. 

Hydrochloric Acid. — In the decomposition of common salt, vast 
quantities of hydrochloric acid are necessarily produced, and it is an 
important question for chemical manufacturers to apply the best means 
for its condensation. Since the visit of the Association in 1838, few 
branches of manufacture have received more attention, and there are 
few in which greater improvements have been effected than in con- 
densing muriatic acid gas ; and this has arisen not only on account of 
the necessity of preventing injury to agriculture, so that heavy claims 
for damage might be avoided, but also in consequence of the commercial 
value attached to hydrochloric acid in the production of bleaching 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 133 

powder, bicarbonate oi soda, oxycbloride of lead and other products. 
The methods generally adopted in condensing are well known, and 
we shall only allude to some of the improvements practically applied. 
The drying furnace usually used is what is called an " open furnace," 
to which the heat of the fire is directly applied, and we believe that the 
greatest difficulties in the way of a perfect condensation in former times 
arose with the gases from this furnace. The heat required to drive 
off the gas from the crude sulphate of soda is very great, and when 
the gases arrived in the condensers it was found difficult to absorb 
them, even when a very large quantity of water was used, and the 
muriatic acid which was thus produced was of so low a strength that 
it was commercially almost useless. In former years, also, the draught 
through the condensers was always obtained by a connection with a 
high chimney, but in some of the works this plan is now abandoned, 
and the whole of the vapour or gas which escapes passes through a 
12-inch pipe always open to view. At present these gases are con- 
ducted through long flues or pipes and cooling shafts, and on entering 
the foot of the condensers the heat is reduced to about 140 deg. Fah., 
at which point the gases easily condense, and a strong acid is at the 
same time obtained. A rather different method has been pursued for 
some time at Messrs. Allhusen and Son's works. Instead of the heat 
from the fire being conducted directly on to the drying materials in the 
furnace, which is generally done, a " close furnace " is used, in which 
the flame from the fire passes over a brick arch and under the bed of 
the furnace, and not in immediate contact with the materials. This 
furnace has no connection with a chimney for its draught, and the 
gases from both the pan and dryer pass into one condenser. The 
hydrochloric acid passes off from the furnace unmixed with the smoke 
from the fire, and at a lower temperature than by the ordinary method, 
and is consequently more easily condensed, and obviates the necessity 
of long flues or cooling shafts. Messrs. C. Allhusen and Sons have 
given us the following results of some recent experiments with this 
class of furnace. The charge of salt usually used was 8 cwt., the moisture 
varied from 6 to 9 per cent., and the sulphate of soda contained from 
175 to 2-25 per cent, of undecomposed salt : — 





Salt unde- 
composed. 


Moisture 
per 
cent. 


Theoretic 
weight 
of Acid. 


Acid ob- 
tained. 


Loss 

per 

cent. 


1st Experiment 


1-75 


7-0 


502-0 


495-06 


1-4 


2nd 


1-70 


7'0 


498-0 


489-00 


1-8 


3rd 


2-25 


7-0 


498-0 


484-08 


2-6 


4th 


1-80 


7-0 


498-0 


49004 


1-6 


5th 


1-70 


7-0 


498-0 


485-00 


2-6 



Average . . . 2-0 



134 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTUKES ON THE TYNE. 



As a further instance of the care that is now bestowed in condensing, 
we append also the result of some recent experiments conducted at the 
Walker Alkali "Works to ascertain the actual quantity of muriatic water 
condensed. The daily produce was conducted into large stone cisterns 
prepared for the purpose, and the strength, depth, &c, was carefully 
ascertained. The salt used was also tested daily for moisture and 
impurities, such as sulphate, sand, &c. The former was found to average 
6 per cent, and the latter 1 per cent, during six months' trial, thus 
leaving 92-5 per cent. Na. CI. =577 H. CI. in 100 parts of salt used. 

The crude sulphate of soda produced was also daily tested for 
common salt left undecomposed, which is deducted below : — 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 



100 parts of salt gave 



H. CI. 

58-3 


Test of 

Sulphate. 

2-59 


53-0 


2-24 


54-2 


2-26 


57-4 


2-14 


58-4 


2-98 


539 


2-12 



Average H. CI. . . . 55-8 

H. CI. left in sulphate of soda 1*52 



2-45 



Los3 per cent. 



57-32 
0-38 



57-70 

A patent was obtained in 1860 for the use of the weak acids in the 
place of water in condensing, which has been successfully carried out in 
the above works, and it will thus be seen that the whole of the acid pro- 
duced was obtained and calculated without difficulty. Muriatic acid is 
not entirely free from impurities, and on account of its containing 
arsenic, iron, sulphuric acid, &c, it is not applicable to all purposes. ' 
The total quantity of hydrochloric acid produced is about 180,000 tons 
per annum. 

Manganese. — Manganese is imported from Germany and Spain ; 
but it is chiefly from the latter country that the richest ores are now 
obtained, which are found in hills consisting of schistose rock, which 
sometimes rise to a height of 800 feet from the level of the plain ; but 
it is also found in " pockets," and, in the latter case, it is quarried by 
picks, and occasionally gunpowder is used. The quality of the ore varies 
from 50 to 90 per cent, per oxide, and to obtain the richer ore men and 
boys are employed to break and sort it, which is then put into sacks 
and carried a distance of twenty to thirty- five miles, on mules' backs, to 
the ports of shipment in the Mediterranean. The richest ores are 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. ISo 

obtained at Calanas, in the province of Huelva, thirty miles north of 
the ancient Eoman fishing town of Huelva. We are indebted to Mr. 
S. F. Gething for this information, who also informs us that he imported 
to the Tyne, in 1857, the first cargo of Spanish manganese. Manganese 
ore frequently contains peroxide of iron, copper, cobalt, titanium, &c, 
but no means has hitherto been taken to separate them. Manganese is 
used in the manufacture of glass, iron, and of bleaching powder, and for 
the latter it is imported to the extent of 14,400 tons annually. Several 
patents have been taken out for the recovery of the manganese from 
the waste chloride of manganese solutions, but, generally, with indif- 
ferent success. The most successful, however, is the process of the late 
Mr. Charles Dunlop, of Glasgow, in which the manganese is precipitated 
as a carbonate, and finally oxidised. This patent has, we believe, been 
successfully worked at St. Rollo, in Glasgow, and has, to some extent, 
superseded the use of native manganese. Still more recently a patent 
has been obtained by Mr. Clapham for the separation of the free 
hydrochloric acid contained in the waste manganese solutions, and 
for its application in the manufacture of bleaching powder. 

French Limestone, locally called Cliff, is imported as ballast from 
the Seine, and also from the coast of France, to the extent of 14,000 tons 
annually. It forms part of the upper chalk bed in the secondary deposits, 
and is nearly pure carbonate of lime, and, although very like chalk 
in its appearance, differs from it to some extent in being compact, harder, 
and less susceptible of retaining water. It is always used in this locality 
in preference to other limestones in making bleaching powder. 

Bleaching- Powder. — Since 1838 the method pursued in the manu- 
facture of bleaching powder has entirely changed, and the quantity made 
has far more than doubled. At that time it was made by decomposi- 
tion of manganese and common salt with sulphuric acid, which was a 
rather costly process, and the price was about 281. per ton. It is now 
manufactured from what was at one time the waste muriatic acid referred 
to above, and the price has been reduced to one-third. During the last 
few years the demand for bleaching powder has been increased, partly 
on account of the extensive iise of esparto grass from Spain, in the manu- 
facture of paper, which has been found to require a large quantity of 
chemicals to bleach it, and nearly all the Spanish grass imported to this 
country is shipped to the Tyne. The quantity of bleaching powder 
now made is 11,200 tons annually. 

Soap. — The first soapery in this locality was begun by Messrs. Lamb 
and Waldie, about the year 1770, at the "Westgate, whence it was re- 
moved to the Close. The works were purchased by Mr. Thomas Double- 
day, in. 1775, and continued under the firm of Doubleday and Easterby 
until the year 1841. Other manufactories were built in Sandgate and 
at the Ouseburn, all of which have been abandoned. Very little hard 
soap was made until the end of the last century ; what was used was 
Castile soap. Up to 1770 soft soap was chiefly used for both domestic 



136 THE TOOT-POISON OF NEW ZEALAND. 

and manufacturing purposes. The chief improvements introduced have 
been the use of palm oil, bleached by Watts' process, and the manufac- 
ture of the ley by boiling the alkali with the lime instead of the so-called 
" cold process." The total quantity now manufactured exceeds 6,000 
tons per annum. The prices of various materials at the 'present time 
are as follows : — Tallow, first sort, T. C, 43s. 6d. ; fine American rosin, 
36s. to 39s. ; best yellow soap, 33s. to 35s. ; best mottled soap, 33s. 
per cwt. 

To be continued. 



THE TOOT-POISON OF NEW ZEALAND. 
By W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D. and F.R.S. Edin., F.L.S., &c. 

During a tour through the New Zealand provinces in 1861-1862, the 
writer was struck with the abundant evidences which everywhere pre- 
sented themselves of the ravages produced among the flocks and herds 
of the. settlers by the loot-plant, one of the most common indigenous 
shrubs of those islands. In many cases of losses by individual settlers 
brought under his notice, the amount from this source alone had been 
from 25 to 75 per cent. In Otago particularly were such losses felt 
during the height of the gold mania there, from July to December 1861 : 
the traffic between Dunedin and Tuapeka gold-fields required the service 
of large numbers of bullocks, a great proportion of which were lost by 
Toot-poisoning. In colonies which as yet, at least, have depended for 
their prosperity almost solely on pastoral enterprise, such losses form a 
material barrier to prosperity ; and the concurrent testimony of the 
colonists in every part of New Zealand proves the great desirability of 
determining the nature of the Toot-poison, the laws of its action on 
man and the lower animals, and its appropriate antidotes or modes of 
treatment. With a view to assist in the attainment of these aims, the 
writer had made notes, on the spot, of a large number of instances of 
the poisonous or fatal action of the plant on man — adults as well as 
children — and the lower animals, and had brought specimens home for 
chemical examination. The chief results of his investigations may be 
thus stated : — 

1. The Toot-poison belongs to the class of Narcotic -irritants. 

a. Its action on man includes the following symptoms : — coma, with 
or without delirium ; sometimes great muscular excitement or convul- 
sions, the details differing in different individuals ; during convalescence, 
loss of memory, with or without vertigo. 

b. In cattle and sheep, they include vertigo, stupor, delirium, and 
convulsions ; curious staggerings and gyrations ; frantic kicking and 
lacing or coursing ; tremors, 



THE TOOT- POISON OF NEW ZEALAND. 137 

2. The poisonous portion of the plant, 

a. To man, is generally the Seed, which is contained in a beautiful, 
dark purple, luscious berry, resembling the blackberry, which clusters 
closely in rich pendent racemes, and which is most tempting to chil- 
dren ; occasionally the young Shoots of the plant, as it grows up in 
spring : 

b. To cattle and sheep, in almost all cases, is the young Shoot, which 
is tender, and succulent, resembling in appearance and taste the similar 
state of asparagus. 

3. The following Peculiarities exist in regard to the action of the 
Toot-poison : — 

a. A predisposition must exist, such predisposition being produced 
in cattle and sheep by some of the following conditions or circum- 
stances : — The animal is not habituated to the use of the plant ; it sud- 
denly makes a larpe meal thereof after long fasting, or long feeding on 
drier and less palatable materials, or after exhaustion by hard labour or 
hot, dry weather. From some such cause, the digestive system is de- 
ranged, and is susceptible of more serious disorder from the ingestion of 
food to which the animal is, at the time, unaccustomed. Hence Toot- 
poisoning frequently occurs in animals which have just been landed 
from a long and fatiguing sea-voyage during which they have been 
underfed or starved, to whom the young Toot-shoots present the most 
juicy, fresh, pleasant diet. 

b. On the other hand, the same kinds of animals, habituated to the 
use of the Toot-plant, not only do not suffer at all, but for them it is 
regarded as quite equal in value to, and as safe as, clover as a pasture 
food. It is an equal favourite with cattle and sheep, whether they have 
been habituated or not. 

c. The predisposition in man is probably produced by analogous 
conditions depressing the tone of his nervous and digestive systems, or 
directly deranging them. Children are affected out of all proportion to 
adults. 

d. Adults who have suffered from the poisonous action of Toot under 
certain circumstances have been exempt from such action under certain 
others — the same parts of the plant having been used, and apparently 
in the same way, in both sets of instances. Moreover, the Toot-berries 
enjoy, both among the Maoris and colonists, an enviable notoriety on 
account of the agreeable and harmless wine and jellies they are capable 
of yielding, the former whereof especially has long been greatly prized. 
The seeds, however, in these cases probably do not enter into the com- 
position of the said wine and jellies. 

4, The current Remedies for Toot-poisoning among the settlers are, 
in regard to — 

a. Cattle and sheep — mainly bleeding, by slashing the ears and tail. 
Belladonna has been variously tried, and favourably reported on ; by 
others, stimulants are regarded as specifics (carbonate of ammonia, 



138 OK THE TOOT-POISON OF NEW ZEALAND. 

brandy, or a mixture of gin and turpentine, locally known as "Drench") 
Whatever he the nature of the remedy, there is no difference of opinion 
as to the necessity for the promptest treatment, since, at a certain stage 
of the action of the poison, all remedies appear equally inefficacious. 

b. In man the nature of the remedy is still more varied, though 
emetics and stimulants seem the most rational of those usually had 
recourse to. 

5. The Toot- or TWw-plant is the Coriaria ruscifolia, L. (the 
C. sarmentosa, Forst). The plant is variously designated by Maoris and 
settlers in different parts of the New Zealand islands ; and this of itself 
indicates how familiar it is, and how abundantly and widely distributed. 
The genus Coriaria is a small one, and, if not belonging to a subdivi- 
sion of the natural order Ochnacece, probably represents a separate order 
closely allied thereto and to the Rutacew. The most distinguished 
botanists, however, are at issue as to its precise place and alliances in 
the vegetable system. They are in similar dubiety as to the species of 
the genus, and the varieties of the species C. ruscifolia, L. In New 
Zealand there appear to be at least three Coriarias, which some botanists 
regard as mere varieties of C. ruscifolia, L., and others consider separate 
species. The writer had made, in July 1862, an examination of all the 
species of the genus Coriaria contained in the Hookerian and Ben- 
thamian Collections at Kew, the result whereof was a strong conviction 
of the necessity for a critical revision of the whole genus, throughout all 
its species, wherever distributed. The writer considers the specific 
names of the Toot-plant (both ruscifolia and sarmentosa) objectionable, 
as not truly applicable or descriptive ; and proposes the specific term 
C. tutu — the Maori name of the plant, as more convenient to indicate 
the type of the species, leaving such terms as ruscifolia, thymifolia and 
sarmentosa, to represent varieties or other species, as a subsecpjent criti- 
cal examination of the genus may render necessary or desirable. 

In contrast to, and in connexion with the toxic action of C. ruscifolia 
the writer may remark on the better-known poisonous properties of 
C. inyrtifolia, familiar as an adulterant of senna, and on those of other 
species of the genus Coriaria. He announces his belief that the whole 
genus Coriaria must be considered endowed with poisonous properties, 
probably of the narcotico-irritant class, and that, as such (especially in 
reference to the extent and importance of the economic losses caused by 
such species as Toot), it is eminently deserving of thorough scientific 
investigation. 

Under this head he may point oat the fact that — 
a. While certain animals seem to be themselves exempt from, or 
insusceptible to, the action of the poison, they may, by feeding upon 
certain species, or certain parts of some species of Coriaria, and 
thereby assimilating or secreting the contained poison in their tissues, 
communicate poisonous effects, or become poisons, to man or the lower 
animals, to which they (the animals first mentioned) have become 



A VISIT TO A BONE BOILING FACTORY. 139 

articles of diet. He would cite a recent instance in connexion with C. 
myrtifolia, in which several persons near Toulouse were poisoned by a 
dish of snails which had been fattened on its leaves and shoots. 

b. That Royle in reference to the fruit of C Nepalensis, Peschier of 
Geneva in regard to C. myrtifolia, and other authorities in regard to other 
species of Coriaria, have published instances of their harmless or even 
beneficial effects, under certain circumstances, on man or the lower 
animals. Such conflicting statements would appear to indicate that 
there are peculiarities in the action of the poisonous principles of all 
the Coriarias, or discrepancies in the records of instances of the said 
action, which discrepancies or peculiarities demand reconciliation or 
explanation at the hands of competent scientific experts. 



A VISIT TO A BONE BOILING FACTORY. 

BY N. P. BUKGH, C.E. 

I believe that very few have any clear conception of the extent of 
the trade in bones, home and foreign, and the various uses to which 
they are applied, I therefore think that a brief account of a visit to the 
factory of Messrs. L. Cowan and Sons, Hammersmith Bridge Works, 
which I recently made in company with the Editor, may be interesting 
to the readers of the Technologist. 

This factory, it should be observed, is on a large scale, being a com- 
plete multum in parvo, for here are carried on the several processes of 
soap-making, sugar refining, bone boiling, and charcoal burning, gas 
making, and a variety of other business operations. It is with the bone 
boiling process, &c, that I propose chiefly to deal. 

The workmen employed are so numerous that they form a rifle 
corps in themselves, and have their own armoury, band, &c. 

We import from abroad about 65,000 tons of bones annually for 
burning, for crushing, for manure, and for other purposes, and as 
much, or more, is collected at home. The prime cost of these bones 
is about three-quarters of a million sterling, while the after and sub- 
sidiary products add largely to their value. 

The uses of the bone and its constituents are various. In order to 
explain the processes of its conversion into a commercial article, we 
must trace it through its several stages of manufacture. 

Arrived at the office, and having obtained the permission of one of 
the affable and polite proprietors to inspect the works, with the assist- 
ance ol an intelligent guide, we proceed to go over the entire range of 
buildings. On descending to the ground floor we first see a large quan- 
tity of bones in heaps in various places, some being in hampers, some in 



140 A VISIT TO A BONE BOILING FACTORY. 

closed bins or receptacles, some in carts, and others in piles on the 
ground. On inquiring their uses, and the cause of the separation, we 
are informed that the very best are converted into animal charcoal, 
which is the chief product of the establishment, the large marrow bones 
are sent to France, and the thin bones are used for making knife, tooth 
brush, and other handles ; the ends of the bones are cut off by a steam 
saw, and used for ■ buttons, small toys, &c. The bones are carefully 
selected into heaps, and each kind is boiled separately in open pans by 
steam at a low temperature, or not more than 212°. Marrow bones 
take from 1^ to 2 hours ; common bones, such as blade bones, small 
bones, &c, from 3 to 9 hours ; and the ends of the marrow and other 
bones require 10 hours to boil. The fat, wbich is white from fresh 
bones, and brown from old bones, is skimmed off, and as the pans are 
hung on an axis, the contents are emptied at pleasure into a truck on 
wheels beneath. Tbe bones are then allowed to drain, and are trans- 
mitted to their required places. 

When bones are submitted to destructive distillation, the gelatine 
and albumen which they contain is abundantly productive of ammonia ; 
hence a copious source of that alkali and its compounds ; the residue is 
a mixture of the earthy part of the bone with charcoal, commonly 
termed bone black. 

Bone black possesses the extraordinary property of appropriating to 
itself the colouring matter of near ly all fluids that are filtered through 
it, and so powerful is its agency in this respect, that in testing the 
quality of some bone black offered for sale, a dark coloured claret was 
so completely discoloured in a single filtration, through a depth of 
twelve inches of the black, as to be undistinguishable by the eye from 
the purest spring water. The introduction of this powerful auxiliary 
has created a complete revolution in the process of manufacturing and 
refining beet sugar on the Continent, and cane sugar in the sugar 
colonies of the East and West Indies. The only drawback to its use 
was its cost, because formerly it was thrown away. as soon as repeated 
nitrations had saturated the black with the colouring matter and im- 
purities of the syrup, to such an extent as to deprive it of its efficacy ; 
but the discovery of a mode of renovating, or as it is technically termed, 
" revivifying? the bone-black has obviated this difficulty, by causing 
the manufacturer to use the same charcoal for an indefinite length of 
time with but little loss in quantity or quality. The process of revivi- 
fication is simple and inexpensive. 

Messrs. Leblay and Cuisinier have published a new process for 
reviving exhausted charcoal. They find that the power of absorbing 
colouring matter is restored on treating the charcoal with a weak boil- 
ing solution of caustic alkalies. They also state that the original absorb- 
ing power maj* be very much increased by pouring over it a weak 
solution of sulphate of lime. 

If (say? Mr. A. Aikin,) we throw into the fire a bone, even of the 



A VISIT TO A BONE BOILING FACTORY. 141 

most solid kind, and from which all oily matter has been carefully 
separated (an old tooth-brush will serve for an example), it will be 
found first to crack, and then to burn with a large and bright flame, in 
consequence of the combustible gases into which the animal matter of 
the bone is in part resolved. If the bone is taken out of the fire as soon 
as it ceases to flame, it will be found to be of a bluish-black colour, from 
the charcoal which is the residue of the decomposition of the animal 
membrane. If the blackened bone be returned to the fire, the whole of 
the charcoal is at length consumed, and nothing remains but the white 
earth of the bone, commonly called bone-ash. 

If instead of a single one a heap of bones is employed, and a fire is 
kindled in one part, it will spread by degrees to the whole heap, giving 
out more or less flame, and a strong heat ; and in the treeless steppes of 
Tartary, and the pampas of South America, the inhabitants make up 
for the want of other fuel by burning the bones of their cattle, it being 
considered that the bones of an ox will produce heat enough to cook its 
flesh by. This, therefore, is another to be added to the many uses of 
bone. But by burning bone in an open fire, no other product is 
obtained from it except the ashes, while the horribly noisome odour of 
the gas which escapes combustion, renders this process a sore nuisance 
in any inhabited neighbourhood. 

The decomposition of bone by heat in close vessels, whereby the 
action of atmospheric air is excluded, is well worthy of minute atten- 
tion, both in consequence of the large scale on which it is carried on as 
a process of chemical manufacture, of the importance of the products 
obtained, and of the interest which it possesses in a scientific point of 
view. 

The animal matter of bone is the only constituent part of this sub- 
stance susceptible of decomposition by a heat brought up to low redness : 
in considering, therefore, the action of close heat on bone, the earthy 
ingredients may be considered as passive. The animal matter is either 
a substance analogous to skin, or is a mixture of membrane and jelly : 
the former opinion is supported by some of the most eminent modern 
chemists, but it is of no sort of importance to our present purpose which 
opinion is adopted, as all three substances are composed of the same 
ultimate elements and nearly in the same proportions. The four simple 
substances, then, of which the animal matter of bone is composed, are 
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen ; and of these the three latter, 
when in an un combined state and at the usual temperature and atmo- 
spheric pressure, are in the form of gas. Now, when it happens that 
three substances, habitually gaseous, are combined with one naturally 
solid, and when these four substances are likewise capable of uniting 
together by two and threes, or, in other words, of forming binary and 
ternary compounds, the attraction that holds together all the four is 
easily disturbed by a moderate increase of temperature ; in consequence 



142 A VISIT TO A BONE BOILING FACTORY. 

of which the same elements, by arranging themselves differently, pro- 
duce two or more different substances. 

This is the case in the present instance. On exposing bone shavings 
even to a lamp heat, they are observed immediately to become black ; 
shewing that the new compounds that are the result of this decom- 
position are not capable of combining with the whole of the carbon, but 
that part remains in the state of charcoal intimately mixed with the 
earthy matter. This mixture goes by the name of bone-black, or animal 
charcoal. 

Part of the carbon combines with part of the oxygen, and forms 
carbonic acid, while part of the hydrogen and part of the nitrogen pro- 
duce ammonia ; the carbonic acid and the ammonia, as they are formed, 
combine and prod uce carbonate of ammouia, which, therefore, is another 
of the useful substances resulting from the decomposition of bone. Part 
of the oxygen and hydrogen combine and produce water ; and part of 
the oxygen, the hydrogen, and carbon, by combining, produce a volatile 
oil of a strong and peculiar odour, which goes by the name of animal 
oil. The remainder of the carbon and hydrogen, with probably some 
nitrogen, combine and produce an inflammable gas. Thus the decom- 
position in close vessels of the single substance, bone, produces five new 
substances ; namely, animal charcoal, carbonate of ammonia, animal 
oil, water, and an inflammable gas. A low red heat volatilises all these 
substances, except the first ; which, therefore, when the process is per- 
formed on a large scale in iron vessels, remains in the retort separated 
from the other four compounds. The water, the carbonate of ammonia, 
and part of the oil, are condensed, and remain in the receiver ; the in- 
flammable gas, holding in solution another part of the oil from which it 
derives an inconceivably nauseous odour, passes off through a pipe, and 
is either conveyed into the ash-pit of the furnace, whence it is drawn up 
among the burning fuel and is consumed, or is set fire "to as it issues 
from the mouth of the pipe ; by either of which methods its noisome 
smell is for the most part avoided. The ammoniacal liquor likewise 
combines with a little of the oil, from which, however, it may for the 
most part be separated by redistillation ; enough, however, of the oil 
remains united with it to produce that particular modification of odour 
by which spirit of hartshorn (for so this substance is commonly called) 
is distinguished from pure ammonia ; or, by other processes, unneces- 
sary here to mention, the ammonia is obtained entirely free from the 
oil. 

As animal charcoal is the great product in Messrs. Cowan's esta- 
blishment, our guide kindly explained to us the process of producing it 
which is thus : the bones are put into cast-iron retorts, which are care- 
fully sealed — the furnace being heated to a great temperature for about 
6 to 12 hours, according to the nature of the bones. As will naturally 
be presumed a waste occurs, 3j cwt. of bones will produce from 2 to 



A VISIT TO A BONE BOILING. FACTORY. 143 

2| cwt. of charcoal, is of a deep black in colour, and charred in 
appearance. The charcoal is put in square wrought-iron cases carefully 
sealed, to cool, which occupies about 10 hours. After cooling, it is 
elevated by a steam platform, which can be raised, lowered, and stopped 
at a moment's notice, and as we were elevated from the ground floor 
to the crushing room by it, can testify as to its practicability. The 
charcoal, when cool, is crushed in horizontal mills of cast iron, at the 
rate of about one ton per hour. It has to pass through two mills 
in order to be crushed sufficiently fine, l-6th to l-8th of an inch square 
or diameter ; the finest or dust is again re-crushed between two hori- 
zontally revolving stones called French burrs. This last is used for 
making ivory black, a chief ingredient in blacking. The main use of 
the animal charcoal is as a purifier for sugar, but as the charcoal retains 
superficially some of the tenacious matter of the sugar as well as the 
impurities, it is found requisite to reburn the charcoal. For this pur- 
pose revolving retorts are used of the following dimmensions : inside 
length, 9 feet, inside diameter, 3 feet 9 inches ; number of revolutions, 
1 in 3 minutes ; power required, 1 nominal horse to each retort. Those 
at Messrs. Cowan's are their own patented invention, and certainly 
display great conception on their part. The impure charcoal is washed 
and put into the retort at the front end by a door, 14 cwt. occupying 13 
to 14 hours to effectually revivify, when it is taken out into square cases 
on trucks, and put into another compartment to cool, the top part being 
sprinkled with water to prevent the air from mixing with it. After re- 
maining 10 or 12 hours, it is laid on the floor to a depth of about 3 to 
6 inches, and allowed to effectually cool, after which it is put into bags 
of 1 cwt., and sent by barges to the respective city customers, the 
refiners, who pay only an agreed price for the use. We were surprised 
to find that the gas from the charcoal was treated as that from coal, and 
used to light up the entire factory, offices, &c, We were also told that 
the ammoniacal liquor was converted into sulphate of ammonia, by 
evaporation in open pans. 

Many are the uses to which bone-ash is applied. When ground to 
moderately fine powder, it is the material of which the cupels of the 
gold and silver assayers are made, being at the same time very infusible 
and sufficiently porous to absorb the litharge and other impurities, 
while the fine metal remains on its surface. 

When levigated and washed over, it forms an exceedingly useful 
polishing powder for plate and other articles. It is likewise the only 
material from which phosphorus is at present prepared. Part of the 
phosphoric acid is separated by the action of sulphuric acid from the 
lime with which it is combined in the bone-ash ; and this portion, when 
mixed with charcoal powder and strongly heated in an earthenware 
retort, is decomposed; the phosphorus is liberated in the form of 
vapour, and is consolidated by coming in contact with the cold water in 



144 A VISIT TO A BONE BOILING FACTORY. 

which the beak of the retort clips. It is afterwards purified by filtra- 
tion through leather in hot water, and is finally melted, likewise under 
water, in conical moulds, by which it assumes the usual appearance of 
stick phosphorus. 

Many are the things thrown away as useless which, when circum- 
stances allow of their being collected in considerable quantities, are 
found to be applicable to a variety of useful purposes ; and in none is 
this observation more remarkably exemplified than in the subject of the 
present illustration. Thus, on investigation, we find that bone contains 
a considerable quantity of valuable nutriment, which may be extracted 
with greater or less ease in proportion as its cohesion is more or less 
overcome — that in its entire state it forms excellent handles for small 
brushes, and is also applicable to a variety of other similar uses — that 
the worker in steel employs it for case-hardening small and delicate 
articles — that, in proportion to its weight, it is the most valuable and 
active of all manures, and contributes in no inconsiderable degree to 
improve and increase the agricultural produce of all the districts where 
it is employed — that, in the absence of other combustibles, it may be 
and is largely used as fuel in the plains of Tartary and South America 
— that, by its decomposition in close vessels, it produces hartshorn, 
ammonia, and animal charcoal — and that, when burnt to ashes, it 
becomes useful to the assayer, furnishes a valuable polishing powder, 
and is the material from which phosphorus, that curious and interesting 
substance, the most combustible of all solids, is produced. 

Our guide then showed us over the remainder of this large establish- 
ment, viz., the extensive departments for producing sugar and soap ; the 
latter being made in large quantities, the description of these would 
however occupy too much space, and are already pretty well known. 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



ON THE ENGINEERING MANUFACTURES OF THE TYNE 
AND NEIGHBOURING DISTRICTS. 

BY PERCY WESTMACOTT, C.E., AND J. F. SPENCER. 

The north-eastern districts of the United Kingdom, long pre-eminent 
for mining operations in coal, and more latterly ironstone, have also 
been gradually rising into importance as the seat of most extensive 
engineering manufactories. 

The unlimited supply of coal, an intelligent, hardworking, and 
enterprising population, together with the engineering necessities of 
such a large mining district, and convenient seaports, have combined 
to create a large and increasing demand for all classes of engineering 
manufactures. 

As early as the year 1747, the Gateshead Iron Works were com- 
menced, and the present proprietors, Messrs. Hawks, Crawshay, and Co., 
have now one of the largest engineering establishments on the Tyne. 
In 1793 millwright work was undertaken at Chester-le-street, paper, 
lead, corn, and other mills being constructed, and supplied to all parts 
of England, Scotland, Ireland, and abroad ; in 1826 a large foundry 
business was added. In 1809 the Walker Iron Works, owned by Messrs. 
Losh, Wilson, and Bell, were commenced, and, as in the two establish- 
ments previously mentioned, the variety and extent of engineering work 
rapidly increased, as the demand arose, for an improved class ol 
machinery and motive power. Mr. Losh, the late senior partner of the 
firm, is well known in connection with the introduction of wrought 
iron railway-wheels, an improvement that has materially tended to per- 
fect the efficiency of the rolling stock. The manufacture of Losh's 
patent wheels was at one time a very large and important branch of 
the Walker Iron Works. 



146 ON THE ENGINEERING MANUFACTURES 

It may be interesting to notice, at the early date of 1784, the 
erection on the Tyne of one of Watt's steam engines for the owners of 
Walker Colliery, by Boulton and Watt. Mr. Losh purchased this 
engine in 1805 for the Walker Alkali Company, and it may yet be seen 
working daily at Walker, with its wooden beam and bed plate, and sun 
and planet crank motion. 

In 1817, Mr. Robert Hawthorn, the present senior partner of Messrs. 
R. and W. Hawthorn, established the Forth Bank Engine Works, 
receiving as a partner his brother William in 1820. The increase from 
eight men in 1817 to nearly 1,000 in 1862 indicates very forcibly the 
progress of this well-known establishment. 

Table showing the Average Number op Men Employed by 
Messrs. R. and W. Hawtchorn, from the Commencement op 
their Works in 1817 to the Year 1862. 



Years. 


Average 
Men. 


Years. 


Average 
Men. 


1817 . . . 


. 8 to 10 . 


. 1838 to 1842 . 


. 511 


1818 to 1822 


42 . 


. 1843 to 1847 . 


. 726 


1823 to 1827 . 


108 . 


. 1848 to 1852 . 


. 907 


1828 to 1832 . 


216 . 


. 1853 to 1857 . 


. 890 


1833 to 1837 . 


318 . 


. 1858 to 1862 . 


. 984 



In 1830, Mr. T. D. Marshall, of South Shields, commenced the 
building of steam tugs, and fitting them with machinery. 

In 1838, the Hartlepool Iron Works were established by Messrs. 
Thomas Richardson and Sons. These works are now of considerable 
magnitude. 

In 1814, the Tees Engine Works, now owned by Grilkes, Wilson, and 
Co., were established for the manufacture of large iron bridges, and 
similar constructions, locomotives, marine and stationary steam engines, 
and foundry work. 

In 1847, the Elswick Engine Works'were commenced with about 
200 men, and although then only engaged in the manufacture of hydraulic 
and general machinery, there has been a later period (1858) when, 
with the manufacture of the Armstrong guns, the number of hands 
employed has amounted to upwards of 4,000. 

In 1847, Mr. Reuoldson, of South Shields, established shops for the 
construction of engines and boilers for tug steamboats. 

As the increasing commercial interests of this country and the 
improvements matured in steam power, gave a fresh impetus to 
engineering manufactures, the undoubted advantages and facilities of 
this district were appreciated and availed of by Messrs. Palmer Brothers 
in 1852 ; Messrs. Morrison and Co., in 1853 ; Messrs. Thompson in 
1856 ; and Mr. David Joy, of Middlesbro', in 1862. 

In referring briefly to the progress and present condition of the 



OF THE TYNE AND NEIGHBOURING DISTRICTS. 147 

engineering manufactures of the Tyne and neighbouring districts, it 
will be necessary to classify them under the following heads : — 

1. General machine and mill-work ; 2. Stationary and steam engin 
eering ; 3. Locomotives ; 4. Marine engineering ; 5. Hydraulic machi- 
nery ; 6. Iron bridges, viaducts, lighthouses, &c. 

General Machine and Mill Work. — During the past 116 years 
the following firms have contributed largely to the supply of first-class 
machine and mill-work of all descriptions : 

Messrs. Hawks, Crawshay, and Co., Gateshead Iron Works ; Messrs. 
Thomas Murray and Co., Chester de-street ; Messrs. Losh, Wilson, and 
Bell, Walker Iron Works ; Messrs. R. and W. Hawthorn, Forth Banks 
Engine Works ; Messrs. R. Stephenson and Co., South street Engine 
Works ; Messrs. Thomas Richardson and Co., Hartlepool Engine Works ; 
Messrs. Gilkes, Wilson, and Co., Tees Engine Works ; Messrs. W. G. 
Armstrong and Co., Elswick Engine Works ; Messrs. Morrison and Co., 
Ouseburn Engine Works ; Messrs. Thompson and Co., Spring Garden 
Engine Works. 

With reference to the magnitude of the work undertaken by some 
of the above firms, it may be stated of Messrs. Hawks, Crawshay, and 
Co., Messrs. Losh, Wilson, and Bell, Messrs. Thomas Murray and Co 
Messrs. W. G. Armstrong and Co., and Messrs. Morrison and Co., that 
single castings have been supplied from 45 tons downwards, and 
there are capabilities for castings of even 60 tons. 

As every description of paper, corn, lead, and other mills have been 
extensively constructed, it is impossible to refer to them in detail ; but 
the erection of a self-acting crane for delivering ballast at St. Anthony's 
Quay by Messrs. R and W. Hawthorn, at the early date of 1820, is 
worthy of notice. 

Stationary Steam Engineering. — Steam power was first prac- 
tically utilised in mining operations, and its application was early 
introduced in the North Eastern mining districts by several of the 
engineering firms before referred to ; and the fact that the wants of a 
large mining district were almost exclusively supplied with steam power 
by local talent and capital is a satisfactory proof that there were the 
right men at the right time, to aid by their engineering experience the 
resources and trade of the district. 

Among the engineering specialities of this district may be mentioned 
many large winding and blowing engines. Messrs. Hawks, Crawshay, 
and Co., have cast and bored cylinders of 108 inches diameter for this 
class of engine. 

In 1822 Messrs. R. and W. Hawthorn first applied steam to drive 
their lathes, and in 1824 they constructed a 50 HP engine for the Plate 
Glass Works of Messrs. Cookson and Cuthbert, and this engine is still 
doing efficient duty. At this period the same firm also fitted a self- 
acting steam crane, for delivering ballast at Hebburn Quay on the 
Tyne. 

M 2 



148 ON THE ENGINEERING MANUFACTURES 

Several of the firms previously mentioned have extensively supplied 
steam cranes of various powers — Messrs. Thompson and Co. alone having 
made upwards of 200. 

Messrs. Morrison and Co. are noted for their large steam hammers 
which they have extensively supplied to the Government, the Elswick 
Engine Works, and other large establishments, and they have them in 
their own works of 15 to 20 tons weight together with two steam cranes 
capable of lifting 50 tons each: 

Although not quite finished, yet on account of its excessive magni- 
tude it is of some interest to note here that Messrs. Morrison and Co. 
are now engaged in completing a monster steam hammer for the Russian 
Government. The forging for the hammer piston is 40 tons, and the 
enlarged part of the same is 6 feet 6 inches diameter, finished size. The 
total weight of this hammer, when completed, will be about 550 tons ; 
the bed alone being 240 tons, and will be cast in three pieces, in its final 
resting place. It is believed this will be considerably the largest steam 
hammer in the world. 

The application of steam power to underground haulage has been 
successfully introduced by Messrs. Thos. Murray and Co., of Chester-le- 
street, the steam being conveyed to engines underground, from boilers 
placed above the surface. In this case there are a pair of 18-inch 
cylinders and 34'eet stroke, working four drums, all on separate shafts* 
for drawing on a plane and incline. 

Messrs. Murray and Co. have lately erected two 200 high-pressure 
condensing engines for winding at Ryhope New Winning, the cylinders 
are 68 inches diameter and 7-feet stroke. These engines can deliver 
2,000 tons per day, from a depth of 300 fathoms. Also at North Seaton 
a winding and pumping engine, cylinder, 60 inches diameter and 7-feet 
stroke, fitted with the first hollow plate iron beam. 

Messrs. Losh, Wilson and Bell were early in the field in the con- 
struction of steam engines for mills, collieries, and iron works. This 
firm erected a large pumping engine about thirty years ago for Friars 
Goose. Also at later dates a large pumping engine for the North Seaton 
Colliery — diameter of cylinder 76 inches, and 8 feet stroke ; 60 inch 
double cylinder high pressure engine for the Burradon Colliery, and 
many engines for blast-furnaces and winding, having steam cylinders of 
38, 40 and 42 inches diameter. At the present time this firm is largely 
engaged in the manufacture of surface condensers for mill and other 
steam engines, in connexion with Mr. J. F. Spencer, the patentee of 
certain improvements in their application to existing and new engines. 
This short and limited notice of such an important subject as the 
development of stationary steam engineering can only serve to indicate 
in a very limited degree the engineering capabilities of the district. 

Locomotive Engineering. — To this district belongs the undoubted 
honour of being the birth-place of the locomotive, and this fact must 
ever be recorded, when the names of Trevethick and Stephenson 



OF THE TYNE AND NEIGHBOURING DISTRICTS. 149 

appear on the page of history. In a paper written expressly to 
record contributions to the engineering talent of the country, 
it would be simply unjust to forget in the now almost world- 
wide extension of locomotive manufacture, the Stephenson " Rocket" 
of 1829, or the Hawthorn " Comet " of 1835. The latter engine which 
was used at the opening of the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway can still 
be seen in daily work, at the Saw Mills of the Forth Bank Engine 
Works. During the past thirty-four years, upwards of 2,400 locomotives 
have been constructed by R. Stephenson and Co., R. and W. Hawthorn, 
Gilkes, Wilson and Co., and Sir W. G. Armstrong and Co. In the 
above number are included all the known varieties of the locomotive, 
from the comparatively small tank engine, to those magnificent speci- 
mens constructed by Messrs. R. Stephenson and Co., for the late Viceroy 
of Egypt. 

Marine Engineering. — It would display an unwarrantable in- 
difference to the birth and progress of great improvements, if reference 
was not made to the first practical application of steam power on the 
Tyne, for towing purposes, more especially as the date of such applica- 
tion was almost coeval with Henry Bell's "Comet" on the Clyde in 
1812. It is also of interest in an engineering point of view, to place on 
record the names of those local firms who were the earliest in the field 
in making and fitting the first steam engines for Tyne tugs. 

In 1814, the first steam tug, the " Perseverance," was fitted and 
started on the Tyne, there being at that time only seventeen steam boats 
in existence. The Table on the following page gives the particulars 
of the introduction of steam for towing purposes on the Tyne 
from 1814 to June 1822. From this it will be seen that the now 
existing firms of R. and W. Hawthorn firstly, and Hawks and Co., 
secondly, made and fitted steam engines for tugs as early as the years 
1820 and 1821. This reference to the beginning of steam navigation 
and manufacture of Marine Engines on the Tyne, is the more important 
from the well-known fact, that almost all the ports of the United 
Kingdom, as well as those of foreign countries, have, to the present day, 
come to the Tyne for their steam tugs. From this fact it may be fairly 
assumed that the Tyne Engineers have from the first supplied a most 
important want, in a manner that has defied competition — and even now 
it is difficult to suggest any important improvement in the class of 
engine that has been working in these Tugs during the past forty 
years. 

Some additional force is given to the last statement, by the fact that 
at the present time there are upwards of 250 of what may be aptly 
termed " native steam tugs," employed on the Tyne, besides nearly 100 
more in the ports of Sunderland, Stockton, Middlesbro', and Hartlepool, 
and the engines in all these are almost identical in type with those fitted 
in 1820. 

Among the evident causes for the rapid extension of marine engine 



150 



ON THE ENGINEERING MANUFACTURES 



construction in the ports of this district are the early introduction of 
steam power for towing purposes, and more lately the increasing substi- 
tution of steam for sails in the coal carrying trade, leading to the intro- 
duction of screw colliers. These latter may be fairly considered with 
reference to this district as native productions ; and, furthermore, they 
have proved stepping-stones to the construction of the higher classes and 
larger powers of marine engines. 

Statistics having reference to the Introduction of Steam 
Power for Towing Purposes on the Tyne. 



Date. Name of Steamer. H.P. 



1814 
1815 
1816 
1817 
1818 
1819 

1820 



1821 



1822 



Perseverance .... 3 

Swift 3 

Eagle 20 

Enterprise 5 

Speedwell 10 

Hope 6 

Swift 3 

Tyne 10 

Two Brothers ... 9 
Indefatigable .... 8 
Duchess of Northumb. . 10 

Navigator 18 

Safety . " 14 

Union 4 

Leniington Packet . . 7 



Engine 
Builders. 

Crowther 

Watt . . 
Robson . 
Robson . 
Robson . 
Robson . 
Robson . 
Robson . 
Hawthorn 
Hawthorn 
Hawthorn 
Hawks . 
Gibson . 
Hawthorn 



Total number 

employed in 

the United 

Kingdom. 

. . 17 

21 

. 31 

. 40 

. 52 , 

. 64 

. 65 

. 78 

. 79 

. 80 

. 81 

. 117 

. 118 

. 119 

. 143 



As before stated, Messrs. R. and W. Hawthorn were the first of the 
now existing firms to make engines for steamboats, and during the past 
ten years especially they have been extensively engaged in fitting marine 
engines, both paddle and screw, up to 250 HP. In 1859 they applied 
most successfully to the " Frankfort," 100 HP, of Liverpool, Mr. J. F. 
Spencer's system of surface condensation, and they have more lately 
applied the same arrangement with equal success to a pair of 140 HP. 
screw-engines which they made and fitted into the " London," for the 
Cadiz trade, the economy of fuel being considerable. 

The same firm have also supplied her Majesty's Government, with 
150 HP. horizontal screw engines for H. M. S. "Shearwater" — these 
engines are fitted with separate expansion valves, worked by a second 
link. 

Messrs. Hawks, Crawshay and Co., have constructed several pairs of 
marine engines, paddle and screw, for river and sea service, and they date 
the commencement of this class of work as early as 1821. 

In 1830, Mr. T. D. Marshall, of South Shields, commenced building 



OF THE TYNE AND NEIGHBOURING DISTRICTS. 151 

and fitting steam tugs, and out of the 600 engines his firm have made 
since that date, upwards of 300 have been fitted in steam tugs. Mar- 
shall's steam tugs being well known in every port. The present firm 
of Marshall Brothers are still largely engaged in the construction of 
paddle and screw engines. 

The names of Eenoldson, Almond, and Hepple are also well known 
as producer's of steam tug engines, on a large scale, and it may be safely 
stated that upwards of 1,000 tug engines have been made and fitted on 
the Tyne. 

Messrs. Thomas Richardson and Co. of Hartlepool have paid much 
attention to marine engineering, and are now engaged in perfecting 
several improvements therein. 

Messrs. R. Stephenson and Co. have employed a large portion of their 
extensive establishment in the construction of marine engines, and in 
addition to a long list of engines fitted, of various powers, they put on 
board a Sardinian frigate a pair of 250 horse power horizontal screw 
engines for the Sardinian Government. 

In 1852, Messrs. Palmer Brothers established the Jarrow Engine 
Works, where have been manufactured and fitted on board a considerable 
number of marine engines, paddle and screw, and some of them of large 
power, having 90 and 80 inch cylinders. During the past eighteen 
months this firm has introduced surface condensation into several pairs 
of engines, adopting an American plan for jointing the tubes. These 
engines are reported satisfactory for duty and economy of fuel, and 
there are several pairs in hand on the same plan, having 63 and 60 in, 
cylinders. Of the latest and most successful of this firm's engines, may 
be mentioned those of the Georgia, having 60 inches cylinders, giving a 
high speed, and small consumption of fuel. 

Messrs. Morrison and Co. of the Ouseburn Engine Works, have 
given much attention to the construction of marine engines up to 250 
horse power, and have applied Hall's surface condenser, separate expan- 
sion gear and steam jackets, with much success. 

The mail steamship "Auckland," with the improved engines referred 
to, of 150 horse power, has proved on her trial an economical and suc- 
cessful ship. 

Messrs. Thompson and Co., of the Spring Garden Engine Works, 
have, especially since 1856, been largely engaged in the construction of 
marine engines up to 200 horse power, and they have also paid some 
attention to economy of fuel. 

Messrs. Gilkes, Wilson, and Co., of Middlesbro', and Mr. G. Clark, of 
Sunderland, are also engaged in marine engine construction, but have 
not furnished any information as to extent or speciality. 

In this limited notice oi what is now a most important branch of 
engineering industry in this district, it is important to state that the 
north country engineer has to provide a larger and more powerful 
marine engine at a less cost per horse power than the engineer on the 



152 ON THE ENGINEERING MANUFACTURES 

Thames, and this unjust difference has tended materially to check in this 
district the manufacture of the higher class of marine engines. 

Finally, it may be confidently stated, there is a general desire among 
the north country engineers that quality of workmanship following price 
should he superseded, by price following quality of workmanship. 

Several of the large firms just referred to have every capability, in 
extent and convenience of shops and tools, for supplying the largest 
engines that may be required for her Majesty's navy or mail steam- 
ships. 

Hydraulic Engineering. — It will be necessary under this head to 
refer separately — First to the application of machinery for removing or 
supplying water ; and, secondly, to the application of machinery in using 
water as a motive power. 

Extensive mining necessities require the constant attention of the 
mechanical engineer, especially to provide large and capable machinery 
for discharging water from great depths, and it is a matter of much 
satisfaction when such machinery can be designed and applied on the 
spot. 

The following brief reference to the productions of local firms in 
addition to the supply of machinery for water work, &c, will clearly 
show that this district has reaped the full benefit of such local designs 
and applications. 

Messrs. Thomas Murray and Co., of Chester-le-street, have applied 
steam power extensively to pumping for colliery purposes, and com- 
pleted some of the largest colliery pumping engines in the district, 
some of them being 200-horse power, with 60 and 68 inch steam 
cylinders. 

Messrs. E. and W. Hawthorn were very early in the field in the con- 
struction of large engines for pumping, and in 183-i they erected a 
single acting pumping engine with 55 inch cylinder, and 8 feet stroke 
for the Newcastle Subscription Water Company, This engine was the 
first erected in the neighbourhood with steam jackets and valves, on 
the Cornish principle. It was at a later date (1854) converted into a 
double acting engine, and is now doing duty at Newburn. 

In 1845, several large pumping and winding engines were erected by 
the same firm, at the various collieries in the North of England, among 
which was a powerful pumping engine of 250 nominal horse power, at 
Walbottle Colliery, on the Tyne, with steam cylinders, 77 inches in 
diameter and 10 feet stroke ; it was erected to drain a large coal-field 
area, where it is now working. 

In 1S47-8, several first-class water-works' engines were manu- 
factured and erected by the same firm in the towns of Newcastle, 
Derby, Nottingham, Wolverhampton, and Brighton ; and in 1858 
they erected powerful double-acting, combined, high and low pressure, 
rotative, beam engines, at the works of the Nottingham Water Works 
Company, the Coventry Water Works Company, and at Altona, near 



OF THE TYNE AND NEIGHBOURING DISTRICTS. 153 

Hamburg, for the supply of that city with water, under the direction 
of Thomas Hawksley, Esq., C.E. These last named engines performed 
a duty of 110 millions, with 112 lbs. of coal, the consumption being 
only 2j lbs per indicated horse power. An arrangement for causing the 
governor to act directly upon the steam valves, was introduced in these 
engines with perfect success, giving them great steadiness in working, 
and effecting a considerable saving in the quantity of steam used. 

Messrs. Hawks, Crawshay, and Co., of Gateshead, have constructed 
and erected at the Hull Water Works the largest pumping engine that 
has been made in this district. 

The steam cylinder is 85 inches diameter, and stroke 10 feet 6 
inches, the plunger pump being 34J- inches diameter, and the same 
stroke as the steam cylinder. The beam engine is single acting, and 
capable of lifting nearly two tons of water 174 feet high each stroke. 
The same firm has also erected a large pumping engine for the Water- 
Works at Scarboro'. The steam cylinder is 45 inches diameter, and 
stroke 8 feet. This is a single acting beam engine, worked expansively. 

Messrs. Morrison and Co., of the Ouseburn Engine Works, have 
made several large pumping engines. One pair was erected at Cleadon 
Lane, for the Sunderland and South Shields Water Company. There 
are two steam cylinders, each 60 inches diameter, and stroke 8 feet, 
worked expansively. 

Messrs. Losh, Wilson, and Bell, have also erected several large 
colliery pumping engines. 

Sir William G. Armstrong and Co., in addition to their extensive 
application of machinery for applying water as a motive power, have 
constructed the engines for the Durham Water Works, together with 
other pumping engines for collieries, and they have been successful in 
introducing a self-acting valve to water works supply pipes, that 
effectually shuts off the supply in the case of a pipe bursting. 

Of the second division, or the use of water as a motive power, there 
is a distinct speciality of manufacture pertaining to this district in the 
machinery produced by Sir W. G. Armstrong and Co., at the Elswick 
Engine Works, and the following somewhat full reference to this subject 
may be justified by the fact that the manufacture of this class of ma- 
chinery has been exclusively confined to this district. 

At the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, held in the year 1854, Sir William (then Mr.) Armstrong read a 
paper on the "Application of Water Pressure Machinery," wherein he 
described the origin and principles of his invention in the system of 
hydraulic machinery now referred to. Since that period, many im- 
provements have been introduced, but the principles effected remain the 
same. 

The application of water power is classed under two conditions — viz., 
the one where the pressure is obtained from natural sources, the other 
where it is generated by artificial means. The employment of a natural 



154 ON THE ENGINEERING MANUFACTURES 

supply has remained limited, owing to such supply being confined to 
districts generally unfavourable for the erection of works, and the im- 
portant and extended application of hydraulic machinery, which has 
taken place in nearly all the principal docks, railways, and government 
establishments in this country, is due to the invention of the " accumu- 
lator" for producing artificial pressure, usually made equal in effect to a 
head of water of about 1,500 feet. 

This high pressure system has been adopted, with economy to a 
great variety of purposes, such as to cranage, waggon lifts, coal drops, 
hoists, and tipping machines, to the working of turn-tables, traversing 
machines, hauling machines, capstans, &c, but in no one branch of 
labour, perhaps, has this economy been more exemplified than in the 
loading and discharging of vessels, particularly those employed in the 
coal trade. 

Nearly 1,800 hydraulic cranes, hoists, and other machines of this 
description, have been applied, and 174 steam engines, having a collec 
tive power of more than 5,200 horse power, are employed in supplying 
the pressure required for working them. In addition to these, 177 hy- 
draulic engines of various forms and powers have been produced, and 
23 moveable bridges receive their motive power from hydraulic 
machines. 

The most novel and noticeable arrangement for the discharge of coal 
from vessels, through the intervention of hydraulic machinery, is to be 
seen on board a vessel, belonging to Mr. Cory, moored in the River 
Thames. This vessel, originally built for other purposes, has been con- 
verted into a floating wharf, and is fitted up with a steam pumping en- 
gine, accumulator, six hydraulic cranes (which weigh the coal at the 
same time), two hydraulic capstans and a variety of appurtenances for 
facilitating the work by day and by night. 

Rapidity of discharge is the great feature of this scheme. Steam 
colliers carrying 1,200 tons of coal are delivered in ten hours. Such 
vessels plying between the Tyne and the Thames, have accomplished 
the voyage in 96 hours, i. e. they have loaded and discharged each cargo 
in one tide, or made the passage in three tides each way. Two such 
vessels can be delivered at the same time alongside Mr. Cory's floating 
wharf, thus rendering the power equal to the discharge of about 5,000 
tons of coal, in the 24 hours. 

The application of hydraulic hoists for shipping coal, has met the 
difficulty formerly felt in loading from low levels, at a comparatively 
moderate cost, which may be seen from the following figures : — 

At the Newport Docks, Monmouthshire, in the year 1862, 218,486 
tons of coal were shipped from three hydraulic hoists, worked by six 
men. The sum paid in wages, stores, and repairs, amounted to 501Z. 6s. 2d. 
The cost of supplying the pressure amounted to about 2501., which 
gives a charge of about 0-276 of a penny per ton for the pressure, and 
- 552 of a penny per ton for wages, stores and repairs. These figures 



OF THE TYNE AND NEIGHBOURING DISTRICTS. 155 

are exclusive of the interest upon the outlay of capital. Before the in- 
troduction of hydraulic machinery at these docks, the cost of loading 
coals by hand amounted to between 5d. and 7d. per ton. 

In point of despatch the hydraulic is equal with the gravitation 
system, both being limited by the labour of trimming the coal in the 
hold of the vessel. 

The most remarkable application of a hydraulic machine for loading 
coals is the one now constructing at Goole Docks, in connection 
with the system adopted by Mr. Bartholomew for the coal traffic upon 
the Aire and Calder Canal. The barges, carrying 33 tons of coal each, 
will be lifted by this machine out of the water, and their contents tilted 
directly into the hold of the vessel to be laden. 

Becent improvements in the construction of rotatory engines 
have so simplified and condensed their form, that the application of this 
class of engines to all kinds of purposes is rapidly extending. A 
seven-horse power hydraulic engine, worked from the ordinary high 
(accumulator) pressure, occupies a space of two and a quarter feet square 
by nine inches deep. Such engines are now being applied directly to 
new, as well as to the existing, dock gate crabs at the Liverpool 
Docks, without at all disturbing the present arrangement of the 
hand power gear of these crabs, which can thus still be used 
by hand in cases of emergency. Other engines are similarly applied 
directly to the crabs of hand-power cranes, swing bridges, and 
other hauling appliances ; to capstans, machines for planing armour 
plates, &c. The latest improvements in hydraulic engines consists in 
making them with variable power, so that their consumption of water 
may be the better proportioned to meet any fluctuations in the amount 
of work to be done. An engine of this description, capable of being 
worked up to seventeen horse power, under an ordinary accumula- 
tor pressure of 700 lbs. per square inch, was exbibited in the col- 
lection of models at the British Association meeting. 

The advantage of the system of storing up pressure in accumulators, 
so that a great force can be quickly brought to bear upon heavy masses, 
. to be rapidly moved for limited distances, is well exemplified in 
its application to moveable bridges, and the importance is the 
more felt, in situations where traffic would be seriously impeded 
by slow action, as, for instance, at the part of the Swansea and 
Neath Railway, where the line crosses the mouth of the river, 
and the entrance to the dock in Swansea. The communication 
of the line is kept up over these two points, by hydraulic draw- 
bridges. The time occupied in lifting and drawing back the largest 
bridge — which has a space of 75 feet and weighs 260 tons — is under 1| 
minutes. At Wisbeach, where the plan of storing up pressure in an 
accumulator by hand pumps, is resorted to, a bridge weighing 450 tons, 
can be opened or closed in less than two minutes. 

In noticing the application of water pressurej derived from natural 



156 ON THE ENGINEERING MANUFACTURES 

sources, to the working of machines upon the system introduced by Sir 
William G. Armstrong, no better reference can be made than to the com- 
plete and extensive works erected upon the lead mines at Allenheads. 
The hydraulic machinery is therein employed in rising materials from 
mines ; in giving motion to machines for washing, separating, and 
crushing ore ; in pumping water, and driving saw mills and the 
machinery of a workshop. 

The most recent application of water power at these mines deserves 
especial notice from its novelty. The district upon which the 
several new works are placed, is void of falls of sufficient altitude 
for working the engines and machines directly, but a river runs 
through the district which is suitable for overshot wheels, and 
through such mediums the stream is made to force water into 
accumulators, thus generating an intensified power, which is utilised by 
compact machines distributed in situations most convenient for their 
several duties. The principal objects "sought in thus intensifying the 
pressure is to lessen the size of the pipes, cylinders, and valves of the 
machines, and to gain more rapid action, and also by so reducing 
the size of parts, to effect a saving in outlay upon the work generally. 

Iron Bridges, Viaducts, Lighthouses, &c. — The art and manu- 
facture of iron bridge building, and of other similar iron structures, 
which form such an important feature in railway construction and 
harbour improvements, are followed to a considerable extent by several 
engineering firms in this district. 

The following brief notice of some of the most important of these 
works can only be taken as an index of the resources of the district in 
this direction. 

That noble structure which spans the river Tyne, and forms a com- 
munication of road and rail at a high level between the towns of New- 
castle and Gateshead, emanated, as is well-known, from the same 
practical mind and genius that, with dauntless courage and rare skill, 
threw railway bridges across the Menai Straits and the St. Lawrence 
River. 

The superstructure of the High Level Bridge was executed by Messrs. 
Hawks, Crawshay, and Sons, of Gateshead. This firm has recently 
erected the cast-iron bridge at York, from the designs of Mr. Page ; it 
spans the river Ouse in one arch of 172 feet in width. Also the new 
bridge at Sunderland, which consists of a single arch of about 237 feet 
span, at a level of about 90 feet above high water mark. A melan- 
choly interest is attached to this bridge, it being one of the very last 
works designed and undertaken by the late Robert Stephenson. 

Messrs. Hawks, Crawshay and Co. likewise ^constructed the wrought 
iron gates for the Northumberland Docks, and the iron lighthouses at 
Gunfieet, Calais, and Harwich ; and supplied the iron pier at Madras, a 
work of considerable magnitude. 

Messrs. Robert Stephenson and Co., have been engaged upon the 



OF THE TVNE AXD NEIGHBOURING DISTRICTS. l->i 

construction of wrought iron gates for docks, and have made 38 wrought 
iron bridges, amongst which, as most noteworthy, may be mentioned 
the Kaffie Azzayat Bridge over the River Nile. The total length of this 
bridge is 1,607 feet. It is composed of four fixed openings, each 114 
feet wide, and two swing openings, each 80 feet wide. The girders are 
box shaped, and are carried upon wrought iron cylinders, 10 feet 
in diameter and about 90 feet long. The gross weight of this bridge, 
with the supporting cylinders, amounts to 2,634 tons. 

The firm of Gilkes, Wilson and Co., of Middlesbro', have recently 
executed from the designs of Mr. T. Bouch some lattice bridges for the 
South Durham and Lancashire Union Railway, of a peculiar light and 
cheap construction. Of these the Beelah Viaduct may be looked upon as 
the most interesting specimen of construction and workmanship. It is 
constructed upon a somewhat similar plan to the celebrated Crumlin Via- 
duct, from which, however, it differs in many essential points. This Beelah 
viaduct consists of 6 f teen pieces, composed of hollow columns. "The 
span of the lattice girders, forming the roadway, is 60 feet in width. 
The total length is 1,000 feet, and the greatest depth, from the rail to 
the ground, is 195 feet. The quantity of materials used in construction 
consists of 776 tons of cast iron, 303 tons of wrought iron, 12,343 cube 
feet of Memel timber for roadway. 

Sir William G. Armstrong and Co. have been engaged extensively in 
designing and manufacturing iron bridges. They have constructed 25 
moveable and 44 fixed bridges. With one or two exceptions, the whole 
of the former are worked upon the hydraulic system introduced by 
them. 

The swing and draw bridges at the Birkenhead, Liverpool, and 
London Docks, and upon the Swansea and Neath and Great Western 
Railways, are among the most noteworthy of this class. The largest 
fixed bridge constructed by this firm is the one which crosses the river 
Somme, in India, made after the plans of Mr. G. Rendel, now one of the 
partners of this firm. Being about one mile in length, it boasts of being 
the longest bridge but one in the world. It is formed with 28 spans. 
The girders, carrying a railway platform above, and a common roadway 
beneath, are of the lattice construction, the top section being composed 
of wrought iron boxes, and the lower section of tension bars. The 
girders are carried upon brick piers. The total weight of this bridge, 
including the pier superstructures, which are of iron, is about 4,000 
tons. Sir W. G. Armstrong and Co. have also turned out from their 
works caissons, dock gates, pontoons, coffer dams, saddle-back barges, 
wrought iron dredgers, and a variety of works of this description. 
_ There are many other firms in the district engaged in constructing 
classes of work similar to those before referred to. Enough, however, 
has been said to show the important position whicli this district 
holds in the branch of industry whose history and development have 
been shortly traced in this paper. 



158 
THE PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES OF CYPRUS. 

BY MR. WHITE, BRITISH VICE CONSUL. 

Cyprus was in olden times, perhaps, more famous for its mineral 
than for any other of its productions. The copper mines were especially 
rich, and the quality of the copper which they yielded, the "ass 
cyprium," was considered superior to any other. Mines of the more 
precious minerals, gold and silver, were said to exist, and even to have 
been worked in antiquity, although at the present time their existence 
is unknown, and no mines of any description are worked. The mineral 
wealth of the Island is, however, a subject well worthy the attention of 
the Government, and it is to be lamented that no inquiry should have 
been made as to their state. The copper mines, formerly so celebrated, 
can hardly be supposed to have been exhausted. Asbestos, or amian- 
thus, of a superior quality is found in the country between Limassol 
and Baffon : it is white and silky, and the fibre is very delicate. 
Copperas, or blue vitriol, was an article of exportation, during the 
seventeenth century. Talc is very common in the Island, especially 
about Larnaca ; a kind of rock-crystal, called the Cyprus diamond, is 
found near Baffon ; umber is also obtained in great quantities, and is 
exported to England, America, and Leghorn. 

If the mineral wealth of Cyprus is at present neglected, such is not 
the case with its salt lakes, from which much and increasing profit is 
derived. There are two lagunes from which the salt is obtained in 
Cyprus — one near Limassol, and the other near Larnaca. The salt 
yielded by the former is the whitest, but that of the latter the most 
pungent. Salt was an important source of revenue in the times of the 
Lusignan princes. The Venetians still later are said to have charged 
annually 70 large vessels with salt. The Turkish Government, till 
within the present year, has been accustomed to farm out the 
salt lakes for sums varying from 200,000 piastres to 300,000 piastres 
per annum — that is, from 1,800/. to 2,700Z. ; but this system has now 
been abandoned, and it has been found that the quantity of salt yielded 
this year is 20,000 arabas of 1,000 okes, or 1^ tons each : allowing 20 
per cent, for loss, this represents 20,000 tons of salt, which, at 500 
piastres the araba, the price at which it is sold by Government, gives 
8,000,000 piastres, or 72,700/. ; this quantity, however, cannot always 
be sold in one year. The salt is heaped up in large mounds by the 
side of the lakes, and the produce of the former year must be sold before 
that of the new year can be touched. 

The pine is almost the only tree useful for construction that grows 
in any quantity in Cyprus. Extensive pine-forests exist in the higher 
mountains, especially in Troodos ; some of the trees are of considerable 
size, but there are no roads by which large timber can be transported 
to the shore. The woods are wantonly thinned by the peasants, who 



ON THE PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES OF CYPRUS. 159 

frequently fire them. Tnere is no kind of provision for the preserva- 
tion of the forests, a circumstance which is much to be regretted, 
owing to the great scarcity of trees generally in the island. Cyprus is 
known to have been well wooded in ancient times, when it was pro- 
bably more healthy and more productive than at present. The want 
of trees is very much felt, aud the dryness and aridity of the soil is 
doubtless owing to the great lack of trees, whose presence woidd be in- 
valuable as a means of attracting rains to the earth. 

It has been calculated that not more than 100,000 acres of land are 
annually placed under cultivation. This represents only one seven- 
teenth part of the island ; but as land is left to lie fallow every alter- 
nate year, we may consider that the quantity of land under cultivation 
is 300,000 acres, or between one-eighth and one-ninth of the island. 
The greater part of the cultivated land is held by peasants, or small 
proprietors ; there are, however, exceptions, and we find sometimes as 
many as 3,000 echelles, or upwards of 2,000 acres held by single 
proprietors. Land in general is cheap, but its price varies ac- 
cording to its adaptation for certain crops, its means of irrigation, and 
its greater or less distance from any town or village. In the Messaoria 
land averages from 21. to 31. 10s. the acre. Good cotton land in a 
favourable position is worth about 91. the acre ; but madder root land 
at Famagusta commands a very high price, as much as 901. per acre 
having been paid for it. 

The chief products are wheat, barley, sesame, vetches, cotton, silk, 
madder-root, wine, olives, raisins, carobs, tobacco, and colocynth. The 
wheat of Cyprus is hard and small-grained. That grown in the district 
of Baffo is considered the best. The seed time for wheat commences 
in October, and the sowing is continued, as the weather permits, until 
the beginning of January. The harvest commences at the end of May 
or beginning of June. The average yearly produce of wheat is about 
80,000 quarters ; last year's harvest was unusually good ; it is supposed 
to have yielded as much as 120,000 quarters. 

The barley of Cyprus is of a good description, and superior to the 
ordinary Egyptian barley ; it is sown during September, and the two 
following months, and is reaped at the close of April and beginning of 
May, thus preceding the wheat harvest by about six weeks. The average 
yearly produce of barley is 120,000 quarters. The harvest of the past 
year, which, as stated above, was very abundant, yielded 180,000 quarters. 
The average yearly value of wheat and barley exported, from 1857 to 
1860, was 33,000?. 

The cotton of Cyprus is of an inferior quality ; it is of the short- 
stapled variety ; American cotton-seed has, however, latterly been intro- 
duced, and its cultivation having proved very successful, its merits are 
becoming thoroughly appreciated by the growers. We may therefore 
look forward to seeing it largely introduced, and gradually supplanting 
the native cotton. The quantity of cotton produced is small, con- 



160 ON THE PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES OF CYPRUS. 

sidering tlie great capabilities which the island possesses for the culture 
of this important plant. It was anticipated that last year's produce 
would be as much as 10,000 bales ; but owing to the injury sustained by 
the plants, which were withered by the north winds, the harvest has in 
reality fallen short of 7,000 bales, or 1,820,000 lbs. This is perhaps 
only a twentieth part of the quantity of cotton which the island is 
capable of producing. Under Venetian rule, Cyprus, according to 
Mariti, exported annually as much as 30,000 bales, or 6,600,000 lb. of 
cotton. The greater part of that now exported goes to France, by Mar- 
seilles. 

The best time for sowing cotton is in the month of May ; of late 
years, however, the sowing has been deferred to the end of June, and 
even to July, in order to avoid the ravages of the locusts ; much loss is 
caused by deferring the sowing till so late. The ground in May is still 
soft, and better fitted for the reception of the seed than in June or 
July, when it has become hard and dry. The cotton, too, which is 
sown early, arrives at maturity, and is fit for picking, before the October 
rains, which are injurious to it. It likewise arrives at a more perfect 
state of maturity than that planted later, the autumnal heat not being suf- 
ficiently great to open the pods, and to impart to the cotton the white, 
soft, and silky appearance which it acquires from exposure to a greater 
degree of heat. 

Madder-roots are a very important and an increasing produce of 
Cyprus. The plain of Morphon. the village of Aghia Irene, and Fama- 
gusta, are the localities where it is produced in the largest quantities, 
though it is also cultivated in one or two other places. Its culture 
requires the greatest care, but the profit is very great. It is planted in 
November, January, and February, and the roots are gathered in June 
and in December. That picked in December is the best. The madder- 
roots produced at Irei.e are the finest, and have the richest colour ; those 
of Morphon are the next esteemed, and afterwards those of Famagusta. 
At Morphon and Irene the roots are in the greatest perfection three years 
after planting, and it is then that they should be picked. At Fama- 
gusta they are best fit for picking eighteen months after planting ; but 
in order to obtain more rapid profits they are picked at Morphon at 
two years, and at Famagusta one year after planting. Although the 
madder-roots produced at Famagusta are inferior to those produced at 
Aghia-Irene and Morphon, yet the price of madder lands at Famagusta 
is five times greater than at the latter places ; this is owing partly to 
the more convenient position and the larger population of the district of 
Famagusta, and also to the greater profit obtained by the earlier growth 
of the root. 

The best silk is produced in the district of Baffo ; it is also raised 
at Varoschia, near Famagusta, in the district of Carpas, at Cytlircea, 
north-east of Nicosia, and at Maratassa, in the Troodos region. The silk 
of Baffo is chiefly yellow ; that of Varoschia and Carpas, white. The 



ON THE PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES OF CYPRUS. 161 

cocoons of Maratassa are remarkable fur the beauty, and the brilliancy 
of their colour. The quantity of silk produced in Cyprus averaged about 
56,000 lbs., one half of which is raised in the district of Baffo ; but 
within the last two or three years there has been a falling off in this 
produce. About a tenth of it is consumed in native manufactures. The 
greater part of that exported goes to France. 

The wines of Cyprus form one of its principal articles of export ; 
they are of two kinds, the ordinary black wine, which is coarse 
aud heady, with a strong taste and smell of tar ; this it acquires from 
the jars in which it is kept, and the skins in which it is transported, 
being always coated inside with tar, to preserve them from leaking. 

The tarry taste of the wine is highly disagreeable, though the people 
of the country are very partial to it, and consider it wholesome. This 
wine is largely exported to Egypt, Syria, and Trieste. The other kind 
of wine, and that best known in Europe is the Commanderia, which 
derived its name from a ceinmandery formerly possessed by the Knights 
Templars at Collossi, near LimassoL It is a sweet malmsey wine, but 
strong and heady. When free from the taste of tar it is rather agreeable. 
It keeps remarkably well, and improves with age. When new it is of a 
dark colour, like brown sherry ; after it has been kept two or three 
years it becomes much paler, but with age it again becomes dark coloured, 
the very old Commanderia being almost black. 

Large quantities of it are annually sent to Trieste and Constanti- 
nople, and some of the older and better qualities are shipped to France 
and Italy. It does not appear to suit the English taste, for it is never 
exported thither, for the trade, and seldom purchased by travellers. M. 
Fourcade, a former French consul, in a report made in 1 844 to the French 
Government, states that an area of 8,000 hectares, or a little less than 
20,000 acres, is occupied by vineyards, which produce annually about 
140,000 hectolitres, or upwards of 3,000,000 gallons of wine. At the 
present time, however, it is calculated that little more than half this 
quantity is produced. The decrease is owing partly to the oidium, or 
disease of the grape, which has prevailed more or less for the last eleven 
years, but chiefly to an internal duty of 10 per cent., over and above 
the tithe and export duties, which has been lately imposed upon wines ; 
on this account, and owing to the harassing manner in which it is col- 
lected, the peasants prefer selling their grapes or making them into 
raisins, rather than making wine to be subject to the payment of 
this tax. 

The sale of carobs, or locust beans, was till within thirty-six years a 
Government monopoly. Since it has been abolished the cultivation of 
the carob tree has been greatly increased ; wild trees have been grafted 
and new plantations are everywhere springing up. In 1852 
27,000 cwi;. of locust beans were exported. The exportation in 1862 
was 180,000 cwt., value about 27,000£. It is exported principally to 
Trieste, and to the Russian ports in the Black Sea. The tree grows 

VOL. IV. N 



162 ON THE PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES OF CYPRUS. 

wild throughout the island, hut it is more particularly abundant in 
the districts of Limassol and Kerinea. The finest trees are found at 
Lefcara. It has heen observed that the plantations at a distance 
from the sea are more productive than those in the immediate vicinity 
of the coast. 

Olives are one of the chief of the indigenous trees of Cyprus. 
They are constantly found in company with the carob trees at the 
base of the mountains skirting the plains, and forming a line of 
demarcation between the uncultivated mountain sides and the 
cultivated lands. Vast quantities of olive-trees are scattered over 
the country, especially in the district of Baffo, in a wild state, and 
consequently unproductive. These trees merely require grafting to 
render them fruitful, and capable of yielding great quantities of oil 
for commerce, yet, in spite of the profusion in which the tree is 
found, it is frequently necessary to import oil into Cyprus for local con- 
sumption. 

The fruit-trees of Cyprus, as might be expected from its geographical 
position, are mostly those peculiar to southern countries. The palm- 
tree abounds in Nicosia and Lefca ; it is found in smaller numbers in 
Larnaca and Limassol. Its presence in the villages generally indicates 
Turkish inhabitants, the Mussulmans being much attached to this tree. 
The dates which it bears are inferior to those of Egypt, and never 
attain the same degree of maturity. Orange, citron, lemon and cedrat- 
trees are largely cultivated in the gardens throughout Cyprus, though 
not in sufficient quantities to permit of exportation ; indeed oranges are 
occasionally imported into Cyprus from Tripoli and Jaffa. Pomegra- 
nates are very abundant ; a certain quantity is annually exported to 
Alexandria. The island produces two kinds of apricots, one small and 
of a very poor quality, which is considered unwholesome ; the other 
kind, called the caisha, is of the sweet-kern elled variety, and very 
luscious ; great quantities of it are eaten without inconvenience. The 
fig tree is very common. The prickly pear lines the hedges along the 
road sides, and by the gardens. A small description of cherry is found 
in one part of the islsnd, and sold in the markets of Nicosia and Lanarca. 
Apples and pears are raised in small quantities, but the quality 
of both these fruits is very inferior. Walnut and almond-tress are 
rare, but they are found here and there in the island. Peaches are 
not uncommon, but they are hard, and only fit for cooking. Grapes 
are abundant, and of excellent quality. Melons and water-melons 
are produced in considerable quantities ; the ordinary melons have 
little of the aroma of the melon, but resemble more the cucumber 
in flavour ; there is, however, another description, called tumburse, 
which is sweet and well-flavoured. The water-melons are smaller 
than those of Jaffa, and by no means equal to them in taste. 

Cyprus is very well supplied with vegetables, the principal of which 
are potatoes, pumpkins, cucumbers, lettuces, tomatoes, the aubergine, 



ON THE PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES OF CYPRUS. 



163 



or purple fruited variety of the egg-plant, cabbages, cauliflower, spinach, 
celery, broad-beans, French-beans, lentils, onions, the Hibiscus escu- 
lentus, and the Colocasia. 

The manufactures of Cyprus are inconsiderable. Formerly a great 
trade was carried on in native calicoes printed at Nicosia, for divan and 
quilt covers, which were exported to various parts of the Levant. This 
industry has, however, greatly fallen off of late. About fifteen years 
since there were as many as forty or fifty establishments for printing 
calicoes, at present there are but five or six. Some very pretty light 
silk stuffs are manufactured at Nicosia for dresses, scarfs, shirts, mos- 
quito-nets, and pocket handkerchiefs ; the latter are very good, ar«d equal 
to any made in France. The gold and silk embroidery of Nicosia is 
greatly admired. Tanning is carried on to some extent ; fine blue, 
yellow, and red leather is made for Turkish shoes and slippers ; some 
quantity of it is exported to Alexandria. Three soap factories have 
also lately been opened at Larnaca. 

Some idea of the trade of Cyprus may be gathered from the following 
Table, showing the quantity and the value of the articles exported from 
the ports of Larnaca and Limassol, during the year 1862 : — 



Articles Exported. 




Quantities. 


Value. 


Wheat 


qrs. 


9,800 


£ 

12,282 


Barley 


„ 


28,075 


15,280 


Carobs 


. tons. 


9,000 


27,210 


Madder-roots 


.. ctrt. 


3,430 


4,670 


Cotton 


. lbs. 


504,000 


18,367 


Wool 


cwt. 


2,500 


4,762 


Silk 


. lbs. 


26,600 


12,925 


Silk-worm Seed and Cocoons . 






5,332 


Linseed 


cwt. 


2,400 


1,470 


Sesame 




2,100 


1,714 


Common Wine 


. galls. 


606,500 


25,274 


Commanderia Wine 


j> 


101,300 


6,000 


Eaki 


» 


117,133 


11,156 


Salt 


. tons. 


5,000 


17,000 


Skins and Hides 






1,735 


Live Stock 


jj 




6,400 


Flax 


. cwt. 


2,500 


1,360 


Raisins 


n 


1,280 


770 


Sundries ... 






14,430 


Total 


£1S8,137 



The beasts of burden in ordinary use are the camel, the mule, ai d 
the ass. The horse is seldom" used, and indeed rarely seen, except in 
towns, and there of an inferior description. The mules and asses of the 
island are fine ; some of the mules have an excellent amble, and are 

K 2 



164 ON THE PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES OF CYPRUS. 

much esteemed in the Levant. A considerable number are yearly 
exported to Rhodes. Asses are also exported in some numbers to Syria. 
Oxen are employed exclusively for agricultural purposes ; they are small 
and lean. Beef is consequently far from good in Cyprus. Cows are 
never kept for dairy purposes, and their milk is not drunk ; the Cypriots 
appear even to have a prejudice against it. The flocks of goats and 
sheep in Cyprus, exclusive of lambs and kids less than one year old, 
numbered last year 400,000. The sheep are of two kinds — the small 
and the fat-tailed. Sheep and goat hides are largely tanned in the 
island ; but about two or three thousand are sent to Europe, chiefly to 
Trieste. About 16,000 lambs' skins are yearly exported to Trieste, and 
about 5,000 kids' skins. to Marseilles. About 3,400 cwt. of wool is 
exported annually to Marseilles and Trieste. The mutton of Cyprus is 
not very good ; the flesh is coarse, and it has often a strong, rank taste. 
Goat-fiesh is much eaten, and when fat and young is quite equal to the 
mutton. A considerable quantity of cheese is made from the milk of 
the sheep and goats : the kind called " hellumi," and that made in the 
village of Agathou, are much esteemed and frequently exported to 
Syria. Pigs are reared very generally by the Christian population. 
Pork is only eaten by the better classes in winter, it being rightly con- 
sidered unwholesome in summer ; but the poorer classes in the country 
salt it, and eat it largely in that state. Poultry is very plentiful. 
Turkeys are abundant, and sold at moderate prices. Ducks and geese, 
owing to the scarcity of water, are rare. Game of various descriptions 
abounds : partridges swarm in many parts of the island ; hares, fian- 
colin, and the little bustard, are also common. Of birds of passage — 
woodcock, snipe, and wild-duck are plentiful in the season. Beccaficoa 
are abundant in October ; they are very delicious. The Cypriots pre- 
serve them, partially boiled in Commanderia wine, for winter-eating. 
Of larger game, the moufflon is the most remarkable ; it is found, and 
sometimes shot, in Mount Troodos, but it is difficult of approach. In 
the forests of Acania and Carpas, the north-western and north-eastern 
extremities of the island, horses, asses, and cows, are said to rove at large 
in a wild state. They are the descendants of domestic cattle which 
existed at a time when the island was more populous. The fox is the 
only beast of prey now found in Cyprus. Of reptiles and noxious 
insects, the asp (said to be the Vipera Mauritianica), the scorpion, and 
the tarantula spider, are found. The asp is much dreaded by the people 
of the country ; it is of middling length, great thickness, of a blackish 
hue, with a blunt tail ; its bite is fatal, death ensuing rapidly. A species 
of large snake is very common ; but it is harmless, and said to be a 
determined foe of the asp. Birds of prey — eagles, vultures, buzzards, 
falcons, and hawks are very common. 

The worst enemy, however, amongst the animal creation which 
Cyprus has to contend with, and the most injurious to its agricultural 
prosperity, is the locust. Notices are found in writers of the fifteenth 



ON THE PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES OP CYPRUS. 165 

century of the fearful depredations of this insect. It has been imagined 
that it has been at different times borne by the winds from Caramania 
or Syria, and thus carried across the sea to Cyprus ; it has been again 
thought that it may have been introduced by ships bringing cargoes of 
grain. It seems, however, to be indigenous ; and so wonderfully pro- 
lific is it, that unless active measures are taken to extirpate it, it increases 
in a lew years so rapidly and in such quantities, as to swarm in myriads 
upon the face of the country, to which they are confined and shut in by 
the sea. When the wind, however, is strong from the land at the time 
they approach the coast in their flight, they are carried out to sea and 
perish in vast quantities. In the month of April the country is alive with 
locusts ; they eat up every green thiag, and leave literally a desert Jbehind 
them. In August they deposit their eggs, and shortly after die. The spots 
where the eggs are deposited are easily discovered by a shiny viscous 
matter, with which they cover and soiten the earth when about to 
deposit them. The male is said to be much more numerous than the 
female. The female lays two or even three eggs, each of which 
produces on an average at least thirty locusts ; the egg being, in fact, an 
agglomeration of small eggs, in one oblong mass about the size of a pine 
seed, in which the eggs are disposed close together like seed in a pod. 
With care and perseverance, Cyprus might be freed of this plague. By 
a systematic and continual destruction of the insect and its eggs, it would 
almost disappear in the course of three or four years. The attempt was 
made by Osman Pasha, in 1855-56, and proved very successful ; but it 
was subsequently neglected, and the consequence was that, although 
Cyprus enjoyed a few years of freedom from this pest, yet they gradually 
increased in number till in 1861 the spring -crops suffered fearfully from 
their ravages. During the past year, Zia Pasha, who for a few months 
was Governor of Cyprus, took the matter up actively, and through his 
representations the Government was induced to grant a sum of 2,500 
Turkish lire (equivalent to about 2,270Z.) for carrying out various means 
proposed for their destruction. At the same time, a tax of 20 okes ol 
locusts' eggs per head has been imposed upon the inhabitants. It is 
calculated that from this tax at least a million of okes will be derived ; 
the oke having been found to contain on an average 1,800 eggs, from 
each of which 30 locusts are produced. The number of locusts (fifty 
thousand millions) which might thus be destroyed in the egg is almost 
incredible. 



166 



ON THE MANUFACTURE OF ALUMINIUM. 

BY ISAAC LOWTHIAN BELL. 

The progress of the manufacture of this — so far as the arts are con- 
cerned — new metal has scarcely been such as to require much to be 
added to those admirable researches bestowed upon the process by the 
distinguished chemist, M. St. Claire Deville, of Paris. Upon the intro- 
duction of its manufacture at Washington, three and a half years ago, 
the source of the alumina was the ordinary ammonia alum of commerce 
— a nearly pure sulphate of alumina and ammonia. Exposure to heat 
drove off the water, sulphuric acid, and ammonia, leaving the alumina 
behind. This was converted into the double chloride of aluminium and 
sodium by the process described by the French chemist and practised 
in France, and the double chloride was subsequently decomposed by 
fusion with sodium. Faint, however, as the traces might be of impurity 
in the alum itself, they to a great extent, if not entirely (being of a fixed 
character when exposed to heat) were to be found in the alumina. From 
the alumina, by the action of chlorine on a heated mixture consisting 
of this earth, common salt and charcoal, these impurities, or a large pro- 
portion thereof, found their way into the sublimed double chloride, 
and, once there, it is unnecessary to say that, under the influence of the 
sodium in the process of reduction, any silica, iron, or phosphorus found 
their way into the ahmiinium sought to be obtained. Now, it happens, 
that the presence of foreign matters, in a degree so small as almost to 
be infinitesimal, interferes so largely with the colour, as well as with 
the malleability of the aluminium, that the use of any substance con- 
taining them is of a fatal character. Nor is this all, for the nature of 
that compound which hitherto has constituted the most important 
application of this metal — aluminium-bronze — is so completely changed 
by using aluminium containing the* impurities referred to that it ceases 
to possess any of those properties which render it valuable. As an 
example of the amount of interference exercised by very minute quan- 
tities of impurity, it is perhaps worthy of notice that very few varieties 
of copper have been found susceptible of being employed for the manu- 
facture of aluminium-bronze ; and hitherto we have not at Washington, 
nor have they in France, been able to establish in what the difference 
consists between copper fit for the production of aluminium-bronze, and 
that which is utterly unsuitable for the purpose. These considerations 
have led us, both here and in France, to adopt the use of another raw 
material for the production of aluminium, which either does not con- 
tain the impurities referred to as so prejudicial, or contains them in 
such a form as to admit of their easy separation. This material is 



ON THE MANUFACTURE OF ALUMINIUM. 167 

Bauxite, so called from the name of the locality where it is found in 
France. It contains 



Silica .... 


2-8 


Titanium . 


31 


Sesquioxide of iron . 


. 25-5 


Alumina 


. 57-4 


Carbonate of lime 


0-4 


Water 


. 10-8 



100-0 

The Bauxite is ground and mixed with the ordinary soda-ash of 
commerce, and then heated in a furnace. The soda combines with the 
alumina, and the aluminate of soda so formed is separated from the 
insoluble portions — viz., peroxide of iron, silico-aluminate of soda, &c., 
by lixiviation. Muriatic acid or carbonic acid is then added to the solu- 
tion, which throws down pure alumina. The remainder of the process 
is precisely that which is described by Mons. St. Claire Deville. The 
alumina is mixed with common salt and charcoal, made into balls the 
size of an orange, and dried. These balls are placed in vertical earthern 
retorts, kept at a red heat, and through the heated contents chlorine gas 
is passed. The elements of the earth, under the joint influence of carbon 
and chlorine at that temperature, are separated — the carbon taking the 
oxygen, and the chlorine the aluminium. This latter substance accom- 
panied by chloride of sodium (common salt), sublimes over, and is 
collected, as a double chloride of aluminium and sodium. In small 
iron retorts, kept at as high a temperature as iron can bear, a mixture of 
soda (carbonate of soda), and carbonaceous matter, with a little ground 
chalk is placed. The metallic base ot the alkali distils over and is 
collected in coal oil. A portion of the double chloride and sodium, 
along with fluxes, is exposed to a full red heat in a reverberatory 
furnace. The sodium seizes the chlorine combined with t'.ie aluminium, 
and thus liberates the latter metal, which falls to the bottom of the 
fused mass. 

Aluminium is used in sufficient quantity to keep the only work in 
England — viz., that at Washington — pretty actively employed. As a 
substance for works of art, when whitened by means of hydrofluoric 
and phosphoric acid, it appears well adapted, as it runs into the most 
complicated patterns, and has the advantage of preserving its colour, 
from the absence of all tendency to unite with sulphur, or to become 
affected by sulphuretted hydrogen, as happens with silver. 

A large amount of the increased activity in the manufacture referred 
to, is due to the exceeding beauty of the compound with copper, already 
spoken of, which is so like gold as scarcely to be distinguishable from 
that metal, while it possesses the additional valuable property of being 
nearly as hard as iron. 



168 ON THE TRADE OF MARSEILLES. 

This alloy, or aluminium bronze, as it is termed, is a discovery of 
Dr. John Percy, F.R.S., and appears to be a tine chemical compound. 
Copper is melted in a plumbago crucible, and after being removed from 
the furnace, the solid aluminium is added. The union of the two 
metals is attended with such an increase of temperature, that the whole 
becomes white hot, and unless the crucible containing the mixture is of 
refractory material, a vessel which has resisted a heat sufficient to effect 
the fusion of copper melts when the aluminium is added. 

Mr. Gordon was the first, it is believed, who detected and determined 
the amount of tension wire of aluminium bronze was capable of resist- 
ing, which he found to be between that of the best iron and the best 
steel wire. Colonel Strange, of the Royal Astronomical Society, inves- 
tigated its properties, which were given in a very able paper in the 
Transactions of that body. Its malleability, ductility, and capability of 
being finely divided and engraved upon, along with its great strength, 
induced the Colonel to recommend its adoption in the theodolite used 
in the Trigonometiical Survey of India. 

At the Elswick Ordnance "Works, Captain Noble, R.A., confirmed 
previous experiments on the capability of aluminium bronze to resist 
longitudinal and transverse fracture, and in addition to this he ascer- 
tained that its position to withstand compression stood halfway between 
that of the finest steel and the best iron. 

The bronze, containing ten parts of aluminium and ninety of copper, 
affords an alloy endowed with the greatest strength, malleability, and 
ductility. The colour of the copper is affected by a very trifling addi- 
tion of the other constituent, and the alloy gradually improves in the 
valuable qualities just mentioned, until the proportions given above are 
reached. After this, i.e, when more than ten per cent, of aluminium 
enters into the composition of the bronze, the alloy gradually becomes 
weaker and less malleable, and at length is so brittle that it is easily 
pounded in a mortar. 

Washington Chemical Works. 



THE TRADE OF MARSEILLES. 

BY MR. CONSUL MARK. 



A very large importation of wheat and grain was effected at this port 
during 1861. In the last six months of the year, A\ millions of hecto- 
litres (1,547,640 quarters) arrived here from the Black Sea and Sea of 
Azof. The short crop of 1861, and the abolition of the sliding scale in 
France, conduced to this large importation of wheat, which, under the 
circumstances, it was expected would have been much larger. But, about 
the month of November, the Marseilles merchants found, much to their 
•urprise, that very large quantities of wheat were being poured into 



ON THE TRADE OF MARSEILLES. 169 

France by the eastern frontier, the continental railways having offered 
great facilities for the conveyance of grain ; prices fell, therefore, to such 
an extent that the Marseilles speculators in grain lost very considerable 
sums of money. The increasing railway facilities throughout Europe, 
and the prevalence of steam navigation, as well as the large production 
of wheat in America, the Baltic, and other grain-producing countries, 
which can now be easily poured into French and foreign ports, whenever 
required, render it unlikely that Marseilles will ever again see so large 
an importation of wheat as occurred during the last season, which was 
almost entirely drawn from the Black Sea and Sea of Azof. 
Table showing amounts of Wheat imported at Marseilles. 

Quarters. Quarters. 



1852 695,400 

1853 1,406,600 

1854 905,880 

1855 ...... 860,720 

1856 1,864,250 



1857 1,479,955 

1858 1,072,204 

1859 696,253 

1860 475,112 

1861 2,063,520 



Sugar. — There are several large establishments at Marseilles, which 
last year, collectively, refined about 50,000 tons of sugar, of which 
33,000 tons were exported to the ports of Italy, the Levant, Black Sea, 
and Danube, the remainder having been taken up for home consump - 
tion. This large branch of foreign trade appears likely to remain 
stationary for the present, owing to the uncertain legislation prevailing 
with regard to duties and drawbacks, as well as to the fact of the suc- 
cessful efforts of the Belgian and Dutch refiners, whose products meet 
those of Marseilles, in many of the aforesaid ports. Some parts of the 
Mediterranean, also which formerly provided themselves with sugar 
through Marseilles, now import that article direct from the producing 
countries, and are setting up refineries of their own. A large quantity 
of the raw sugar which arrives from Havana, is now being brought here 
by Spanish vessels, which enjoy such privileges in Cuba, that they can 
bring sugar here at rates sufficiently low to displace a large amount of 
the French tonnage which was formerly employed in this particular 
branch of trade. 

Coffee. — The importation of coffee has fallen off considerably in com- 
parison with that of 1860, in which year it amounted to 20,000 tons, 
that of 1861 being only 18,000 tons. It is becoming evident, that not 
only are the several countries in the Mediterranean, which formerly 
drew their supplies from Marseilles, importing this article direct from 
the producing countries, but also that the high rates charged by the 
Paris and Lyons .Railway Company seriously impede the trade in this 
article with the interior of France and Switzerland by way of Marseilles. 
It costs ten francs more to send a ton of coffee from Marseilles to Basle, 
than the same would cost by way of Havre to that destination. Like- 
wise the railway was found to be so totally inadequate to the forwarding 
of the vast quantities of grain imported last year, that not only coffee 



170 



ON THE TRADE OF MARSEILLES. 



suffered much, detention here thereby, but many other important articles 
destined for the interior. 

Oil Seeds. — There is no more interesting branch of commerce at Mar- 
seilles than that of the oil seeds imported of late years from Turkey, 
Egypt, India, and Africa. The importations appear to increase steadily, 
and they amounted last year to 1,033,020 metrical quintals (about 
92,647 tons). The quantity of sesamum seed sent here, generally from 
the Levant ports, Bombay and Kurrachee, in preceding years, was 
larger than that imported in 1861, owing to the shortness of the crops 
in all those countries. 
Table showing the Importations op Oil Seeds, in Metrical 
Quintals, from 1855 to 1861. 



Sesamum. 


Arachides. 




Cotton 


Cocoa nut 










Linseed. 


and 
Palm nut 


Various. 


Totals. 


Tear Levant 


India & 
Africa. 


Senegal. 


India. 


Seed 


1855 i 159,703 


190,512 ' 225,290 




124,473 


3*,788 


13,166 


1,760 


753,682 


1S56 194,406 


376,841 270,746 


21,650 


167,871 


99,943 


19,052 


10,750 


1,161,259 


1857 1 117,000 


• r >75,820 260,425 


54,715 


54,390 


65,857 


31,077 


8,900 


1,168,1*2 


1858 


90,690 


450,375 ' 250,245 


8,155 


56,578 


10.515 


36,440 


14,375 


917,372 


1859 


138,425 


490,330 , 211,700 


1,910 


1*2,680 


30,390 


29,700 


3,850 


1,061,983 


1860 


116,900 


3(.2,095 ! 216,570 


1,170 


245,750 | 49,070 


46,585 


55,S30 


1,023,970 


1861 


79,590 


310,090 | 175.390 


640 


241,060 . 67,090 


46,990 


111,670 


,033,020 



Metrical Quintals of 100 kilogrammes each. 

Olive Oil. — The importation of olive oil during 1861 was inferior to 
that of the preceding year, the crops having been generally deficient 
throughout the countries surrounding the Mediterranean. Three 
qualities of oil are imported here ; the most impure are chiefly imported 
from Algeria, Tunis, Morocco, Candia, and the Levant. These inferior 
oils are chiefly used here for the manufacture of soap. They are also 
clarified as lamp oil, and kept for home consumption, and sometimes re- 
exported : they are also used for lubricating purposes. A middling 
quality of oil is received from Corsica in considerable quantities, as 
also from the Riviera of Genoa and Naples. The finest qualities of oil 
for the table are received only from Genoa, Tuscany, and Naples. About 
8,000 tons of foreign olive oil were imported in 1861. 

108,000 tons of oil seeds, which were crushed here last year, yielded 
about 40,000 tons net of oil ; in addition thereto, about 3,000 tons of 
cocoa-nut and palm oil were produced by the mills here. Of this large 
quantity of oil, one-half at least was converted into mottled and white 
Boap. There was less oil sent away from Marseilles last year than usual, 
there having been a very abundant crop of colza in the north of France, 
which largely supplied England, Holland, Belgium, Germany, and 
Switzerland, countries which have generally drawn their supplies from 
Marseilles. About 15,000 tons of oil were sent into the interior of the 
country by rail. About 1,350 tons of linseed oil were brought to Mar- 
seilles last year, the low prices in England, and the duty of six francs 
per hectolitre, permitting the importation. 



ON THE TRADE OF MARSEILLES. 



171 



Oil-cake. — The large importations of oil- seeds here during the last 
lew years, have led to a great increase in the manufacture of oil-cake, 
now so largely used both for feeding cattle and for manure, and of 
which considerable quantities are exported from Marseilles. The 
following are about the quantities of oil cake manufactured here from 
the various kinds of oleaginous seeds imported : — 



Sesamum . . 

Arachis . . . 

Linseed . . 

Cotton Seed . 
Cocoa Nut 

Palm Nut . . 

Turnip Seed . 



214,599 metrical quintals 

119,221 „ 

168,742 „ 

53,672 „ 

3,825 „ 

26,704 „ 

85,924 „ 



Soap. — About 5,000 tons of soap were exported last year from this 
port, forming rather more than half of the general exportation of soap 
from France. 

Silk. — The silk trade during 1861 was exceedingly depressed at Mar- 
seilles. The importations of silk at this port were seriously affected by 
the low freights offered by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Naviga- 
tion Company for conveying silk to England, and by the superior com- 
mercial facilities offered to purchasers in that country. The great stag- 
nation of the silk manufacture at Lyons and St. Etienne, owing to the 
very limited demand for silk goods from America, likewise caused 
much unsteadiness in the trade here, and prices fell considerably. Even 
the deficiency of the crop in France has not had the effect of keeping up 
prices. 

Table showing Importations op Silk, from 1859 to 1861. 





1859. 


1860. 


1861. 


China .... 


7,540 


7,132 


7,970 


Bengal . . . 


1,250 


308 


682 


Broussa . . . 


840 


790 


922 


Syria .... 


360 


463 


578 


Salonica . . . 


157 


186 


156 


Asia Minor . . 


426 


510 


283 


Persia .... 


6,018 


7,106 


5,052 


Divers . . . 


562 


1,049 


1,412 


Total Bales . 


17,153 


17,544 


17,855 



About 540,000 kilogrammes of cocoons were imported here last year, 
against 812,000 in 1860. Greece, Turkey in Europe, and Asia Minor, 
furnished during the six years ending in 1861, about 4,500,000 kilo- 
grammes of cocoons, worth about 90,000,000 francs. 



172 ON THE TRADE OP MARSEILLES. 

Wool. — The largest importations of wool ever seen at Marseilles 
occurred in 1861. Prices, nevertheless, kept rising until the autumn, 
when they would probably have settled down, had not a sudden demand 
for 16,000 bales, for the service of the United States army, been made 
in time to keej:> them up. As there are no woollen manufactures in this 
part of Trance, this commodity is generally forwarded at once to the 
more northern parts of the country. The trade, however, is greatly 
kept down by the high tariffs of the railway companies. It now costs 
120 francs per ton to send wool from Marseilles to Roubaix, whilst 
English or German railways would convey the same for a like distance 
for one-half the amount. Much apprehension exists, therefore, that the 
wool trade of Marseilles will not be able to compete with the foreign 
trade, particularly in the face of the treaty with England. 

Total Importation of Wool, from 1856 to 1861. 

Bales. Bales. 



1856 . . 


. . . 86,040 


1859 . . 


. . . 80,210 


1857 . . 


. . . 98,955 


1860 . . 


. .- . 102,095 


1858 . . 


. . . 55,846 


1861 . . 


. . . 111,098 



Metals. — The trade in metals was much affected during 1861 by the 
American crisis, and also by the change in the Customs' tariff. 

Lead occupied the first place amongst the metals imported at Mar- 
seilles : about 12,000 tons of rough ore were imported and smelted here, 
yielding about 5,000 tons of argentiferous lead. Nearly 13,000 tons of 
pig-lead were likewise landed here, and the silver extracted therefrom. 

Iron and steel rank next, about 12,000 tons thereof having been im- 
ported, as also 8,000 tons of iron ore from Elba and Spain. 

The following note will show, more or less, the quantity of the dif- 
ferent ores and metals imported at Marseilles during 1861 : — 

Ores. 

Kilogrammes. 

Iron 8,226,000 

Copper 864,737 

Lead 12,841,603 

Zinc 1,050 

Antimony 26,029 

Manganese 858,809 

Metals. 

Pig-iron 9,013,900 

Iron in bars, sheet iron and old iron 2,889,263 

Steel bars, plates, and wire . . . 292,180 

Copper 1,983,114 

Tin 127,800 

Lead 15,034,148 

Zinc 357,203 



ON THE TRADE OF MARSEILLES. 



173 



Coal and Fuel. — About 32,000 tons of foreign coal only were im- 
ported here during 1861, of which a large proportion was re-exported. 

The late treaty of commerce with England has caused hut little 
change in this trade, which is likely to remain stationary, in consequence 
of the great development of the coal mines in the neighbourhood of 
Marseilles. The English coal brought here is now only used by the 
Gas Company for lighting the town. 320,000 tons of French coal were 
brought to Marseilles last year by railway, principally from the depart- 
ment of the Gard. About 60,000 tons of lignite were also derived from 
the mines in the neighbourhood of this town. Nearly 80,000 tons of 
small coal are used annually in this neighbourhood in the manu- 
facture of soda. A considerable quantity of French coal was ex- 
ported last year, which, together with that used on board of the steam- 
ships belonging to the port, amounts to about 10,000 tons. 

Timber, Deals, and Slaves. — 8,400 loads of deal, 100,000 planks, 
and 9,000,000 staves, were landed here in 1861 from the Adriatic. 

About 25,000 dozen deals arrived here from the Baltic, and 2,000,000 
staves were imported from America. The timber trade with the Baltic 
is increasing, owing to the large demand for the building trade, which 
has been so active of late in France. 

Hides. — The following Table shows the importation of hides at Mar- 
seilles during the last ten years, and the countries whence they have 
been received : — 



Years. 


Buenos Ayres 

and 
Montevideo. 


Rio Grande. 


Brazil. 


Various 
Countries. 


Totals. 


1852 


161,411 


75,856 


19,787 


281,733 


538,787 


1853 


168,092 


19,000 


21,699 


314,733 


523,552 


1854 


97,943 


23,290 


8,504 


265,608 


395,345 


1855 


90,881 


58,911 


15,016 


468,381 


633,189 


1856 


40,127 


56,309 


17,385 


471,487 


585,308 


1857 


135,113 


47,257 


24,891 


790,478 


997,739 


1858 


149,470 


14,601 


6,942 


783,518 


954,531 


1859 


107,800 


35,211 


1,800 


742,162 


886,973 


1860 


199,409 


24,877 


900 


525,067 


750,253 


1861 


125,702 


15,393 


1,200 


426,041 


563,336 



Spirits and Wine. — A very large trade in spirits is growing up with 
the United States. As much as 1,175,000 gallons of corn brandy were 
imported here last year, the wines exported hence being largely mixed 
therewith. About 3,000 tons of wines of all sorts were imported during 
the year, from different countries, three-fourths consisting of the strong 
red wines of Spain. The exportation of wine from this port amounted 
to about 18,000 tuns. 

The merchants of Marseilles complain greatly of their inability to 



174 ON THE TRADE OP MARSEILLES. 

Bend the wines of Provence and Languedoc to England. In 1859, the 
exportation amounted to 55,350 gallons, in 1860 to 461,025 gallons ; 
but in 1861 it fell again to 137,300 gallons. They assert that it was 
intended by the new treaty that the wines and agricultural produce of 
France should be sent to England in large quantities, in exchange for 
the favours granted to the English manufacturers. They state that it 
is surprising that a cask of Bordeaux wine, worth 40Z., should be im- 
ported into England at a lower duty than a cask of Languedoc wine, 
worth only 41. The fact is that the wines shipped at this port, though 
infinitely cheaper than those of Bordeaux and Champagne, are so 
charged with alcohol, that they cannot be sent to England under the 
tariff, as it stands at present, owing to the alcoholic test by which it 
regulates the duties. 

It is not likely, however, that the wines from this part of France will 
ever be largely consumed in England, unless much greater care is be- 
stowed upon their preparation. The adulteration and mixing of wines 
is largely carried on in these parts, and is mostly effected by ignorant 
persons, who labour, unfortunately, under the belief that the consumers 
in England have no knowledge of wines, and that the national taste is 
fixed upon fiery port and sherry. It is no uncommon thing to see rows 
of casks of wine on the quays at Marseilles, marked " facon Porto," 
being filled up, in broad daylight, with American corn brandy, and then 
put on board ship for England. 

Until these false notions are laid aside here, and some modification 
of the tariff is made in England, it is not likely that any great exporta- 
tion of wine can take place from Marseilles for the United Kingdom. 
There is an unlimited supply of good wholesome wine to be had in this 
part of France, which could safely be sent to England in its natural 
state, and at very cheap rates. 

The great development of the trade of Marseilles, during the last 
few years, has naturally led to a large increase of its population, and to 
a rapid rise in the value of all sorts of property both in the town and 
the surrounding districts. The working classes have generally found 
their labour highly remunerative, and the agriculturists in these parts 
are all thriving. 

The large quantities of coal and lignite brought into Marseilles last 
year, from the different mines in the neigbourhood, gave ample occupa- 
tion to the mining population during the year. The quarries in this 
district afforded abundant supplies of fine building stone, and they are 
every day becoming more available through the increasing railroad 
facilities. Considerable quantities of fine Boman cement were prepared 
in the neighbourhood, much of which was exported. 

Soap is the most important manufacture at Marseilles, and there 
were fifty-two soap-works in full activity during the year, two-thirds of 
which produced the finest quality of soap, exclusively, to the value of 
nearly 2,000,000Z. sterling. About 400,000/. worth of inferior qualities 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE. TYNE. 175 

•was produced by the remaining establishments. 250,000Z. worth of the 
fine soap was exported. The manufacture of this large quantity of soap 
kept twenty-seven mills in full activity in crushing the oil seeds im- 
ported, and it gave ample occupation to a large part of the population. 

Next in importance to the manufacture of soap at Marseilles stands 
the refining of sugar, which gave employment throughout the year to a 
great number of hands, and a large amount of capital was profitably 
invested therein. 

The great facilities afforded by the Marseilles market for the impor- 
tation of the various qualities of wheat from the Black Sea and Algeria, 
have led to the establishment of numerons flour mills, and to a large 
manufacture of semolina. About sixty flour mills, furnished with 400 
pair of mill-stones, grind annually from 1,800,000 to 2,000,000 hecto- 
litres (687,840 quarters) of wheat, worth about 2,000,000Z., thus giving 
employment to numerous hands, it being altogether a most thriving 
branch of business. 

About 1,000 hands were generally occupied in 1861, in and near 
Marseilles, in the manufacture of salt, soda, and chloride of lime. A 
dozen establishments, collectively, turn out annually about 250,000 
metrical quintals of soda, used principally in the manufacture of soap, 
and about 80,000 metrical quintals of chloride of lime. 

Upwards of 2,000 hands found full occupation and remunerative 
wages during the year, in five large establishments which exist at Mar- 
seilles, for the manufacture of marine engines and boilers, and also for 
repairing the same. They turned out collectively machinery to the 
extent of 5,500 horse power. Between machines and boilers made, 
and repairs executed, work was executed by these establishments to 
the value of 400,000Z. 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 

BT MESSRS. J. C. STEVENSON, R. C. CLAPHAM, AND T. RICHARDSON. 

(Concluded from page 136.) 
Prussiate of Potash. — The first attempt to manufacture any com- 
pound of cyanogen in this district was made in the beginning of the last 
century by a Jew, in Oakwellgate, in Gateshead. He afterwards removed 
his apparatus to Corbridge, but, failing in producing a saleable article, 
he discontinued the operation, which was taken up by a Mr. Simpson, 
who ultimately succeeded in perfecting the process in works erected at 
Elswick. Mr. Simpson manufactured Prussian anl other kinds of blue 
colours, and at his death the manufacture was removed to Heworth, 
where the Messrs. Bramwell have carried on the works since 1758. 
Prussian blue was the only form in which the cyanogen was produced, 



176 CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 

from which Prussiate of potash was afterwards manufactured. This salt 
was not known in commerce in a crystallised form, however, till about 
the year 1825, when the price was 5s. per pound. The price has now fallen 
to ll^d. Mr. Bramwell has introduced various improvements in the 
manufacture of this salt, employing close pots, in which the fused ma- 
terials are worked by machinery, and substituting sulphate of potash 
for the more expensive potashes ; but notwithstanding the application 
of every chemical and mechanical appliance, and the low prices at which 
the prussiate of potash is sold, the demand has fallen off, and at present 
only two .tons of yellow prussiate, and three-quarters of aton of red prus- 
siate are manufactured weekly. The decline in this trade has arisen 
partly from the American civil war, and partly from the introduction 
of the aniline colours. The celebrated attempt in 1844 to produce 
cyanogen from the nitrogen of the air, was made at these works, and 
although the efforts of Mr. Bramwell and his friends were perfectly suc- 
cessful in a chemical point of view, these gentlemen were induced to 
abandon the process as a manufacturing operation. 

Alum. — The first alum works established in England were erected 
at Guisbro' in 1460, by Sir Thomas Challoner, who brought over a work- 
man from France to carry out the then secret process, the monopoly of 
tliis trade being in the hands of the Pope. The works were subsequently 
decreed to be a royal mine, and passed into the possession of the crown. 
They were afterwards farmed to Sir Paul Pindar at a rental of 15,000?. 
per annum. He employed about 800 persons, and made large profits, 
his monopoly enabling him to keep up the price to 261. per ton. The 
Long Parliament restored the mines to the original owners, and at the 
Restoration not less than five manufactories were in operation. The pro- 
cess is well known, but potash alum (formerly the only alum made) is 
now only produced at the Loftus Works, all the other manufacturers em- 
ploying the cheaper sulphate of ammonia. From the mother liquors large 
quantities of an impure sulphate of magnesia are obtained, which are partly 
refined, and partly consumed as a manure, mixed with other substances. 
Alum and sulphate of alumina are also made from sulphuric acid and 
clay, or shale, but the quantities are not very large. The quantities 
produced annually are as follows : — Alum, &c, 4,000 tons ; rough 
Epsoms, 1,800 tons. Some improvements in the details have been intro- 
duced to economise labour and save materials. The precipitation of the 
iron from aluminous liquors by means of prussiate of iron was first 
employed here by Messrs. Lee and Co., and the Guisbro' Alum Com- 
pany have introduced an aluminous cake, containing sulphate of mag- 
nesia, which has been found to answer very well in dyeing certain 
colours, as browns, blacks, &c, and in the manufacture of all kinds of 
coarse paper. 

Epsom Salts. — The abundant supply of Dolomite on the coast of 
Marsden, three miles south of the Tyne, and at other places in the 
county of Durham, has for many years sustained the manufacture of 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 177 

sulphate of magnesia on the Tyne. The mineral is a tolerably pure 
double carbonate of lime and magnesia, containing about 21 per cent, 
of magnesia. 

The following is an analysis by Mr. Clapham : — 



Silica .... 


10-00 


Alumina 


1-60 


Oxide of Iron . . 


0'50 


Carbonate of Magnesia . 


35-33 


Carbonate of Lime . 


52-50 



The process formerly employed was to calcine the limestone 9993, and 
wash it repeatedly with water, by which, however, the lime is only im- 
perfectly removed, the residue being dissolved in acid and crystallised. 
The principal source of sulphate of magnesia for many years past has 
been the rough Epsoms, obtained from the residual mother liquors of 
the Yorkshire Alum Works. In these salts protoxide of iron replaces a 
variable proportion of magnesia, forming a double salt, and an excess 
of sulphuric acid is always present. 

The following is an analysis of Rough Epsom salts, by Dr. Richard- 
son: — 

Sulphuric Acid . . 23-26 

Magnesia . . . 15-35 

Protoxide of Iron . . 1 73. 

Oxides of Nickel and Cobalt 0-12 

Lime .... 0-09 

Alumina . . . 1-33 

Potash .... 0-83 

Water .... 48-29 

Formerly these salts were mixed with washed magnesian lime, 100-0, 
and then calcined in order to peroxidise the iron. It is found, however, 
(as first suggested by Dr. Richardson), that calcination is unnecessary 
when the solution is sufficiently diluted, and when space is provided in the 
precipitating tank for the bulky precipitate of protoxide of iron, which 
is formed by the gradual addition of magnesian lime. This is pro- 
bably the only chemical manufacture of the district, with the exception 
of prussiate of potash, which has greatly fallen off in extent, a more 
rational system of medicine having diminished the use of purgatives, 
and reduced the demand for Epsom salts to about one-third of what it 
was twenty years ago. The annual production is still 1,500 tons, two- 
thirds of which are made from the rough salts. 

Carbonate op Magnesia. — This compound has long been produced 
in this district, where it was formerly, and is still to a limited extent 
manufactured from the mother liquors of the salt pans, known as Bittern, 
to which carbonate of soda is added to precipitate the magnesia in the 
form of carbonate. This old process has been largely superseded by 
VOL. iv. o 



178 CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 

the elegant process of the late Mr. H. L. Pattinson, which consists in 
submitting calcined magnesian limestone to the action of carbonic acid 
and water, under pressure. The magnesia dissolves out as bicarbonate 
of magnesia, from which the neutral carbonate of magnesia is preci- 
pitated by the application of heat. The quantity manufactured is said 
to be about 250 tons per annum. 

Superphosphate of Lime. — The manufacture of this article was 
commenced at Blaydon, in 1844, by Dr. Richardson, soon after the pub- 
lication of Liebig's celebrated report on agricultural chemistry. Various 
materials are employed as the source of phosphate of lime — viz., bones, 
bone ashes from South America, exhausted animal charcoal from the 
sugar refineries, coprolites from Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, phosphate 
from Spam, Sombrero guano, &c. Improvements have been introduced 
in the manner of mixing the acid with these substances in drying 
and in the riddling of the superphosphate. The quantity produced 
amounts to between 15,000 and 16,000 tons per annum. 

Pearl Hardener. — This article has only recently been manufactured 
here, and its introduction is due to Dr. Jullion, who has applied it to 
the hardening of paper. It is produced by precipitating hydrated sul- 
phate of lime from a perfectly pure solution of chloride of calcium, by 
means of sulphuric acid. Great care is taken in its preparation, and it 
is being generally introduced among the manufacturers of paper. The 
quantity made is said to be about 2,000 tons per annum. 

Sulphate of" Iron. — The first manufactory for the production of 
green copperas in England was founded about the year 1579, when one 
Matthew Falconer, a Brabanter, " did try and draw very good brimstone 
and copperas out of certain stones gathered in great plenty on the shore 
near unto Minster, in the Isle of Sheppey." Mr. Thomas Delaval 
commenced to manufacture copperas at Hartley about the year 1748, but 
he subsequently sold the manufactory to his brother, Lord Delaval, and 
by an Act of Parliament, 11th of George III., 1771, power was given 
to Sir Francis Blake Delaval to grant to Sir John Hussey Delaval, in fee 
simple, all the copperas works then and there existing, which may 
enable us to form some idea of the importance then attached to this 
manufacture. The late Mr. Barnes and Alderman Forster erected the 
first copperas works on the Tyne, at Walker, in 1798, which are still in 
operation. The quantity at present manufactured is about 2,000 tons 
per annum, and the process is still the same, but Mr. Thomas Barnes has 
applied the refuse crystals to a novel purpose. This refuse was, and is, 
generally thrown away, but Mr. Barnes uses it as a manure on his farm, 
on the thin soil which lies on the magnesian limestone. He finds 
that the depth of the soil is gradually increasing by the disintegration 
of the rock, and that the more he uses, the more satisfactory are the 
results. The beneficial effect of the copperas is doubtless partly due to 
the natural decomposition of the carbonate of lime with the sulphate of 
iron, and partly to the action of the peroxide of iron on the organic 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 179 

matter of the soil, while, being constantly renovated, a supply of oxygen 
is provided in a solid form, by this hydrated oxide of iron. 

Venetian Red. — The manufacture of this article has long been 
carried on in this neighbourhood, and is noticed here as it is so closely 
related to green copperas. It is made by calcining a mixture of cop- 
peras and some native hydrated oxide of iron, chalk, and gypsum. 
The calcined mass is levigated and dried. About 4,000 tons per annum are 
manufactured on the Tyne, and the price varies from 41. 10s. to 51. per ton. 

Sulphate op Copper. — Thi9 salt was formerly produced by roasting 
old copper in a reverberatory furnace, and then dissolving the oxide in 
sulphuric acid, but it is now obtained in carrying out Longmaid's pro- 
cess for decomposing common salt by means of cupreous pyrites. The 
quantity made is about 100 tons per annum, which is all produced at 
the works of Messrs. J. and W. Allen. 

Resin Size. — This article is manufactured according to a patent 
obtained by Mr. W. S. Losh, and is intended to produce a size suitable 
for paper-makers, and to supersede the old size in ordinary use, which 
consists of alum, resin, and soda ash. Its manufacture has, however, 
been only partially developed, and not more than 100 tons yearly is 
produced ; but a new and cheap size, which can be prepared ready for 
the use of the paper trade is, we think, a step in the right direction, and 
the theory of the sizing of paper is a field still open to chemists. 

Lamp Black. — The manufacture of lamp black, we believe, is peculiar 
to this locality, and it is produced from bituminous coals. These coals 
are slowly burnt, at a dull heat, and with as small a supply of air as 
possible. The smoke is conducted into brick chambers, into which a 
jet of steam or water is passed to assist in the better formation of the 
lamp black. The quantity made is about 1,200 tons annually. 

Grease. — This product is made to the extent of 2,800 tons annually. 
It is chiefly produced from the distillation of resin, and in a locality like 
Newcastle, surrounded by extensive collieries and works, the consump- 
tion is considerable. Since the American war the price has been much 
affected, and, we are told, has advanced from 8Z. or 91. per ton to 221. per 
ton. 

Chemical Products op Gas Works.— The quantity of coal used 
in the manufacture of gas on the three northern rivers, the Tyne, 
Wear, and Tees, amounts to about 100,000 tons. 

THE PRODUCTS OBTAINED ARE AS FOLLOWS : — 



i, 000, 000 cubic feet of Gas 


... £113,000 


53, 000 tons of Coke 


... 10,000 


23,800 gallons of Crude Naptha 


2,800 


309,000 gallons of Creosote Oil 


1,250 


3,560 tons of Pitch 


3,130 


600 tons of Sulphate of Ammonia 


9,000 


Total 


£139,180 



180 CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 

The sulphate of ammonia is manufactured direct from the gas water, 
in the following manner : — A large cylindrical boiler is filled two-thirds 
full with the gas liquor, and gently boiled. The gaseous products and 
steam are conducted into a mother liquor, from a previous operation, 
which is kept slightly acid. When no more ammonia comes over, a 
quantity of milk of lime is added to the boiler and a strong heat ap- 
plied, until the colouring matters cease to be disengaged. The gaseous 
products are collected as before, and the colouring matters are skimmed 
off the surface of the liquor. The boiling is then moderated, and during 
the whole operation, a stream of acid is supplied to the !cistern. The 
sulphate of ammonia salts out, and is fished up into baskets to drain, 
when it is ready for the market. 

Cement.— The manufacture of this material, on a large scale in this 
district, is of comparatively recent origin. A small quantity of cement 
has long been made on the Yorkshire coast, near Whitby, where a 
peculiar mineral is found in the alum shale, called the " Cement Stone." 
This mineral has been analysed by Dr. Richardson, who found it to 
contain — 

Clay insoluble in Acids 18*41 

Consisting of Silica 

,, of Alumina 

Alumina soluble in Acids 

Oxide of Iron 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Soda and Potash ... 

Organic Matter 

Carbonic Acid and Water 

9977 

About 20 cwt. of this mineral is found in every 60 tons of shale, 
and the greater proportion is sent to Hull, where it is manufactured 
into a cement, sold under the name of Mulgrave Cement. 

The mineral is burnt in small open kilns, and afterwards ground to 
a fine powder. 

The production of cement on a large manufacturing scale, dates from 
the establishment of the works of Messrs. T. C. Johnson and Co., in 
1856. This firm manufactures Portland Cement, Roman Cement, 
Keene's Marble Cement, and Plaster of Paris ; and they have recently 
introduced improved machinery for the more perfect levigation of the 
raw materials, by which the subsequent chemical action is much 
facilitated. 

Portland cement is very extensively used in this country, in France 
and Germany, for dock works, basins, fortifications, and for fronting 
houses in imitation of stone. It is also used for coating the inside of all 



12-24 




6-17 






6-89 




0-54 




37*68 




5-20 




traces 




1-48 




29-62 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES ON THE TYNE. 181 

first-class iron ships. The rivets are carefully coated, and are thus pro- 
tected from the corrosive action of the bilge water. It has been found 
of equal service in sugar-carrying vessels, where the leakage of the 
molasses exercises a very corroding action. 

Roman cement is prepared by calcining septaria in open kilns, and 
afterwards grinding the burnt material in horizontal stoves. It is used 
either alone or mixed with an equal volume of sharp sand. 

Keene's marble cement is made by soaking calcined gypsum in a 
solution of alum, and then recalcining the mass at a dull red heat. Thi3 
recalcined material is then ground and sifted. It is only used for 
internal work, such as floors, skirtings, walls, &c. It is largely employed 
in London in churches and club-houses ; it rapidly dries, after being 
applied, and may be papered or painted in two days. When dry, it is 
so hard that a nail cannot be driven into it. Two qualities are made : 
one of which can be polished in imitation of marble ; while the other 
is used as a ground for painting — when different colours are intro- 
duced, a superior scagliola is formed. 

The quantities manufactured per annum, are as follows : — 



Portland Cement 

Roman ditto ... ... 

Keene's ditto 

Plaster of Paris 

The present prices are — 

Portland Cement 8s. 6d. per cask of 430 lbs. 

Roman ditto 7s. 6d. „ 336 lbs. 

Keene's ditto 14s. Od. „ 836 lbs. 

Plaster of Paris 30s. Od. per ton. 

Quantities and Prices of Raw Materials Used in Local 
Chemical Manufactures. 



Tons. 


Casks. 


10,000 ... 


.. 50,000 


350 ... 


... 2,450 


50 ... 


350 


200 ... 


.. 2,000 







Price 




Value. 




Tons. 


£ s. 


d. 


£ s. 


Sulphur (included as pyrites 


) 72,800 


10 





109,200 


(Copper value not included.) 






Salt .... 


90,000 


15 





67,500 


Nitrate of Soda . 


2,500 


14 15 





36,875 


Chalk 


144,000 


2 


6 


18,000 


Coals . 


323,000 


3 


9 


60,562 19 


Manganese .... 


11,400 


4 





45,600 


Rough Epsom Salt 


1,500 


2 5 





3,375 


Magnesian Limestone 


700 


3 


6 


122 10 


French Limestone 


14,000 


4 


6 


3,150 


Resin .... 


— 











Tallow 


— 












162 



on the defects and want of strength 
Quantities and Prices of Finished Products. 







Price 




Value. 




Tons. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


Alkali . 


43,500 


8 10 





369,750 


Crystals of Soda . 


51,300 


4 15 





243,675 


Bicarbonate of Soda . 


7,450 


12 








89,400 


Caustic Soda 


580 


18 








10,440 


Hyposulphite of Soda . 


400 


25 








10,000 


Oil of Vitriol 


6,440 


6 








38,640 


Epsom Salts 


1,500 


7 


5 





10,875 


Bleaching Powder 


11,200 


9 








100,800 


Soap .... 


. 6,000 


34 








204,000 


Yellow Prussiate of Potash 


105 





1 


#1611,760 


Red ditto . 


40 





2 


6 #1511,200 


Alum 


4.000 


7 








28,000 


Carbonate of Magnesia 


250 


30 








7,500 


Superphosphate of Lime 


15,000 


5 








75,000 


Pearl Hardener . 


2,000 


10 








20,000 


Sulphate of Iron 


2,000 


3 








6,000 


Venetian Red 


4,000 


5 








20,000 


Sulphate of Copper 


100 


35 








3,500 


Resin Size . 


100 


7 








700 


Lamp Black 


1,200 


7 








8,400 


Grease 


. 2,800 


8 








22,400 


Cements 


12,000 


2 








24.000 



ON THE DEFECTS AND WANT OF STRENGTH OF CERTAIN 
MODERN PAPERS. 



BY DR. VAN DEN CORPUT. 

Although, the papers which are now made are infinitely finer, more 
beautiful, and above all whiter than those made in former times, it is 
equally true that, generally, machine-made papers possess less strength 
than the old hand-made papers. But if it is probable that the rapidity 
of the mechanical operations, to which paper is subjected under the 
modern system, and especially the accelerated desiccation which it 
undergoes, causes it to lose a part of its strength, it is still more certain 
that other more powerful causes have contributed, in the last few years, 
to the want of solidity in this article. These causes are principally— 1st, 
the mixture, of cotton and of an infinity of other materials of inferior 
quality with the stuff. 2nd, the too-prolonged immersion in ley of the 
straw-like substances. 3rd, the destructive effects of an excess of 
chlorine which ordinary rags require. 4th, the insufficient washing of 
the pulp, and consequently traces of free chlorine, which the paper 



OF CERTAIN MODERN PAPERS. 183 

retains, and this transformed into hydrochloric acid, slowly corrodes 
the cellulose. 5th, lastly above all, the introduction, in too large apropor- 
tion of certain mineral ingredients into the pulp, such as kaolin or china- 
clay, pipe-clay, plaster, and chalk, substances the admixture of which 
has for some time become general, and has had the effect, while aug- 
menting the weight of the paper, of diminishing the proportion of fibre, 
that is, of the rags of which it should consist. 

The quality of the paper not only depends upon the character of the 
raw materials, but also on the mechanical preparation. For this reason 
strong pulps always furnish a good paper, whereas tough substances, 
roughly bruised, do not offer the same consistency. In order to obtain 
strong pulps, they must be subjected a considerable time to the action 
of the beating-engine, taking care not to destroy their strength by a too 
rapid or abrupt motion of the beating-roll. The thinner the paper, 
and therefore the more difficult to pass over the machine, the longer 
must the pulp be kept in the beating-engine. But this operation must 
be conducted carefully if a good and solid paper is desired. The bars 
of the roll should rub the stuff out. If the bars are too sharp, the 
fibre is cut and the pulp loses its cohesive element. 

We have alluded to the alteration which papers undergo from an 
excess of chlorine, and to the traces of acid which they retain. There is 
a very simple mode of determining the presence of these bodies in papers, 
of which the pulp has not been sufficiently washed ; it is, to moisten 
the sheet with a diluted solution of iodide of potassium. If there are 
hydrochlorites in the paper, a brown spot is formed more or less dark, 
by the action of iodine, which produces a blue colour, if the sheet has 
been sized with starch. Moreover, these papers always give an acid 
reaction, and an odour more or less sensible of chlorine. 

The presence of kaolin is also easily shown. A definite weight of the 
paper, previously dried, is incinerated and the residue weighed. Paper 
of good quality ought to leave only 2 per cent, of ash ; French filter- 
ing paper leaves only 2 decigrammes of residue to 100 gr. of dried paper, 
and good Swedish filtering paper (papier Berzelius) used in chemical 
analysis, leaves, after combustion, only l-600th of its weight. Never- 
theless, it is now very usual to meet with papers which contain l-6th 
and even l-4th of their weight of kaolin. A sample of paper prepared 
with glycerine, sent to me by M. Bols, a printer at Brussels, gave a 
residue of near 30 per cent, of mineral substances, consisting chiefly of 
silica and alumina ; ingredients which, by their excessive quantity, 
justify the term of mineral paper being applied to this manufacture. 

Some idea of the enormous use of kaolin may be formed, when it is 
known that M. L. Piette, in his talented " Journal des Fabricants de 
Papier," estimated in 1854, at more than 50,000,000 kilogrammes, the 
quantity of this substance used in the paper mills of Europe to mix 
with rags. 

This practice, however, is hardly more new in the making of paper 



184 ON THE DEFECTS AND WANT OF STRENGTH 

than the appreciation of the fraud itself, for Pliny tells us that, in hi* 
time, the papyrus, moistened with the muddy water of the Nile, which 
held in suspension a very fine clay, was frequently spongy and sucked 
up the ink, by reason of too large an intermixture of this mud ; so much 
knavery is there, added he (tantum in estfraudis !). 

Nevertheless, used in moderation, kaolin is not so destructive as 
might be supposed. When a strong substance i3 mixed with the pulp, 
and the whole carefully beaten, it has the advantage of making the 
paper pure and even, by "causing the pores to disappear, which the fibres 
of the cellulose form in the sheet. The kaolin, which is now made use 
of by almost all paper-makers, under the specious pretext of giving 
more colour to the paper, 'but also undoubtedly with the object of aug- 
menting the weight of their manufacture, gives to the paper, when it is 
used in too large a proportion, a dull appearance. The sheet is then 
soft, weak, and without consistency, especially when soft rags are in 
excess, and the stuff is short. Moreover, by the scratching of pens, 
particularly those of steel, the interposed aluminous earth is detached 
from the paper, which very quickly soils and roughens ; for this reason 
care is taken to introduce, relatively, a much less quantity of kaolin into 
writing paper than into printings. 

It is also sought by the addition of a large quantity of starch, to 
correct the want of strength in paper, arising from the introduction of 
these pulverulent substances, just as, by glazing, it is sought to modify 
the downy appearance which the presence of cotton gives to paper. 

It is only in an exceptional manner that certain makers have 
recourse to sulphate of lime (plaster or gypsum), mentioned by Baron 
Dumas, as being largely consumed for this object. Plaster is far from 
lending itself equally well to this application as the pure silicate 
of alumina, which, by reason of its fine grain, unctuousness, and 
plastic properties, combined with its cheapness, is almost exclusively 
employed at the present time. If the makers do not employ in preference 
baryta, and the sulphate, or carbonate of lead, which, equally white as 
kaolin, have the advantage of being heavier, and consequently should 
be preferred to effect the proposed object, it is because these substances 
are dearer than China clay, and, moreover, the salts of lead would 
have the inconvenience of turning yellow, by contact with the 
vapours of sulphuretted hydrogen. Be.sides, the heavy specific weight 
of these substances causing them to sink to the bottom of the engine, 
the pulp would not be so homogeneous as kaolin, which remains sus- 
pended in the semi-liquid mass of the stuff. It has, however, been 
found possible to obtain plaster and sulphate of baryta in the required 
state of tenuity, and free from clots, by precipitating them from solu- 
tions of chloride of calcium, or of barium, by means of sulphuric acid 
or of sulphate of alumina, introduced into the pulp itself. The mix- 
ture of zinc white would, perhaps, be a further improvement in this 
practice, which can be considered as lawful, since it is tolerated, without 



OF CERTAIN MODERN PAPERS. 185 

having*been, up to the present time, looked upon, not only, as a posi- 
tive fraud in the quality of the merchandise, but as possibly having, in 
many cases, by its abuse, certain inconveniences, of which the disas- 
trous consequences are not sufficiently appreciated. 

But these consequences may become, as will be seen, of immense 
importance. Papers, already weakened by the prolonged bleaching of 
the raw materials of inferior quality, that are now used, must neces- 
sarily suffer still greater injury in the solidity of their texture by the 
mixture of a pulverulent mineral substance, which intervening between 
the fibres of the cellulose, necessarily diminishes the closeness of the 
paper and weakens the sheet so prepared. 

If its organic substance undergoes a slight alteration, either from 
the presence of an excess of chlorine, or from the slowly destruc- 
tive action of the air, the paper becomes brittle and soon falls to 
powder, causing the destruction of the ink. Nor is it unusual, as 
M. Dumas observes, to meet with books, printed within the last ten 
years, of which the paper crumbles at the least touch. 

Assuredly, if this evil is not to be regretted, in respect to the moral 
value of many modern works, of which the early destruction frees their 
authors from the severe judgment of posterity, it is no less certain that 
the introduction of mineral substances into the pulp, ought to be 
severely repressed, not so much because it is a commercial fraud, as that 
the process may compromise important interests. 

Indeed, setting aside the question of honesty, it may be conceived 
how important it is not to expose to early destruction public docu- 
ments, which are at the present time inconsiderately drawn up on 
papers that contain within themselves the causes of alteration, thereby 
ensuring their inevitable destruction within a not far distant period. 
We know from good authority that already, in certain towns, a part of 
the modern archives have been retranscribed, on account of the exten- 
sive deterioration which the paper had undergone, and it is to be feared 
that this transcription has been made on paper quite as bad in quality 
as the former. This, of necessity, entails considerable expense uselessly 
on the corporations or the government. 

It consequently behoves all governments, in order to ensure the safe 
preservation of their archives, to examine carefully the quality of the 
paper used in the preparation of public registers, and it is the duty of 
every good administration not to use any official paper liable to change 
from its faulty composition. 

In order to obtain these results, the English government requires 
that the raw materials of the paper used for the State archives, shall 
neither be boiled nor bleached. It is, however, but just to acknowledge 
that many of the faults found in modern papers, can only be applied to 
the first productions made by machinery, and it is reasonably to be 
hoped that, in consequence of the improvements in paper-making, the 
above-mentioned defects will soon entirely disappear. 

VOL. IV. p 



186 ON THE DEFECTS, ETC., OF CERTAIN PAPERS. 

However, we repeat, repressive measures must be adopted against 
such a system of manufacture, at least as far as regards papers for 
public documents, which necessarily require a guarantee of durability, 
to be se cured only by sound paper made of white rags, of hemp, or of 
flax, tub-sized. After verifying the good quality of the paper by its 
rattle, rigidity, clearness, and resistance to breakage, the length of the 
fibre on the torn edge of a sheet must be examined with a glass, and in 
respect to writing papers, the equality of the sizing should be ascertained 
by wetting. 

As was long ago proved by Baron Liebig, all vegetable substances 
undergo, when placed in contact with moist air, a true slow combustion 
or eremacausis. The oxygen of the atmosphere, combining in these 
circumstances with the carbon that forms the essential constituent 
element of the vegetable matter, there is formed one volume of carbonic 
acid gas equal to that of the absorbed oxygen ; at the same time a por- 
tion of the latter takes up a part of the hydrogen of the cellulose, to 
form water. The porous state of the substance, which increases its 
faulty absorption, favours this decomposition in a high degree. 

Substances of animal origin undergo an analogous decomposition ; 
but here the presence of nitrogen contained therein, gives rise also to 
the formation of ammoniacal salts, which specially favour microscopic 
vegetable development of the cryptogamous class. Hence that formation 
of mouldiness which is ordinarily observed under similar circum- 
stances. 

Paper being formed, as we have seen, essentially of vegetable fibres 
and of the gelatinous substances introduced in the sizing, is subject, 
like every other organic substance, to decomposition or eremacausis, 
more or less rapid, according to certain conditions of manufacture. But 
it is easy to conceive that the presence of earthy matters in the paper 
pulp, combined with the accelerated desiccation which the paper 
undergoes, by diminishing its cohesion, can but increase the rapidity of 
its decomposition. 

The first symptom of decay in the paper is generally manifested 
by inequalities on the surface, which, in some places, become 
fluffy, at the same time its whiteness is impaired. During this internal 
decomposition, besides the carbonic acid above mentioned, traces of 
organic acids, such as humic and crenic, form on its surface reddish 
spots or holes, when the paper has been blued. In other cases, these 
spots are yellowish or ochrish ; they sometimes arise from the scum, 
caused by the imperfect mixture of the size with the pulp. When these 
alterations are more advanced, a mouldiness is developed in these parts, 
especially if the paper has been sized with gelatine, of which the most 
common is a species of penicillium. These microscopic vegetations, 
insinuating themselves between the pores of the paper, lessen its co- 
hesion and accelerate its disintegration. 

According to M. Bjckramin, a printer in Treptow, these mouldy 



ON GOLD IN WESTERN AFRICA. 187 

pots (stock flecke) can be easily effaced from printed paper, without 
endangering the impression, by passing the sheets through a hydro- 
chloric bath, formed of one part of concentrated acid of commerce, to 18 
parts of water. 

It is the same expedient which I recommended, many years ago, to 
M. de Brou, a distinguished artist and conservator of the collections of 
the Duke d'Arenberg, to remove certain blots which had dimmed, -with 
a cloudy whiteness, the surface of some valuable engravings. This pro- 
cess, which succeeded fully, would have infallibly caused the loss of the 
print, if it had been printed on modern lime-paper. Damaged sheets, 
spotted with ink or mouldy stains, may still be whitened, by plunging 
them for some minutes, into a warm solution of one part of 'tartaric acid, 
and 24 parts of water, and then washing plentifully with water. This 
solution, as well as those of oxalic or citric acid, which may be sub- 
stituted, has the advantage of being less likely to spoil the paper than 
mineral acids. 

To Baron Thenard is due the application of oxygenated water to 
spotted papers, or to prints discoloured by metallic sulphates. 

I have shown the inconveniences arising from the introduction 
into paper, of mineral substances foreign to the regular manufacture. 
There is also another cause that contributes quite as much to the 
bad quality of modern papers, and which, until now, appears to 
have escaped the attention of manufacturers ; it is the too rapid desic- 
cation which the sheets undergo in the preparation of machine-sized 
paper. 

Brussels. 



GOLD IN WESTERN AFRICA. 

BT CAPTAIN P. BURTON. 



We find in Leo Africanus, who is supposed to have died about 1526, 
that the King of Ghana had in his palace " an entire lump of gold " — 
a monster nugget it would now be called — not cast nor wrought by 
instruments, but perfectly formed by the Divine Providence only, of 
thirty pounds weight, which had been bored through and fitted for a 
seat to the royal throne* The author most diffuse upon the subject 
of gold, is Bosman, who treats, however, solely of the Gold Coast. 

According to Bosman (Letter vi.) "the illustrious metal " was found 
in three sites. The first and best was " in or between particular hills :" 
the negroes sank pits there and separated the soil adhering to it. The 
second " is in, at, and about some rivers and waterfalls, whose violence 

* Similarly, the king of "Buncatoo" had a solid gold stool, which caused his 
destruction at the hands of his neighbours of Ashauter. 



188 ON GOLD IN WESTERN AFRICA. 

washeth down great quantities of earth, which carry the gold with it. 
The third is on the sea shore, near the mouths of rivulets, and the 
favourite time for washing is after violent night rains. The negro 
women are furnished with large and small troughs or trays, which they 
first fill full of earth and sand, which they wash with repeated fresh 
water till they have cleansed it from all its earth ; and if there be any 
gold its ponderosity forces it to the bottom of the trough, which, if they 
find it, is thrown into the small tray, and so they go on washing it 
again, which operation generally holds them till noon ; some of them 
not getting above the value ol sixpence ; some of them pieces of six or 
seven shillings, though not frequently ; and often they entirely lose 
their labour." 

The gold thus dug is of two kinds, dust gold and mountain gold. 
The former is " fine as flour," and the more esteemed because there is 
no loss in melting. The latter, corresponding with our modern " nug- 
get," varies in weight from a farthing to 200 guineas ; it touches better 
than gold dust, but it is a loss from the stones adhering to the stone. 

The natives, in Bosnian's day — and to the present time — were " very 
subtle artists in the sophisticating of gold." The first sort was the 
Fetish before alluded to. They also cast pieces so artificially, that 
whilst outside there was pure gold thick as a knife, the interior was 
copper, and perhaps iron — then a new trick — and the most dangerous, 
because difficult to detect. The common " false mountain gold " was a 
mixture of the precious metal with silver and copper, extremely high 
coloured, and unless each piece was touched, the fraud passed undetected. 
Auother kind was an artificially cast and tinged powder of coral mixed 
with copper filings : it became tarnished, however, in a month or two. 

With respect to the annual export from the Gold Coast, Bosman 
reckons it in peaceful times, when trade is prosperous, to be " 23 tun." 
The 7,000 marks are disposed of as below.* Mr. M'Queen estimates 
the exportation at 3,406,275Z. The English trade has now fallen to 
360,000?. to 400,000Z. per annuin.t 

* The Dutch West India Company yearly exported, Marks 1,500 



The English African Company .... 
The Zealand interlopers as much as the Dutch, viz. 
The English interlopers about 1,000, usually, which 

they have doubled 

The Brandenburghers and Danes together, in times 

of peace 

The Portuguese and French together 



1,200 
1,500 



1,000 



Which makes 7,000 
For several years before Bosman's time, the Dutch export had been reduced by 
one-half (750 marks). 

t Dr. Clarke ("Remarks, &c), gives 100,000 ounces. This was the calcula- 
tion of Mr. Swanzy before a parliamentary committee in 1816. Of course it is 
impossible to arrive at any clear estimate. Allowing the African Stsam Ship 



ON GOLD IN WESTERN AFRICA. 189 

In several countries, as Dinkira, Tueful, Wasa, and especially Akim, 
the hill region lying due north of Accra, the people are still active in 
digging gold. The pits, varying from two to three feet in diameter, 
and from twelve to fifty deep, are often so near the roads that loss of 
life has been the result. " Shoring-up," being little known, the miners 
are not unfrequently buried alive. The stuff is drawn up by ropes in 
clay pots, or calabashes, and thus a workman at the bottom widens the 
pit to a pyriform shape : tunnelling, however, is unknown. The ex- 
cavated earth is carried down to be washed. Besides sinking these holes, 
they pan in the beds of rivers, and in places collect quartz, which is 
roughly pounded. The yield is very uncertain, and the chief of the dis- 
trict is entitled to one-third of the proceeds. During the busy season, 
when water is abundant, the scene must resemble that described by Dr. 
Livingstone near the gold diggings of Tete ; as in California and Aus- 
tralia, prices rise high, and gunpowder, rum, and cotton goods soon 
carry off the gold-dust. During the repeated earthquakes of July, 1862, 
which laid waste Accra, the strata of the Akim hills were so much 
shaken and broken up, that, according to report, all the people 
flocked to the diggings and dispensed with the shafts generally sunk. 
There are several parts of the Gold Coast where the precious metal is 
Fetish, and where the people will not dig themselves, though perhaps 
they would not object to strangers risking their lives. One of the most 
remarkable is the Devil's Hill, called by Bosnian, Monte de Diablo, near 
Winnibah, in the Aguna (Agouna) country. In his day, a Mr. Braggs, 
English agent, was commissioned by the African Company to prospect 
it. He died at Cape Coast Castle before undertaking a work which, in 
those days, would have been highly dangerous. Some authorities fix 
the Seecom river as the easternmost boundary where gold is found. 
This is so far incorrect that I have panned it from the sands under 
James Fort. Besides which it is notorious that on the banks of the 
upper Volta, about the latitude of the Krobo (Croboe) country, there 
are extensive deposits, regarded by the people as sacred. 

The Slave Coast is a low alluvial tract, and appears to be wholly 
destitute. According to the Kev. Mr. Bowen, a small quantity of 
gold has been found in the quartz of Yoruba, north of Abeokuta ; 
but, as in the Brazils, it is probably too much dispersed to be worth 
working. And the Niger which flows, as will presently be seen, from 
the true auriferous centre, has at times been found to roll down stream- 
gold. The soil of Fanti and the seaboard is but slightly auriferous. 

As we advance northwards from the Gold Coast the yield becomes 
richer. In Ashantee the red and loamy soil, scattered with gravel and 
grey granite, is everywhere impregnated with gold, wdiich the slaves 

Company a maximum of 4,000 ounces per month, we obtain from that source 
48,000 ounces. But considerable quantities are exported in merchant ships, more 
especially for the American market. Whilst, therefore, some reduce the total to 
60,000 ounces, others raise it to half a million of money. 



190 ON GOLD IN WESTERN AFRICA. 

extract by washing and digging. It is said that in the market-place of 
Kumasi there are 1 ,600 ounces worth of gold — a treasure reserved for 
State purposes. The bracelets of rock -gold, which the caboceers wear 
on state occasions, are four pounds in weight, and often so heavy that 
they must rest their arms upon the heads of their slave boys. 

In Gaman, the region to the north-west of the capital, the ore is 
found in large nuggets, sometimes weighing four pounds. The pits are 
sunk nine feet in the red granite and grey granite, and the gold is highly 
coloured. From 8,000 to 10,000 slaves work for two months every year 
in the bed of the Bara river. There, however, as on the Gold Coast, 
the work is very imperfect, and in some places where the metal is sacred 
to the Fetish, it is not worked at all. Judging from analogy, we might 
expect to find the precious metal in the declivities inland and north- 
wards from Cape Palmas, and in that sister formation of the East 
African ghauts, the " Sierra del Crystal." The late Captain Lawlin, an 
American trader, settled on an island at the mouth of the Fernan Vaz, 
carried to his own country, about the year 1843-44, a quantity of 
granular gold, which had been brought to him by some country people. 
He brought back all the necessary tools and implements to the Gaboon 
River, but the natives became alarmed, and he failed to find the spot. 
Finally, according to the tradition of native travellers, the unexplored 
region called Rtima,* and conjecturally placed south of the inhospitably 
Waday, is a land of goldsmiths, the ore being found in mountainous 
and well-watered districts. It is becoming evident that Africa will 
some day equal half-a-dozen Californias. 

Mungo Park supplies the amplest notices of gold in the regions 
visited by him north of the Kong Mountains. The principal places are 
the head of the Senegal river, and its various influents ; Dindiko, where 
the shafts are most deep, and notched, like a ladder ; Shronda, which 
gives two grains from every pound of alluvial matter ;f Bambuk and 
Bambarra. In Kongkadu, the " mountain land," where the hills are of 
coarse ruddy granite, composed of red feldspar, white quartz, and black 
shale, containing orbicular concretions, granular gold is found in the 
quartz, which is broken with hammers ; the grains, however, are flat. 
The diggings at present best known are those of Manding. The gold, 
we are told, is found not in mines or veins, but scattered in sand and 
clay. They vary from a pin's head to the size of a pea, and are re- 
markably pure. This is called Sana Manko, or gold-powder, in contra- 
distinction to Sana birro, or gold stones, nuggets occasionally weighing 

* This may be the " Rimga," of our maps, with whose position Ruma corre- 
sponds. My informant wrote down the name from the mouth of a Waday man at 
Lagos. 

f This would be -y^nj- (avoirdupois*, whereas the cascalhao, or alluvium, of 
Brazil is t^^, and remarkably rich and pyritical ores in Europe give ^oV^. 
Yet M. D'Aubrie estimates the gold in the bed of Father Rhine at six or seven 
millions of pounds sterling. 



ON GOLD IN WESTERN AFRICA. 191 

five drachms. In December, after the harvest-home, when the gold- 
bearing Fiumaras from the hills have shrunk, the Mansa or Shaykh ap- 
points a day to begin Sana Ku — gold-washing. Each woman arms herself 
with a hoe; two or three calabashes, and a few quills. On the morning 
before departure a bullock is slaughtered for a feast, and prayers and 
charms are not forgotten. The error made by these people is digging 
and washing for years in the same spot, which proves comparatively un- 
fruitful unless the torrent shifts its course. They never follow the lead 
to the. hills, but content themselves with exploring the heads of the 
water-courses, which the rapid stream denudes of sand and clay, leaving 
a strew of small pebbles that wear the skin off the finger-tips. The 
richest yield is from pits sunk in the height of the dry season, near some 
hill in which gold has been found. As the workers dig through the 
several strata of sand and clay, they send up a few calabashes by way 
of experiment for the women, whose peculiar duty it is to wash the 
stuff, and thus they continue till they strike the floor-rock. The most 
hopeful formation is held to be a bed of reddish sand, with small dark 
specks, described as " black matter, resembling gun-powder," and called 
by the people Sana Mira, or gold-rust : it is possibly emery. In Mr. 
Murray's edition of 1816, there are illustrations of the various positions, 
and a long description ("Vol. I., p. 450, and Vol. II., p. 75) of the style of 
panning. I will not trouble the reader with it, as it in no way differs 
from that now practised on the Gold Coast and Kaffir lands. There is 
art in this apparently simple process. Some women find gold when 
others cannot discover a particle ; and as quicksilver is not used, at 
least one-third must be wasted, or rather, I may say, it is preserved for 
a better day. 

The gold dust is stored in quills, stopped with cotton, and the 
washers are fond of wearing a number of these trophies in their hair. 
The average of an industrious individual's annual collection may be two 
slaves. The price of these varies from nine to twelve minkali,* each of 
12s. 6d., or its equivalent in goods, viz., eighteen gun-flints, forty-eight 
leaves of tobacco, twenty charges of gunpowder, a cutlass, and a musket. 
Part of the gold is converted into massive and cumbrous ornaments, 
necklaces, and ear-rings, and when a lady of consequence is in full dress, 
she bears from 50Z. to 801. A proportion is put by to defray expenses ol 
travelling to and from the coast, and the greater part is then invested in 
goods, or exchanged with the Moors for salt and merchandise. 

The gold is weighed in small balances, which the people always 
carry about with them, and they make, like the Hindus, but little dif- 
ference between gold dust and wrought gold. The purchaser always 
uses his own J 1 tilikissi," beans probably of the Abrus, which are 
sometimes soaked in Shea butter, to increase their weight, or are imi- 

* May not this word be an old corruption of the well-known Arabic weight, 
miskal 1 



192 OX GOLD IN WESTERN AFRICA. 

tated with ground-down pebbles. In smelting gold, the smith uses an 
alkaline salt, obtained from a ley of burnt corn stalks. He is capable, 
as even the wildest African tribes are, of drawing fine wire. When 
rings — the favourite forms in which the precious metal is carried coast - 
ward — are to be made, the gold is run without any flux in a crucible of 
sun-dried red clay, which is covered over with charcoal or braize. The 
smith pours the fluid into a furrow traced in the ground, by way of 
mould. When it has cooled, he reheats it, and hammers it into a little 
square ingot or bar of the size required. After a third exposure to fire, 
he twists with his pincers the bar into a screw shape, lengthens out the 
ends, and turns them up to form the circle. 

It must now be abundantly evident to the reader that the great 
centre of West African gold, the source which supplies Mauding to the 
North, and Ashantee to the South, is the equatorial range called the 
Kong. What the mineral wealth must be there, it is impossible to esti- 
mate, when nearly three millions aud a half of pounds sterling have 
annually been drawn from a small parallelogram between its southern 
slopes and the ocean, whilst the other three-quarters of the land — 
without alluding to the equally rich declivities of the northern versant 
— have remained as yet unexplored. Even in northern Liberia colonists 
have occasionally come upon a pocket of 50 dols., and the natives bring 
gold in from the banks of streams. 

Mr. Wilson ('Western Africa,' chap, x.) remarks upon this subject, 
" It is best for whites and blacks that these mines should be worked just 
as they are. The world is not suffering for the want of gold, and the 
comparative small quantities that are brought to the sea-coast keep the 
people in continual intercourse with civilised men, and ultimately, no 
doubt, will be the means of introducing civilisation and Christianity 
among them." 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY. 

BY PROFESSOR JAMES C. BOOTH. 

The arts are those processes by which the products of the mineral, 
vegetable, and animal kingdoms are modified, in a greater or less degree, 
in order to adapt them to the wants of man. These processes are based 
on either mechanical or chemical principles ; and while in a large pro- 
portion of them mechanics are almost exclusively employed, in an 
equally huge number mechanical operations are merely subservient to 
chemical action. Hence, a twofold division of the arts is both practi- 
cable and convenient. The former is designated as Mechanical 
Technology, or Practical Mechanics ; the latter, Chemical Technology. 

Among the chemical arts, many are conducted on a large scale, and 
are properly termed chemical manufactures ; but chemical technology 
is more comprehensive, embracing less extended processes, and even a 
few in which chemistry finds a limited application. Thus, the making 
of alum and glass, the reduction of iron ores, the extraction and refining 
of sugar, are all manufactures conducted on a vast scale. On the other 
hand, phosphate of soda and chrome yellow are made on a limited 
scale; small quantities of nickel, of tannin, and perfuming oils, are 
extracted and refined ; and yet, as their preparation is wholly governed 
by chemical principles, these processes belong to chemical technology. 
"While some writers incorrectly limit the subject to chemical manufac- 
tures, others confine it to the first valuable products obtained. Thus, 
while the prepai-ation of alum and copperas are acknowledged chemical 
arts and manufactures, their extensive application to organic fibre to . 
give permanency to dyes, and the whole art of dyeing and calico print- 
ing, would be excluded. This is manifestly wrong, if the definition of 
the arts which we have given be correct ; and we cannot exclude 

VOL. IV. Q 



194 CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY. 

those arts of a chemieal nature, which more immediately flow from 
any one branch of manufactures, especially when we consider that such 
collateral arts are often necessary to the economy of a particular branch 
of manufacture. 

Emanating from chemistry, chemical technology has been 
usually treated as a branch of that science, and has been correctly 
designated " applied chemistry." Its recent expansion, however, by the 
aid of chemistry, allows of its establishment as an independent branch 
of knowledge, — a science, capable of a classification, not on the prin- 
ciples of chemical science, but evolved from itself, by a comparison of 
its subjects with each other. The main principle which should goyern 
such classification is the object in view or the product to d>e made, 
and, with this, the secondary arts necessarily or usually connected with 
it. Thus, the making of soap, being an important art, and an exten- 
sive manufacture, necessaiily includes the extraction and purification 
of oils and fats, while perfumery and chandlery seem to follow in its 
train in a natural order. The following i& an atte-inpt at such a classi- 
fication of the subjects in chemical technology, and is the result of some 
years' experience in lectures on the chemical arts delivered by the 
writer before the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia. Doubtless, it 
will be found imperfect, but it is fair to offer as an apology, the diffi- 
culty experienced by the chemist in separating in his hand the compo- 
sition and properties of bodies from their connection as objects of manu- 
facture, and in breaking down long cherished associations of purely 
chemical characteristics. 

Chemical affinity may be regarded as the force employed in the 
chemical arts ; fuel and water, as the principal agents used to modify or 
direct this force ; and the crude productions of the mineral, vege- 
table, and animal kingdoms, as the materials subjected to action. 
The air performs less important functions, as a direct agent ; but, in 
conjunction with fuel, it is indirectly an indispensable agent, in 
developing heat by the union of its oxygen with the carbon and hydro- 
gen of fuel. Fuel is, however, the true agent in this case, practically 
considered, because it can be handled, weighed, and measured, by the 
artisan, and is indispensable in the reduction of metallic ores. "We 
therefore regard fuel as the source of heat in the arts ; and since 
the larger proportion of the more important technical processes are 
more or less controlled by heat, it must be viewed as the principal agent 
or modifier of affinity. Hence the sources and management of heat 
should be the first subject treated of in a classified narration of technical 
processes. It may be followed by its application to the warming of 
buildings, which, in its manifold aspects of economy, convenience, 
safety, and health of man, embraces the forms of apparatus in which it 
is employed, and the subject of ventilation. 

More naturally connected with fuel than with any other depart- 
ment of the arts, are the means of obtaining and of extinguishing 



CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY. 195 

fire ; the preparation of those mixtures of combustibles with con- 
densed forms of oxygen, such as gunpowder, and other projectile and 
destructive agents, together with their allied compositions for orna- 
mental displays of fire. These may be embraced under the term Pyro- 
techny. 

The whole of the first subject, included under the term Calorics, 
admits of the three subdivisions or groups : Fuel and Furnaces, Warm- 
ing and Ventilation, and Pyrotechny. 

One of the similar applications of heat to modify mineral substances, 
is the fusion of sand and alkali to glass, which is highly plastic, when 
sufficiently heated, and in that state receives the form which it retains 
on cooling. Another application is to the semi-fusion or baking of clay- 
ware, which, having been previously plastic by admixture with water, 
and having then received its form, is heated to a point below perfect 
fusion to give that form permanence. Allied to these is another plastic 
art ; the making and use of cements and mortars, including plaster- 
casting, and making artificial stone. All these are embraced under the 
general term of Plastics ; of which glass-making is Pyroplastics ; 
cements, Hydroplastics ; while the art of pottery partakes of the charac- 
ter of each. 

Another important but more complex application of fire is to 
Metallurgy, wherein fuel is both the source of heat and the chief means 
of reducing ores to the metallic state. It will be observed, that while 
the fluxing of ores naturally connects metallurgy with the pyroplastic 
arts of glass and pottery, the construction of furnaces and moulds indi- 
cates its dependence upon hydroplastics. Modern chemistry has en- 
riched metallurgy with a new department, Gaivanoplastics, and with a 
variety of processes in which the metallurgic treatment of ores is effected 
by solutions. We may, therefore, conveniently divide the subject into 
Pyrometallurgy and Hydrometallurgy. For the present, it is proper to 
regard Photography as a branch of the latter, with which it stands in 
intimate connection. 

Metallurgy and Plastics, having each their branches, in which 
aqueous action plays a conspicuous part, are thus naturally linked with 
a long series of arts in which water is the prime agent in modifying 
and directing the force, affinity; and the connection is still further 
established by the fact, that the substances acted on are mostly confined 
to those of the preceding classes, alkali, earth, and metal. The arts in 
the present class, having for their chief object the preparation of simple 
chemical compounds, acid, oxide, and salt, and being conducted 
on purely chemical principles, have received the general term of Chemics. 
Water is the medium of action, the solvent for acid and alkali, in which 
they exert their powerful and contrary effects ; the solvent for salts, in 
which they are decomposed and resolved into new and iiseful com- 
pounds. The manufacture of sulphuric acid> usually regarded as the 
keystone of the more purely chemical arts, and its use in transforming 

Q 2 



196 CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY. 

common salt into the alkali soda, introduces a series of various connected 
and derivative arts, conducted on a large scale, whose elements are to 
he found in plastics, and which may constitute a convenient division of 
enemies, called Salines, or the saline arts. "While we have seen the arts 
of the preceding class extract the mttals from their ores, the next 
division of enemies subjects them to sach treatment in solution, as to 
convert them into many useful compounds, such as pigments, salts 
employed in dyeing tissues, &c. This group constitutes the Metallosa- 
lines. The making of fine chemicals and pharmaceutic preparations is 
connected intimately with the preceding saline arts, being conducted in 
a similar manner but uii a smaller scale, and with greater nicety ; it also 
depends chiefly on the products of those arts as its means of action, and 
partly on them for materials to he acted on. This forms, therefore, the 
third group of the chemic arts. 

It may have been observed that the arts of the preceding classes are 
chiefly devoted to the preparation of tools whereby to work upon, 
vessels wherein to operate upon, or materials wherewith to modify the 
various crude productions of organic and partly inorganic nature, in 
order to adapt them to the manifold wants of man, whether to minister 
to his comfort or luxury. Clothing, food, and the comforts of life are 
therefore mainly embraced by the following technical processes. The 
most extended application of the chemical products derived from the 
preceding class, is to the ornamenting and modification of tissues, which 
embraces the beautiful and varied arts of dyeing and calico-printing, or 
ornamenting Textile fabrics. With these are linked the kindred arts of 
making Sheet-fabrics, paper, leather, &c, as well as working in caout- 
chouc and gutta percha. Tu modify and ornament fibrous, sheet, and 
solid tissues, varnishes and cements are employed, and are classed under 
the general term Adhesives. The principal subjects of this class heing 
the ornamenting of woven fabrics, it has received the name Calistics 
(xo-^os, and loros loom.) 

The use of soap for general purposes of cleansing, and chiefly of 
cleansing textile fabrics, follows the preceding in a natural sequence, 
and serves to group a series of arts, rather allied by unity of material on 
which they operate than by unity of object in view. They include the 
extraction and purification of oils and fats, the preparation of soap, and 
the various articles of the perfumer ; and, lastly, Illumination, which 
includes chandlery, the manufacture of gas, with the various substances 
and apparatus which afford light, such as burning-fluids, lamps, and jets_ 
Oleics is au appropriate term for the class. 

After the arts which supply man with clothing and minister to 
other external wants, those which afford him nourishment follow, and 
ma}- be conveniently grouped under the term Sitepsks, (jtitos, food, and 
e4"», cook, prepare.) The extraction of farinas and sugar, with the 
refining of the latter, are followed by their modification under the 
singular process of fermentation and conversion into alcohol, which in 



CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY. 



197 



its turn, ia readily changed into vinegar during the acetous fermenta- 
tion. The various culinary arts form another convenient group of 
the domestic arts, embracing the preparation and preservation of food. 

The following is a tabular view of the arts, classified in accordance 
with the principles here laid down. 

Tabular View op the Chemical Arts. 



L Calorics. 

II. Plastics. 

III. Metallurgy, 

IV. Chemics. 

V. Calislics. 

VI. Oleics. 

VII. Sitepsics. 



VIII. Biotech- 
nics. 



1. Fuel and Furnaces. 

2. Warming and Ven- 

tilation. 

3. Pyrotechny. 

1. Pyroplastics. 

2. Pottery. 

3. Hydroplastics. 

1 . Pyrometallurgy. 

2. Hydrometalluigy. 

1. Salines 

2. Metallosalines. 

3. Pharmaceutics. 

1. Textile fabrics. 

2. Sheet fabrics. 

3. Adhesives. 

1 . Oils and Fats. 

2. Saponification. 

3. Illumination. 



1. Farina, &c. 

2. Fermentation. 

3. Culinary arts. 



1. Physiology. 

2. Manures. 

3. Products. 



PRINCIPAL SUBJECTS. 



Coal, wood, coke, &c. 
Reverberatory, blast furnaces 
&c. 

Stoves, hot air, steam, water. 
Matches, gunpowder,fireworks. 

Glass, enamel. 

Brick, earthenware, porcelain. 

Lime, mortar, gypsum. 

Reductions of ores by fire. 
Galvanoplastics, photography. 

Oil of vitrol, soda, nitre, alum. 
Metallic salts, pigments. 
Inorganic, organic. 

•Bleaching, dyeing, calico-print- 
ing. 

Paper, leather, caoutchouc,' 
gutta perch a. 

Resin, varnish, glue. 

Extraction and fining, &c. 
Soap, essences, perfumery. 
Chandlery, gas, burning fluids, 
lamps, jets. 

Starch, flour, sugar. 
Alcohol, wine, beer, vinegar. 
Preparation and preservation of 
food. 

Plants and animals, ashes. 
Putrefaction, mineralmanures. 
Milk, fat, bone, horn. 



The whole series of chemical arts maybe closed by chemical agricul- 
ture, or the art of directing and controlling the growth of plants and 
animals, whence its name Biote.clinics, (plos, life, Tex*^, art?) in order to 
render their products, in quantity and quality, most suitable to the 
demands of the arts or the more immediate wants of man. To effect 



198 ON THE CHINA-STONE AND CHINA-CLAYS OF CORNWALL. 

this, the influence of the air, water, and soil, of mineral substances and 
manures, on the growth and productions of plants, must be studied ; the 
composition of their ashes, under different circumstances of growth and 
product, examined ; the influence of food and other circumstances on 
the growth of animals and of their parts, such as hair, horn, fat, &c, 
must be investigated. These important observations on organic life 
constitute a true art, as yet in its infancy ; and it is of a chemical 
character, so far as it is pursued with a chemical object in view, (the 
quantity and quality of organic product,) and by chemical agency, 
(minute, practical analysis.) We may consider it under the several 
heads, — of the chemical changes observed in the formation of useful pro- 
ducts in plants and animals, including the peculiar chemical character 
of such products ; of the influence of mineral organic manures on the 
special products of plants, and various conditions on the products of 
animals ; and the examination of the ashes of organized bodies, with a 
view of supplying such as may be required for obtaining special pro- 
ducts. These subjects are most conveniently grouped in this manner at 
the present time ; but as the art becomes more fully developed, the 
very different nature of plants and animals, and the different 
influences exerted upon each domain of organic life, will cause their 
separation. 

Philadelphia. 



ON THE CHINA-STONE AND CHINA-CLAYS OF CORNWALL. 

BY H. M. STOKER. 

The China-stone and China-clays of Cornwall, or the disintegrated 
granites, have, of late years, assumed a no less important than interest- 
ing feature in its history ; not only to the capitalist, from the great 
addition the discovery of their use has made to its commercial importance; 
to the working classes, from the necessarily co-existant increase of em- 
ployment ; to the shipping, from the quantity annually exported ; but 
also to the traveller, from the picturesque scenes, the preparation of 
these articles have added to the previously existing and unexampled 
ones offered him for contemplation in the various modes of raising and 
rendering available the mineral wealth for which we have been so long 
and so justly famed ; and not only to these, but to the practical chemist 
as well, does it afford matter for speculation, inasmuch as the supply of 
the former of these articles is so limited, as to require, in the course of 
a very few years, some cheap and easily-available substitute, whether to 
be supplied from this or from some other county, is a question to be 
determined only by the conjoined efforts of the miner, the geologist, 
and the analytical chemist. 



ON «CHE CHINA-STONE AND CHINA-CLAYS OF COKNWAL&. 199 

Attention was first directed to the fact, that the disintegrated granite 
and clays of Cornwall, as well as those of Devon, when fused or burnt, 
could be rendered available to the potter, in 1768 by the late Mr. Cook- 
worthy, of Plymouth, who extensively exported them, to the potteries 
of Staffordshire, for that purpose, from Devon ; subsequently to which, 
large beds of a like description of clays were found in the parish of St, 
Stephens ; and it having been ascertained that the decomposing granite, 
from which such beds are formed, was capable, when fused, of forming 
a suitable glaze for the articles made of the clay, a large trade was at 
once opened, which has continued progressively to increase till the pre- 
sent time. 

The disintegrated granite, under the name of China-stone, from the 
use to which it was applied, was exported at a later period than the China- 
elay or kaolin. This article of commerce not having been introduced 
till the year 1802, when it was first raised from a bed of great purity, 
containing no iron or manganese, but merely felspar, silica, and mica, in 
varying proportions ; and this is at present the only source from which 
it can be obtained of a sufficient degree of purity for ordinary pur- 
poses ; though, from its price and the efforts that have been made by 
chemists both here and in the potteries, to gain a substitute for it, 
it is very doubtful whether it will long continue so ■: more especially 
if the distance we are placed from Stafford be taken into consideration* 

Most of the granites from which the China-stone was formed differ 
from Ordinary granite only in the existence in the latter of plates of 
talc, horneblende, or diallage, the presence of either of which render the 
China-stone in which they are found, though but in small proportions, 
of not even the slightest use, from the black or brown-coloured slag of 
silicate of iron or manganese found on fusion ; some variation, too, may 
be found in the amount of each of the ingredients which I have named, 
but this affects neither the clay formed on the continuation of the disin^ 
tegrating process, nor is it supposed to exert any influence on the glazing 
properties of the stone. 

The places in which a search for this article would be instituted 
with the greatest probability of success is in the proximity of fissured 
granite rocks, containing, or supposed to have contained, softened 
stone ; or in hills with rounded heavy summits, the be^s of which are 
placed horizontally, and felspar (or feldspar) forming its predominating 
ingredient. 

The bed from which it is obtained is about three-fourths of a mile in 
extent on the contiguous borders of the parishes of St. Dennis and St. 
Stephens, occupying almost the centre of the central granite district of 
the county, and is surrounded by other primary rocks of igneous origin, 
which, as they stretch towards the coast on either side, merge into beds 
of killas or clay-slate ; on the eastern and northern boundaries the 
granite is more irregular and abrupt in character than on the other 
sides, is more porphyritic, and contains a much larger proportion of 



200 ON THE CHINA-STONE AND CHINA-CLAYS OF CORNWALL, 

felspar, in large red or white opaque, cubic, or rhomboidal crystals ; while 
on the south it is separated from the neighbouring granite by a large elvan 
dyke ; and it is worthy of notice, that -while on one side of this, you 
may find China-stone perfectly pure, on the other, only from one to two 
feet distant, the stone is rendered useless by the presence of small plates 
of talc embedded in dense grey granite, which also forms a portion of 
the eastern boundary. 

Any one who has carefully studied the porphyry dykes, or the 
general nature of the primary rocks, of Cornwall, cannot but have 
noticed the difference in the temperature at which some of them have 
been upheaved compared to that of others, for while some of our 
granites are composed of substances which have in their crystals a cer- 
tain amount of water that has not been lost, others have no trace of it, 
their felspar having become an amorphous-looking powder (kaolin) ; and 
others presenting the same waxy edge on fracture that is noticed in por- 
celain, particularly the elvan dykes. From this it has been conjec- 
tured, though to me it appears doubtful, that as the melting point ot 
other minerals was considerably below that of these rocks, at the time 
of the extraordinary convulsion to which our country has been subjected, 
the China-stone was by this means freed from iron, &c. ; and that, on 
its having reached the surface, the water by which it was surrounded at 
once caused the crystals of felspar to split, lose their outline and charac- 
ter, and become easily acted on by the solvent power of rain-water, 
which by depriving it of a portion of its potash, leaves the crystals of 
quartz or silicic acid and plates of mica, glistening with a silvery hue 
imbedded in a mass of silicate of potash and alumina ; which, from the 
loss of crystallization, cannot be termed felspar, nor is it kaolin, for it 
has not been subjected sufficiently long to the causes which lead to its 
formation. 

The chief causes which I believe to heve led to its disintegration, 
and not only to the formation of China-stone, or China-clay, but to that 
of all the land at present in cultivation or capable of being cultivated, 
aie, 1st, — external physical agents, proved by the fact that China-stone 
is very seldom found at a depth of more than from 20 to 30 feet from 
the surface ; the influence of the seasons ; the changes from hot to cold 
on a body composed of crystals possessing such different expansive 
powers as those of felspar and quartz ; and the solvent power of rain- 
water : while, as chemical agents, we have, 2ndly, — the influence of the 
excess of carbonic acid in the air, as well as that from the interior of 
the earth, of the influence of which we have abundant proof in the 
excellent crops obtainable near lavas, or wherever this gas can gain ac- 
cess to the compound silicates of which the greatest portion of the 
Earth's crust consists ; and by the influence of respiration in rooms pro- 
vided with windows, which may have been exposed for a long period to 
its application. 

At present, while there is a great demand for the article, the spot 



ON THE CHINA-STONE AND CHINA-CLAYS OF CORNWALL. 201 

from whence China-stone is procured presents the appearance of a large 
rabbit burrow, as there are no less than nine setts for the district, the 
proprietor of each of which has his portion of the hill covered with the 
mouths of pits, around which are stationed a number of men with their 
waggons, who, after the Cliina-stone has been raised by quarrying and 
the employment of powder, carry it to one of the nearest ports to be 
shipped for the potteries of Staffordshire and Worcestershire. These 
ports are distant seven or nine miles from the quarries, entailing in this 
transport a considerable amount of land carriage, and a consequent in- 
crease in the price, which of late years has been raised from 12s. to 20s. 
free on board, at Par, Pentewan, or Charlestown ; still the demand has 
by no means diminished, and the proprietors of these setts have been 
obliged to fix a certain limit to their annual supply of 18,000 tons, 
which rate of consumption will have effected the removal of all the 
China-stone in these beds in rather less than fifty years. 

The number of people employed in its preparation are comparatively 
few, as the operation of blasting requires but two or three, persons in 
each pit ; and in loading the waggons the parties employed as carriers 
are but too eager to fill in order to gain a load. The before-mentioned 
reasons render the question of supply an important one, and one well 
worthy the attention of the landowner as to future resources, and the 
influence the discovery of any large bed of good stone would exert on 
his pocket ; though, while the present setts of the China-stone Com- 
pany of Cornwall hold out, they not only can but will maintain a mono- 
poly. 

China-stone, in its present state, consists of a mixture of quartz, 
felspar, and mica, blended so as to form an homogenous mass which 
very much resemble granite, though its texture is not so compact ; the 
quartz exists in small bluish-white and transparent crystals, the edges of 
which, by the process of disintegration, are rendered more or less indis- 
tinct, and they have become more transparent than when in the form of 
granite. These crystals are imbedded in a mixture of white felspar which 
has lost a portion of its potash, and small opaque scales of mica having a 
lustrous silvery aspect and very thin : the granite from which it has been 
formed is of the simplest kind, the commoner forms containing, in addition 
to the mica, quartz and felspar, which may be either red or grey, crystals 
and scales of horneblende, diallage, or talc, with a more or less appre- 
ciable amount of iron, indicated by the black spots formed on fusion or 
calcination ; and as the chemical composition of this article, when pure, 
should indicate an absence of these deteriorating qualities, until some 
cheap mode of separating these constituents from the otherwise vitrifi- 
able granites of Cornwall be found, the China-stone at present in use 
must retain its pre-eminence, consisting as it does of a pure double 
silicate of potash and alumina, which, when fused, forms a pearl-white 
translucent mass, firm and resonant, consisting of an. opaque body of 
nearly perfectly formed kaolin, surrounded by and diffused through the- 



202 ON THE CHINA-STONE AND CHINA CLAYS OF CORNWALL. 

glaze of silicic acid, to which its transparency is due : and not only does 
the foregoing deteriorating substances render the article useless, but 
should there be a very great excess of quartz crystals or silica the article 
will not from the formation of single silicates be capable of fusion at 
any temperature ; though this fault may be remedied by the addition of 
either potash or soda, to which the vitrifaction not only of this but of 
the various kinds of glass, is also due ; felspar, according to Liebig, 
containing 17*75 per cent, of potash. 

China- stone is used in the Potteries for a number of purposes, the 
most important of which are, 1st, — in the formation of clay bodies to 
form biscuit ware ; 2ndly, — to strengthen clays rendered poor by the 
absence of potash ; and, 3rdly, — in the preparation or construction of 
glazes, for the calcined biscuit ware, when mixed with other ingredients. 

The manufactured China-stone and China-clay is termed " pottery," 
of which there are several varieties, each containing different propor- 
tions of China-stone, clay, and other articles. In the porcelain series 
there is said to be but 3 per cent, of potash, but this I imagine from the 
transparency and purity of the body, to be inaccurate. The Chinese used 
to employ the ashes of fems, which from the amount of carbonate of pot- 
ash they contain, gave to it that richness and blending of the body with 
the glaze for which it has been long remarkable : bone ash was also 
used, both by the Chinese and French, and is now employed by our 
potters in considerable quantity, for the sake of the phosphate of lime 
it contains, which, during the process of fusion, adds considerably to 
the transparency of the ware without rendering the glaze liable to craze 
or peel off, as would be the case were lime alone employed, in fact at 
times, during a single firing, more than 5,O00Z. worth of pottery is ren- 
dered useless by the admixture of this earth, the surface of the services 
becoming covered with a congeries of cracks and fissures, hence great 
care is necessary to prevent its addition. 

The terms employed to designate the kinds of calcined and fused 
wares, are : — Pipe- clay, the least used and least important; Queen's 
ware ; Terra Cotta ; Basaltes ; and Porcelain biscuit ; the whole <)f 
which were introduced by Wedgwood, to whose persevering, accurate, 
and scientific research, Ave are indebted for the position our pottery now 
holds ; and it should not be forgotten that the rapid strides by which 
we have gained it, and the discoveries that have of later years been 
made in this art, have been wholly derived from a good practical ac- 
quaintance with chemical analysis, the importance of which cannot be 
too strongly urged, on both the potter and the producer of the raw 
materiaL The other and more common wares are, porclain ; pottery, 
an inferior kind of porcelain ; and earthenware; to the description of 
which I shall for the present confine my attention, that of the before 
mentioned wares, as w T ell as of Parian, biscuit China, &c, belonging 
more strictly to the province of the potter than to that of the writer of 
the present essay* 



ON THE CHINA-STONE AND CHINA-CLAYS OF CORNWALL. 203 

. Until a very late period pottery manufacture was comparatively un- 
known in England ; in the eighteenth century we were indebted entirely 
to the Chinese for our best, and to the continental potteries for our com- 
moner wares ; a century has but elapsed, and to the credit of the 
industrious, the persevering, the indefatigably speculating, Englishman, 
be it added, that from pole to pole, under any portion of the Globe's 
equator, wherever the traveller may roam in search of adventure, no 
less than through the length and breadth of his happy little island home, 
he ■will find, in his cup, his plate, or his dish, a never-dying testimonial 
to the enterprising character of the Englishman. 

In porcelain or China and the coarser variety termed pottery, the 
ingredients are so combined as to act chemically on each other, the 
decomposed felspar consisting of a fusible glass of silicate of alumina 
and potash, more opaque than that formed by the fused silex in which 
it is disseminated ; and when the body is formed of China-clay, infusible 
at the highest temperature, in the process of vitrifaction, it is so acted 
on, as to form a substance uniformly opaque, having a vitreous, waxy 
fracture, aud when coloured by some metallic base is termed stone-ware. 
There are two kinds of China or porcelain ; the one termed the hard 
China was formerly imported from France, though, of late years, it has 
been altogether superseded by the second variety, or soft China. The 
body of hard China may be conveniently formed by a mixture of in- 
gredients in the following proportions : — 

Kaolin, or China-clay 70 parts 

Felspar 14 „ 

Sand 12 „ 

Selenite 4 „ 

which calcined, forms the biscuit : this, after being dipped in a mixture 
of potash and felspar, is again heated, when vitrifaction ensues, the 
article possessing a homogenous translucent structure and not a mere 
glaze or coat as found on the common earthenware. In making soft 
China the English potters fully vitrify the ware by the first application 
of heat, the shape of the article being kept by ground flint, removable 
with ease after it is taken from the oven, and the glaze, being subse- 
quently applied, is vitrified at a lower temperature than that used in the 
formation of the biscuit of soft China, the ingredients used to form 
which, are,— 

Bone 46 parts 

Kaolin 31 „ 

China-stone... 23 „ 

In making the glaze, a frit is first formed, which renders the glaze more 
easily applicable to the surface of the biscuit, by calcining a mixture 
similar to the following : — 

China-stone.... 25 parts 

Soda 6 „ 

Borax 3 „ 

Nitre 1 „ 



204 ON THS CHINA-STONE AND CHINA-CLAYS OF CORNWALL. 

Of this frit, when ground, 26 parts are taken, and added to, or mixed 
with, — ■ 

26 of ground China-stone, 
31 „ white lead, 
7 „ Flint, 

7 „ Carbonate of Lime, &c, 
3 „ Oxide of Tin, 

in which the biscuit is dipped prior to the last application of heat. The 
colours to be laid on the ware are applied and burnt in prior to the for- 
mation of the glaze, an article often requiring a separate burning for 
each different colour, thus, especially in gilded articles, entailing an 
additional amount of cost and labour. 

The China-stone increases the strength and sonorosity of the article, 
while the ground Hint gives whiteness and density to the base of plastic 
clay : earths are by themselves infusible, but on the addition of silex or 
silica, another name for quartz, we form a silicate, to which, if we add 
a third of earth, with an alkaline base, we form a body vitrifiable and 
uniformly translucent. 

I shall briefly describe the mode in which the China-stone and China- 
clay are treated, prior to their being turned, twisted, and flattened, to 
form the numberless articles in which they greet the eye. 

The China-stone is ground to a fine powder by means of a number 
of stones which are kept rotating on the bottom of a paved vat, when 
it, as well as the clay and ground flint, are mixed with a certain 
quantity of water, by a process termed " blunging," till of the consistence 
of cream, when it is passed in a state of slop or slip through a series of 
cambiic or lawn sieves kept rapidly revolving by a water-wheel, each 
pint of the clay slip weighing twenty-four ounces, while that of the flint 
or China-stone weighs thirty -two ounces. It is then passed through a 
very fine silk sieve, after which these ingredients are mixed together in 
variable proportions in a large vat or tub, and as soon as the mixture 
has attained its requisite consistence, the water is driven off by evapora- 
tion, which causing the slip to contain in its interstices an innumerable 
quantity of air globules, renders it necessary that it should be sub- 
mitted to the process of kneading or beating, after which it was for- 
merly thought necessary, though now abandoned, that this "mass should 
lie fallow for three or four months, when it is considered to be fit for 
the lathe. 

The proportions of the ingredients used in the different kinds of 
earthenware are as follow : — 

In cream colour or painted ware, — Dorsetshire clay, 56 parts ; kaolin 
or China-clay, 27; flint, 14 : and China-stone, 3 parts. 

In brown ware, — red clay, 83 ; Dorset clay, 13 ; flint, 2 ; and man- 
ganese, 2 parts. 



ON THE CHINA-BTONE AND CHINA-CLAYS OF CORNWALL. 2( >0 

In drab ware, — Caen marl, 32 ; Dorset clay, 22 ; China-stone, 45 ; 

and nickel, 1 part. 
In jasper, — barytes, 32 ; kaolin, 15 ; Dorset clay, 15 ; stone, 33 ; 

and of lead, 3 parts. 

The glaze commonly used for the cream-coloured ware consists of 
varying proportions of white lead and China-stone, or, as these may 
craze, a frit of the following materials is often employed : — 

Of China-stone, 30 ; flint, 16 ; red lead, 25 ; soda, 12 ; and borax, 
17 parts ; 26 parts of this are then mixed with 15 of China-stone, 
10 of flint glass, 9 of flint, aud 40 of white lead ; which consti- 
tutes the fritted glaze. 

The composition of most of the bodies and clays now used is a secret 
confined to the walls of the mixing room, so that it is extremely diffi- 
cult to ascertain, with any degree of accuracy, the influence of an excess 
of ingredients ; thereby entailing a co-existent difficulty on the part of 
the producer, in his endeavour to form or prepare a substitute for these 
articles. 

- The China-clay or kaolin of Cornwall was first brought into notice 
at a very late period, though the material itself has been long used ; in 
fact, not only were the Chinese well acquainted with it, both in a raw 
and a manufactured state, from the most remote ages, but it is also 
probable, from the interesting evidences brought to light, through the 
industrious exertions of Air. Layard, and from other sources, that the 
Egyptians knew somewhat of its uses. 

When obtained by Mr. Cookworthy, in 1768, from the Lescrowse 
and Trethose clay works, in the parish of St. Stephens a large supply 
was at once demanded for the Staffordshire potteries, which has gradually 
increased till the present time. 

A considerable amount of crude kaolin has been exported to every 
pottery on the Continent, and also to those of our inquiring American 
brethren, while a small portion has been used for bleaching. 

Kaolin is found intermixed with quartz and scales of mica, in most 
valleys contiguous to the decomposing hills of the primary strata of our 
county, and is not, as far as is at present known with regard to China 
stone, confined to any particular district, being now obtained or obtain- 
able, though of different qualities, on the south-western sides of either 
of the granite districts ; yet, of course, poorest near those beds of China 
stone which I before described as free from most deteriorating substances, 
as in the parish of St. Stephens. 

It exists in these beds or stopes, as they are designated, as an 
amorphous whitish-blue opaque powder ; which from the softening 
influence and rainy character of the south- westerly winds, are most 
frequent in valleys situated on the same aspect ; often lying on the con- 
tiguous borders of the granite and killas, clay-slate, grawacke or transi- 



206 ON THE CHINA-STONE AND CHINA-CLAYS OP CORNWALL. 

tion strata, by which this is surrounded ; where, being exposed to the 
action of lodes anl co-existing springs, on the occurrence of the slightest 
convulsion, it has slid to the adjacent valleys, where its presence is 
indicated by the generally smooth and flattened appearance of the sur- 
face ; by the vegetation on it, which is often luxuriant, especially if the 
clay contain an excess of potash ; and by the number of springs to which 
it gives rise in the immediate vicinity, their height above the level of the 
sea being necessarily limited by that of the valleys in which the clay is 
deposited. 

The character of the clay very much assimilates to that of the 
granites from which it has been formed by the disintegrating process to 
which I referred while speaking of the formation of China-stone, not 
only as to the quantity obtainable from a given amount of clay stope, 
but also as to the purity of the article and its whiteness, the whitest 
clay being formed from that granite which has the whitest felspar, and 
is most free from iron, the presence of this giving the manufactured 
wares an appearance termed " foxey " ; while, lastly, the amount of mica 
scales, which give to them their tenacity or strength of body, consider- 
ably influence the character and value of the clay, so that, as a general 
rule, we can form a very good diagnosis of the character of the clay by 
an examination of the granite from which it has been formed ; and in 
doing this, I would advise the use of a good microscope, by which only 
the clay producer can hope to obtain an accurate knowledge of the value 
and purity of our clays. 

The kaolin of both Devon and Derbyshire is of good working quality 
but can by no means compare with that of our county, either for white- 
ness or strength ; it contains 60 of alumina, 20 of silica, and 20 of potash 
(Wedgwood) ; and to this peculiarity of constitution (excess of silica) 
is due its property of being infusible, and unchanged, at the highest 
temperature ; it is extremely tenacious of moisture, and hence one great 
difficulty in its preparation : to be hereafter discussed. 

The clay beds, or stopes, are formed by small irregular crystals of 
quartz, the edges of which are by no means so well marked as in the 
granite, nor is their opacity so great ; the mica is apparently unchanged, 
consisting of silicic acid, potash, and alumina, in the form of double 
silicate ; while the felspar of the granite or China-stone, by the loss of 
its potash, has become converted into the amorphous powder I have just 
described ; a singular instance of the effect of slight natural chemical 
changes giving rise to the formation of two such dissimilar bodies, when 
fused, as biscuit China, white, glassy, sonorous, and translucent ; when, 
if the disintegrating process have but just overstepped this limit, we 
find, on fusion, a brick-like mass, white, opaque, adherent to the tongue, 
tenacious of moisture, and earthy on fracture. There are, however, as 
I before stated, many and varied intermediate productions from the 
pasty pipe-clay or tile, to porcelain or glass, which is but another form 
of a fusible silicate. The clay stopes are oftentimes rendered useless by 



ON THE CHINA-STONE AND CHINA-CLAYS OP COKNWALL. 207 

the presence of some iron lode which causes them to become loosened 
in texture, and reddened ; the stope is then termed " brawny," and this 
has to be thrown aside as useless. 

Having thus briefly given a general outline of the nature, composi- 
tion, and history of these clays, I shall proceed to the notice of the mode 
of preparation of them, in this county, which, though simple in theory, 
requires much care and attention in its execution, and consists essentially 
in the separation of the quartz from the mica and kaolin, and the sub- 
sequent collection of the latter. The execution of this process in any of 
the extensive works in St. Stephen's parish, one of which would cover 
from 10 to 13 acres of ground, and from which 2,000 to 3,000 tons are 
annually raised, aud fitted for the market, forms a curious and interest- 
ing spectacle of whitewashed happy industry for the contemplation of 
the traveller during the months of summer. 

Distant from five to eight miles from St. Austell, situated in the- 
centre of barren, rugged, heathery wilds, enclosed by stone walls and 
bounded on every side by cold, bleak, and rugged hills, these works 
have a picturesque appearance. In one part of them may be seen from 
30 to 40 men, boys, and women, who, with their white bonnets,, white 
aprons, and sleeves, carry the still whiter clay, in large junks, to the 
surrounding hills or drying grounds to be exposed to the warm rays of 
the sun, the dry winds, and the bleaching power of the air ; in another 
may be seen other parties scraping the clay prior to its being packed in 
casks, to be sent to various parts of the old and new world ; circular or 
oval pits and square pans are lying in all directions, their continuity 
here and there disturbed by one or two water-wheels in incessant motion,. 
or piles of dried clay covered with reeders, or lying in sheds ; while at 
one extremity of the work may be seen a number of men and boys 
employed in excavating the clay stope, removing the overburden, or 
shearing the stope to wash away its elay ; the sand at the same time- 
being removed to the drying ground by means of a tram road, the 
waggons passing along which are worked by the aid of water power J 
while overhead launders attached to pumps for various purposes seen* 
to form a skeleton roof to the whole. 

The beds of clay stope are exposed by the removal of the overburden 
which varies in thickness : in some places lying but a few feet from the- 
surface ; while in others the only bed fit to be washed is placed at a 
depth of from 10 to 20 fathoms from the surface ; the removal of the- 
superimposed earth is effected by a number of men with their pickaxe- 
and shovels, which, by their barrows, they transport to the adjacent 
rugged country, so as to render it smooth and level, in order to form 
drying fields for the summer. While this is in progress, the clay stope, 
over the top of which flows a small stream of water, is being excavated 
by another sot of men, which, as the water passes through, has the clay 
suspended in it by the treading action to which the stope is subjected 
by means of the large boots, often seven pounds weight, with which the 



208 OX THE CHINA-STONE AND CHINA-CLAYS OF CORNWALL. 

clay streamers are supplied ; tlie sand is thus separated from the clay 
and mica, which are carried on by the water, and the sand is then carried 
by rail or carted to the top of the work, whence it is taken to be spread 
over the drying grounds, or is thrown into the pits and pans. 

The water to be supplied to the clay stope should consist of two- 
thirds of spring to one-third of rain-water, this mixture causing a deposit 
of the suspended clay much more readily than any other. Great atten- 
tion is often necessary in this part of the process, as from an excess of 
rain-water it is often requisite that it should be saturated with some 
earthy base ; common alum is at present used for this purpose, though 
any other cheaper salt would answer the purpose, as it is only necessary 
to saturate the water fully with earthy bases, when the clay speedily 
becomes thrown down : a law not generally known. 

As a substitute for this, I have at times had recourse to finely-ground 
peat, or wood charcoal, which, thrown over the surface of a pit, on which 
it floats, by a process of angular attraction or repulsion, causes the clay 
to be deposited, even from distilled water, far more readily than by the 
addition of any soluble earths, as may be demonstrated, with ease, by 
experiment in two or three tumblers. But as I am rather in advance of 
the water in which I left the clay and mica suspended at the bottom 
level of the clay work, I must return thither, till, by the aid of wooden 
or iron pumps, from 40 to 80 feet deep, worked by a powerful water- 
wheel, this milky looking fluid is elevated to the level of the large mica 
launders, where the clay, being lighter than it, leaves it deposited in 
these inclined pits, which are generally three or four in number, placed 
in tiers, with a slight elevation at the upper end of each ; they vary in 
length from 10 to 20 feet, are generally 3 feet in breadth, and 6 or 9 
inches deep, though both the number, size, and degree of inclination 
vary with the size and rapidity of flow of the shear of water, though no 
less than with the amount of mica contained in the stope. In some 
clay works the shear is so large that most of the mica is carried on with 
the clay, so that it possesses, when fused, a greater degree of tenacity, 
though of an inferior quality as to whiteness, plasticity, &c. In the 
separation of the best clays, these pits require that the motion of the 
shear through them should be slow and equable ; the shear of small size, 
and the launders should be tapped or cleared out once in every six or 
seven hours ; a careful attention to which well repays any amount of 
labour in the production of a good article. That portion of the mica 
collected in the first of these launders often being mixed with its scales 
and crystals of hornblende, or diallage, is thrown aside as useless, while 
that collected in the others is generally sold as a second quality clay. 

The clay water, having left the mica, now flows on to a large circular 
or oval collecting pit, 30 or 40 feet in circumference, and from 6 to 10 
feet deep, where the clay subsides, forming an under stratum of the con- 
sistence of cream, the supernatant water flowing off from the top of 
the pit, until it is filled. As soon as this happens the clay is allowed to 



ON THE CHINA-STONE AND CHINA-CLAYS OP CORNWALL. 209 

pass out by a trap-hatch to the pans below it ; or should there be none 
at this level, recourse is had to the pumps, by means of which, and 
attached launders, the clay is passed to the drying pans in any portion 
of the work. Of these there should be from ten to twelve caj>able of 
holding from forty to fifty tons, to each large collecting pit ; they have 
been made, till lately, on any part of the adjacent ground, frequently on 
that covering the clay bed, where the surface after being levelled and 
covered with fine loose gravel, is edged in by walls of granite, the joints 
of which, as well as those of the pits, are rendered impervious by inter- 
posed moss ; they are generally from 20 to 40 feet square, and 2 deep ; 
the pans, when two-thirds filled with the clay, are thus exposed to the 
heat of the sun, or the dry winds of March, to the aid of which, alone, 
the proprietors of the majority of these works have hitherto had re- 
course. 

The kaolin is by this means only partially deprived of moisture, in 
order to effect the complete removal of which it is taken from the pans, 
where it has been allowed to remain for from three to four months, to 
the drying grounds, on the adjoining hills, in summer, in cubic blocks 
about one foot square. In order to effect its removal from the pans, a 
number of parallel incisions are made the whole length of the pan, in 
one direction, by means of a perpendicular knife attached at right angles 
to a long handle ; these long blocks are then divided transversely by 
men, who, with spades, throw them on a board, on which they are 
carried by women and boys to the sandy drying yard, where they soon 
become perfectly dry and white ; but as this can only be done in 
summer, and not even then if a wet season, it has become necessary that 
recourse should be had to other means ; those hitherto employed have 
all required the use of a fuel obtainable only from Newport or some 
distant coal tract, and hence requiring considerable outlay, so much so 
in fact, that but few persons are able or willing to make use of it : the 
heat in these cases is applied by means of a large kiln, or by passing the 
clay over a heated drum, neither of which methods could be made avail- 
able in the return of several thousand tons of clay annually. 

The junks of clay, after being again collected, are now piled away in 
sheds, under a number of thatched gates or reeders ; or are placed in 
some sheltered spot, so that they may, nevertheless, have a constant 
current of cold dry air surrounding them, and be at the same time kept 
from rain. When required for exportation, these square blocks are 
scraped by a number of the clay women, who, armed with their " Dutch 
hoe"-like instruments, as they surround their scraping tables, present a 
rather formidable appearance ; after this the clay is piled in waggons to 
be sent from one of the nearest ports, or is packed in a number of small 
casks, each capable of holding about half-a-ton, in which it is sent off. 

The prices of these clays vary much with the quality of the article, 
though those of a superior stamp seldom alter, as they have held their 
price for the last ten or fifteen years,, and always command an excellent 

VOL. IV. „ R 



210 ON THE UTILITY OF THE NATURAL SCIENCES. 

sale in the market at from 36s. to 46s. per ton ; while those of an 
inferior quality may te procured at any price below this down to 17s. 
per ton ; varying with their purity, hardness after calcination, degree 
of whiteness, both n and out of water, and lastly, the degree of shrink- 
ing they undergo on calcination or fusion. 
St. Austell, Cornwall. 



ON THE UTILITY OF THE NATURAL SCIENCES. 

BT W. S. W. BUSCHENBEBGER, M.L\ 

The proclivities of the present age are eminently utilitarian. Before 
engaging in any pursuit, men wish to know in what it can profit them. 
Immediate and direct gain is an object of common desire; hence, those 
vocations which promise a speedy compensation for labor are most 
popular, and the paths travelled by those who have been fortunate in 
pursuit of wealth are most eagerly sought. Agriculture, the mechanic 
arts, and commerce, which supply the wants, the comforts, and luxuries 
of man, employ the great masses of society. A love of wealth is a 
stronger incentive to toil than benevolence ; the fame which inures- to a 
labor unproductive of palpable remuneration stimulates but few. Those 
branches of learning and philosophy which facilitate the acquisition of 
wealth, attract a larger number of diligent votaries than those which 
advantageously influence the condition of society, without adding to the 
pecuniary profit of those who pursue them. 

The utility, the beneficial influence, which natural history exercises 
on the common interests of society, is not commonly understood, and, 
for this reason, the labors of naturalists are not very generally appre- 
ciated. Indeed, a vague meaning seems to be attached to the terms 
" natural history," and " natural sciences. ' Unless men comprehend 
the meaning of these names, they cannot perceive the utility of, or set a 
value upon, what they are used to designate. 

Science and knowledge are not synonymous ; there may be know- 
ledge without science. Acquired facts constitute knowledge ; but a 
science consists of any group of congenial truths or facts, arranged ac- 
cording to any rational method, which enables men easily to perceive 
their general and mutual relations. Science, then, simply means a sys- 
tematic arrangement of acquired facts. The natural sciences essentially 
consist in systematic arrangements of the facts and phenomena observed 
in nature. 

In the broad acceptation of the term, natural history includes faith- 
ful descriptions of all natural objects. Natural science does not consist 
merely in making a catalogue of all the plants and animals on the 
surface of the globe ; it embraces a history of the structure, composition, 
mode of existence, and growth of all natural objects, and seeks to 



ON THE UTILITY OF THE NATURAL SCIENCES. 211 

ascertain the laws which determine the innumerable shapes in which 
matter, both organic and inorganic, presents itself to our senses. All 
the phenomena observed in the atmosphere above, as well as in the 
earth beneath, fall within its domain. Chemistry is included among 
the natural sciences, because the laws which regulate the affinities, the 
motions ever existing among the molecules or ultimate atoms which 
constitute matter, are among the subjects pertaining to the researches of 
naturalists. 

A brief allusion to some branches of natural science will enable us 
to perceive that its influence is advantageously felt in many departments 
of those arts which contribute largely to the well-being of society. 

Botany does not consist exclusively in distinguishing from each 
other the various forms of vegetation, and recognizing them by names 
derived from the Greek and Latin languages. It does not teach us 
siniply to divide the world's flora into orders, tribes, families, genera, 
and species, according to an arbitrary system of arrangement, and to 
know the peculiarities by which they may be certainly distinguished 
one from the other. Botany includes a study of the anatomy and phy- 
siology of the vegetable kingdom. Through this study, we acquire a 
knowledge of the structure, mode of growth, and the kind of diet upon 
which plants depend for sustenance, as well as the appropriate functions 
of their several parts, and the circumstances which influence vegetable 
existence. From it we have learned that plants derive nourishment 
from the earth, through means of roots whose function is to separate 
from the soil those salts or other materials which enter into the com- 
position of their tissues ; and that, through the medium of leaves, they 
breathe the air which is essential to their vitality, and, consequently, to 
the circulation of sap and other liquids. 

Sum information is of no small value to the science of Agriculture 
which essentially consists in a knowledge of the most successful means 
of feeding the various plants cultivated for food, or for materials to be 
used in the arts and manufactures. When the elementary composition 
of plants is ascertained through the aid of chemistry, this knowledge 
of their vital functions enables the agriculturist to select the soil, ex> 
posure, and manures best adapted for each variety to obtain a lucrative 
crop. 

But this is not the only manner in which natural history has led to 
improved and rational modes of cultivation. The labors of botanists 
have exploded many false notions which prevailed among farmers, cal- 
culated to discourage efforts to protect their crops from injurious 
influences. A power of self-transmutation was once attributed to plants ; 
ignorant persons believed that some species Were cipable of metamor- 
phosing themselves into others. It was once asserted, and believed, 
that " barley frequently degenerates into oats," and even now some cre- 
dulous persons contend that " wheat is sometimes transformed into 
Iromus or cheat. " 



212 OK THE UTILITY OF THE NATURAL SCIENCES. 

Even purely descriptive botany may be usefully applied to agri- 
culture. Certain plants, which are injurious to cattle, will be eaten by 
tbem when pasture is deficient ; and some noxious plants will be eaten 
when dry and mingled with bay, which animals reject in the green 
state. A knowledge ot descriptive botany would enable the farmer to 
remove these, as well as profitless weeds, and thus improve Ids grounds 
for the advantage of his stock. The wild flora of a country or district 
affords a valuable indication of the nature of tbe soil and its subsoil. 
Thus, the heath on elevations indicates a dry soil ; the fern, that it is 
deep as well as dry. The deer-hair (Scirpus ccespitosus) grows commonly 
over bogs, resting on clay. In the lower situations, the broom 
(Spartium scoparium) tenants the deep light gravels. The whin, the 
coarser gravels upon clay subsoil. The rush (Juncus conglomeraius,) 
tells the intelligent farmer that good land is rendered useless for want 
of drainage. The common sprit (Juncus articulatus), that the land is 
not fertile. Sweet gale [Myrica Gale), that it is still worse. The rag- 
weed (Senecio jacobcea), in arable land, betrays an ill-cultivated loam. 
The marsh marigold (Caltha palustris), or the wild water-cress, in 
water meadows, tells the owner that the land is fully irrigated. The 
common rattle (Rldnanthus christi), that the meadow is exhausted. The 
pry (Carex dioica) that water is stagnating beneath its surface ; and 
these are only a few of the truths which wild flowers teach the intelligent 
cultivator. Botanists have, indeed, long been at work for the farmer — 
a fact no one will be willing to dispute who remembers that the sloe, the 
blackberry, and the crab, are nearly all the fruits indigenous to England ; 
and that hardly a grass, a flower, or a vegetable, that is now cultivated, 
is a native of the island. 

It is to the study of botany we are indebted for a knowledge of 
certain vegetable growths which are destructive to timber. "Mr. 
Schweinitz had in his collection fine specimens of the Dematiurn aluta, 
taken out of the ships of war built by our government on Lake Erie, 
where, in a few years, he remarks, ' this little fungulous enemy com- 
pletely destroyed that fleet which had so signally vanquished the arma- 
ment of Britain.' " 

Linnaeus, by his botanical knowledge, detected the cause of a 
dreadful disease among the horned cattle of the north of Lapland, 
which had previously been thought equally unaccountable and irre- 
mediable. 

A large portion of the materials employed in civil and naval archi- 
tecture, and many of our most valuable medicines, are derived from 
the vegetable kingdom. It is estimated that at this time there are 
about 85,000 species of plants which have been distinctly characterised. 
For the means of distinguishing them from each other, and, conse- 
quently, for the ability to recognise, amidst the host, those adapted to 
the purposes for which we seek them, we are indebted to the labors of 
botanists. 



ON THE UTILITY OF THE NATURAL SCIENCES. 213 

The department of natural history which relates to insects is less con- 
spicuous than botany ; but it is not less important in its bearings on 
the interests of society. Naturalists have already characterised about 
80,000 species of insects, and their continued investigations are still 
adding to the number. The crustaceans (crabs), arachnidans (spiders), 
annelidans (worms), &c, &c, in all about 130,000 species, were once in- 
cluded in the department of entomology. 

Insects are the scavengers of nature : in pursuit of food,, they remove 
from the surface vast quantities of decaying and putrescent matters, 
which, if left undisturbed, might so contaminate the air as to render it 
poisonous to the inhabitants of the earth. Everywhere they constitute 
a large part of the food of birds and fishes ; and in some countries 
certain species are eaten by man. 

Various insects are known to be injurious to the grains and grasses 
of our fields ; to the fruit trees of our orchards, and to plants in 
conservatories. It is known that some species prey upon others ; and 
that those which feed on the various aphides, or plant-lice, may be em- 
ployed to relieve us from the ravages of such destroyers. 

A knowledge of the habits, mode of life, and of the food of the 
various kinds, leads to means of escaping the injuries which many of 
them inflict, and of fostering those which are useful to man. Doubtless 
there are some persons who are not aware that most insects pass through 
four stages of existence : 1, the egg ; 2, the caterpillar ; 3, the chry- 
salis, and 4, the butterfly, or imago. In order to guard against the 
ravages of insects, it is necessary to know the stage of existence during 
which they are most injurious, and" also to be able to recognise 
the different shapes under which they appear. Without a thorough 
knowledge of the phenomena of insect metamorphosis, it is vain to 
attempt to control their increase. The information of Linnaeus on this 
point enabled him to teach his countrymen to destroy an insect, the 
Cantliaris navalis, which had cost the Swedish Government many 
thousand pounds a year, by its ravages on the timber of one dock-yard 
only. After its metamorphosis, and the season when the fly laid its 
eggs were known, all its ravages were stopped by immersing the timber 
in water during that period. 

In 1817, the late Mr. Thomas Say described the "Hessian Fly" Ceci- 
domyia destructor, which commits great ravages on growing wheat ; and 
at the same time pointed out the Ceraphron destructor, which probably 
restrains the increase of the first. It deposits its eggs in the bodies of 
the larva? of the Hessian Fly, and the young when they escape from 
the egg, feed upon the larvse till it dies. 

During the year 1849, Miss Morris, of Germantown, discovered that 
the Tomicus liminaris of Mr. Say, is a destroyer of the peach tree. It 
bores through the bark and feeds upon the living portion. She has 
stated also that the Boris tripunctatus, of Mr. Say is one of the des- 
troyers of the potato, in the stem of which its larva? undergo their meta- 
morphosis. And Mr. S, S. Haldeman ascertained that the Hylesinut 



214 ON THE UTILITY OF THE NATURAL SCIENCES. 

aculeatus, of Say, feeds upon the inner bark of the white ash, Fraxinus 
acuminata. 

There was a time when a loathsome disease, which Van Helmont 
tells us he contracted by shaking the gloved hand of a lady friend, was 
treated by bleeding, purging, and sweating. Since his days, investiga- 
tions have demonstrated that this malady depends upon the presence 
of an acarus — the itch-insect — and is to be cured only by destroying the 
animal. There are several affections attributed to the acarus tribe ; the 
ulcers caused by the chigoe or jigger (Pulex penetrans), an insect which 
is prone to burrow in human flesh, are familiarly spoken of by all who 
"have visited the tropics. The harvest bug (Leptus autumnalis) buries 
itself in the legs of labourers in the harvest field, producing intoler- 
able itching and pain. In cases of plica polonica, an affection of the 
scalp, we are told that millions of lice appear on the third day of the 
disease. Numerous affections have been traced to the larvse of flies 
deposited in the tissues of mammals ; a disease familiarly known as 
the botts, which occurs in horses, sheep, and in man, has this origin. 
Worms of several kinds are known to thrive in the human body, and to 
produce disease. Indeed, the affections known to be caused by insects, 
spiders, worms, &c, are so numerous, that Raspail has ventured to con- 
struct a system of medicine based upon the animate origin of diseases. 
In his work may be found a history of many affections, caused by the 
presence of minute parasitic insects. 

Though many evils arise from insects, they are also the sources of 
much that is good. The product of the silk-worm, the wax and honey 
produced by the labour bees, are familiar to all. The gall-nut which 
forms the basis of one of the most valuable articles known, I mean ink, 
is due to the labors of an insect on a variety of oak. Gum ammoniac, 
the varieties of lac (shell-lac, lac-lake, and stick-lac), have a similar ori- 
gin. To various species of coccus we are indebted for several important 
dyes, among the most conspicuous of which are the cochineal and 
kermes. The varieties of cantharides afford blistering materials ; and 
a tea made of bees has been recently found useful in a distressing disease. 

Within a short time, the unexpected presence of microscopic' insects 
in certain regions has been supposed to show the course of the winds ; 
when their habits and geographical distribution are fully ascertained, 
their appearance in any unusual locality may be relied upon as an indi- 
cation of the direction of atmospheric currents. 

A class of animals which exercises an influence of such extent, for 
good as well as for evil, over the condition of man, is surely worthy of 
his attentive study. 

Conchologists have described about 15,000 species of mollusks. 
They afford food to man and other animals. The strata of the earth 
records their antedeluvian existence, hence a knowledge of conchology 
enables the geologist to recognise fossil shells, the presence of which 
serves to characterise certain formations. 

Herpetologists have made us acquainted with about 2,000 species of 



ON THE UTILITY OF THE NATURAL SCIENCES. 215. 

reptiles, and established the means of distinguishing those which are 
harmless and useful from those which are poisonous and fatal. 

Naturalists have described about 10,000 species of fishes, a class of 
animals from which man derives almost incalculable benefits. To be 
convinced of the truth of this assertion, it is only necessary to glance 
at the extent and value of the various fisheries in the world. 

About 6,000 species of birds have been described. The value of the 
study of ornithology has been so beautifully stated by one of the 
earliest members of the Academy of Natural Sciences, that I will quote 
his language. Alexander Wilson, in the preface to the fifth volume of 
his " American Ornithology," says : — 

" In treating of those birds more generally known, I have endea- 
voured to do impartial justice to their respective characters. Ignorance 
and stubborn-rooted opinions, even in this country, have rendered some 
odious that are eminently useful ; and involved the manners of others 
in fable and mystery, which in themselves are plain and open as day. 
To remove prejudices, when they oppose themselves to the influence of 
humanity, is a difficult, and when effected, a most pleasing employment. 
If, therefore, in divesting this part of the natural history of our country 
of many of its fables and most forbidding features, and thus enabling our 
youth to become more intimately acquainted with this charming por- 
tion of the feathered creation, I should have succeeded in multiplying 
their virtuous enjoyments, and in rendering them more humane to those 
little choristers, how gratifying to my heart would be the reflection I 
For, to me, it appears that, of all inferior creatures, Heaven seems to 
have intended birds as the most cheerful associates of man ; to soothe 
and exhilarate him in his labors by their varied melody, of which no 
other creature but man is capable ; to prevent the increase of those in- 
ferior hosts of insects that would soon consume the products of his in- 
dustry ; to glean up the refuse of his fields, ' that nothing may be lost/ 
and, what is of much more interest, to be to him the most endearing 
examples of the tenderest connubial love and parental affection." 

Under the- head of mammalogy, naturalists have described about 
2,000 species of animals, which, while young, subsist on the milk of 
their mothers. All known quadrupeds, whales, dolphins, &c, are in- 
cluded in this class. Amongst them are our beasts of burden, the 
cattle of our fields, and domesticated animals of many kinds. They are 
familiar to all ; but perhaps everyone is not aware that a full knowledge 
of their nature contributes to the improvement of agricultural stock 
and affords indications of rational methods of treating the diseases to 
which domestic animals are obnoxious. 

Mineralogy teaches the characters- by which simple minerals or stones 
may be recognised and distinguished from each other." The costly 
errors into which persons totally ignorant of this science have fallen 
illustrate its utility. A man in England found upon his farm a 
great quantity of sulphate of barytes, and, believing from its weight 



216 ON THE UTILITY OF THE NATURAL SCIENCES. 

that it must be a rich ore of lead, expended a large sum in building a 
furnace for smelting it. Another paid a considerable amount of money 
for a few pieces of white topaz, which he conceived to be diamonds. 
Men in other respects intelligent, producing iron pyrites, in triumphant 
proof that they have discovered a mine of gold, is an event of frequent 
occurrence. About a hundred years ago, a house was built at Balti- 
more of bricks imported from England ; yet beneath the site of the 
garden, and neatly laid out grounds, once the pride of the owner, was a 
bed of clay which has afforded and continues to afford material for mil- 
lions of bricks. A veiy slight knowledge of mineralogy would have 
been sufficient to prevent such blunders. 

Chemistry is essential to a perfect acquaintance with mineralogy. 
The utility of chemistry is, perhaps, more generally palpable than any 
other branch of natural science. To the labors of chemical philoso- 
phers society is indebted for many comforts and luxuries. The dis- 
covery of a gas adapted to the purposes of illumination has been fol- 
lowed by trades and occupations not previously known or required ; gas- 
fitting, and the manufacture of gas, as well as daguerreotyping, are 
among the vocations brought into existence exclusively through the 
study of" chemistry. Indeed, the applications of this beautiful science 
to the practical purposes of mankind are almost innumerable. 

Geology cannot be successfully prosecuted without a knowledge of 
other branches of natural science. Mineralogy is necessary to under- 
stand the composition of aggregate rocks ; and botany and the different 
departments of zoology enable us to trace back, through the progress of 
time, the various steps in the formation of the earth to a period in the 
creation when no organic form existed, either upon dry land or beneath 
the waters. The record is indelibly written in the fossil remains of 
animals and plants ; and it cannot be read by one entirely ignorant of 
osteology and comparative anatomy. 

A knowledge of geology is valuable to the engineer in locating 
roads. The study of geology and mineralogy has developed those prin- 
ciples which facilitate the search for coal beds and veins of metallic 
ores ; clays used in the manufacture of the varieties of porcelain, 
pottery, and bricks ; quarries of marble and stone ; and through this 
study architects may acquire knowledge which will assist them in judg- 
ing of the strength, durability, and comparative value of the varieties 
of building stone, and in selecting those best adapted to their purposes. 
The utility of geology has been publicly acknowledged ; many States 
of the Union have been at the expense of geological surveys, for the 
purpose of ascertaining their mineral resources. 

A knowledge of natural history, generally, facilitates the economic 
exploration of new countries, and enables the traveller, almost at a 
glance, to perceive the nature of the soil and climate, as well as the 
value and qualities of their vegetable and mineral productions. But 
among the many benefits which the natural sciences confer upon so- 



ON CHINESE HOROLOGY, ETC. 217 

ciety, there is none more valuable than the assistance they afford to the 
study of the laws of life, upon an accurate knowledge of which a 
rational system of medicine, a true medical science, must be based. 
Physiology is indebted for its present state of advancement, almost ex- 
clusively to the assiduous cultivation of the natural sciences. 

The rapid sketch above given is sufficient to indicate the usefulness 
of the natural sciences. 



ON CHINESE HOROLOGY, WITH SUGGESTIONS ON THE 
FORM OF CLOCKS ADAPTED FOR THE CHINESE MARKET. 

BY D. J. MACGOWAN, M.D. 

The wide-spread territory, the varied productions of her soil, and the 
high position of China as an agricultural State, lead us to expect that 
no inconsiderable addition to European and American agriculture would 
result from a careful survey of the various points accessible to 
foreigners, and it would doubtless be found that many plants, indi- 
genous to her soil, are capable of being naturalized in one part or 
another of the American and European continent. 

In a manufacturing point of view, although there is much less to 
repay research, yet there are some branches of industry the investiga- 
tion of which could not fail to bring valuable facts to light ; and, if no 
more can be done than to point out defects in Chinese labour, which 
our artisans can supply, that alone would prove mutually advantageous 
to the two great nations on the opposite shores of the Pacific. 

Clock-making, which forms the subject of this paper, is a case in point ; 
and it is believed that, with a modification to be suggested, American 
clocks can be made an article of extensive import into China. For a 
long period the importation of clocks and watches, chiefly the former, 
into China from the continent of Europe, was little short of half a 
million of dollars annually. This trade has nearly ceased, partly owing, 
no doubt, to the rapid impoverishment of the country by the opium 
traffic, and partly to the fact that native manufacturers are able to com- 
pete with foreigners. Yet clocks are not often met with in China ; they 
are generally confined to the public offices, where it is common to find 
half a dozen all in a row. The number annually manufactured cannot 
be large, for in the richest cities of China clock-makers are not numerous. 
At Nankin there are 40 shops ; at Suchau, 30 ; Hangchau, 17 ; and at 
Ningpo, 7 ; the average number of men employed in each being less 
than four, who are mostly occupied in repairing watches and clocks. 
The cheapest clock they make costs 7 dols. Some are worth as much as 
100 dols. — the most common price being about 25 dols. each. A manu- 
facturer estimates the number of clocks made at the above places at 

VOL. IV. S 



218 ON CHINESE HOROLOGY, ETC. 

1,000 per annum ; and probably 503 more would more than cover the 
■whole annual manufacture of the empire. A few watches are made, 
with the exception of the chain and spring, which are imported. The oil 
used by Chinese workmen to abate friction appears to be particularly 
adapted for that purpose, though expensive ; it is obtained from the 
flowers of the Olea fragrans. 

Before describing the kind of clock which seems adapted for this 
mark et, a brief glance at the history of the horological art in China may 
not be inappropriate. It had its rise, as in the western side of Asia, in 
the clepsydra. 

Assuming — what is in the highest degree probable— the authenticity 
and accuracy of the Shuking, we find that, forty-rive centuries* ago, the 
Chinese had occupied themselves with the construction of astronomical 
instruments somewhat similar to the quadrant and armillary sphere, and 
the observations they made with them, even at that remote period, are 
remarkable for their accuracy, enabling them to form a useful calendar. 
The present cycle of sixty was adopted at that time, by Hwangti, 
(2697-2597 B. C.) To this emperor is attributed the invention of the 
clepsydra. The instrument at that period w;:s probably very rude, and 
not used as a time-piece, but for astronomical purposes, in the same 
manner as employed by Tycho Brahe, for measuring the motion of stars, 
and subsequently by Dudber in making maritime observations. It 
was committed to the care of an officer of rank styled clepsydra ad- 
justor. 

The greatest philosopher in Chinese history anterior to Confucius 
was Duke Chau, the alleged inventor of the compass. He appears, also, 
to have been the first to employ the clepsydra as a time- piece. He divided 
the floating index into one hundred equal parts, or " kih." In winter, 
forty kih were allotted to the day. and sixty to the night, and in summer 
this was reversed. Spring and autumn were equally divided. This 
instrument was provided with forty-eight indices, two for each of the 
twenty-four terms of the year. They w r ere consequently changed semi- 
monthly — one index being employed for the day and another for the 
night. Two were employed every day, probably, to remedy in a measure 
the obvious defects of all clepsydras — of varying in the speed of their 
rise or fall, according to the ever-varying quantity of water in the 
vessel, which might be done by having the indices differently divided. 
To keep the water from freezing in winter, the instrument was con- 

* Although doubts may exist respecting the absolute accuracy of Chinese 
chronology, it must, nevertheless, be admitted that it is so far correct as to 
reader arguments founded on the commonly-received chronology altogether 
untenable ; and it is matter of regret, therefore, that the latter has been follow ed, 
in their Chinese publications, by all Romish and Protestant missionaries. I can- 
not too earnestly urge the adoption of Hale's Chronology, and that speedily, lest, 
in the mean time, some Cbinese Celsus or Porphyry should arise, and bring ob- 
jections against our faith not easily answered to the satisfaction of their country- 
men. 



ON CHINESE HOROLOGY, ETC. 219 

nected with a furnace, and surrounded by heated water. Chau flourished 
eleven centuries before our era. The forms of the apparatus have been 
various, but they generally consisted of an upper and a lower vessel, 
always of copper, the former having an aperture in the bottom, through 
which water percolated into the latter, where floated an index, the 
gradual rise of which indicated successive periods of time. In some 
this was reversed, the float being made to mark time by its fall. A 
portable one was occasionally employed, in ancient times, on horseback, 
in military tactics. Instruments constructed on the same principles 
with the above were in use among the Chaldeans and Egyptians at an 
early period — that of Ctesibus, of Alexandria, being an improvement 
over those of more ancient times. The invention of Western Asia was 
doubtless wholly independent of that ot the East, both being the result 
of similar wants. Clepsydras were subsequently formed of a succession 
of vessels communicating by tubes passing through dragons, birds, &c, 
which were rendered still more ornamental by the indices being held in 
the hands of genii. 

The earliest application of motion to the clepsydra appears to have 
been in the reign Shuenti (1*26-145 a. d.), by Tsianghung, who con- 
structed a sort of orrery representing the apparent motion of the 
heavenly bodies round the earth, which was kept in motion by drop- 
ping water. There is reference, also, to an instrument of this description 
in the third century. 

In the sixth century an instrument was in use which indicated the 
course of time, by the weight of water, as it gradually came from 
the beak of a bird, and was received into a vessel on a balance, every 
pound representing a kih. About this time mercury began to be 
employed instead of water, which rendered the aid of heat in winter 
unnecessary. Changes were made also in the relative number of kih 
for day and night, so as to vary with the seasons. 

As in Europe, monks of the Roman church devoted considerable at- 
tention to mechanical inventions, especially in the construction of instru- 
ments for measuring time for the regulation of their worship and vigils ; 
in like manner, also, Buddhist monks, in their silent retreats, but at an 
earlier period, similarly occupied themselves, and for the same purposes. 
Several instruments, designed as time-pieces, the invention of priests, 
are mentioned in Chinese history. They present nothing novel, how- 
ever, with the exception of one, which is nothing more than a perforaled 
copper vessel, placed in a tube of water, which gradually filled and sunk 
every hour, requiring, of course, frequent attention. Although their 
knowledge of hydrodynamics has ever been very limited, the Chinese 
appear to have been the first to devise that form of clepsydra to which 
the term water-clock is alone properly applied ; that is to say, composed 
of apparatus which rendered watching unnecessary by striking the 
hours. Until the commencement of the eighth century, the persons 
employed to watch the clepsydra in palaces and public places struck 

s 2 



220 ON CHINESE HOROLOGY, ETC. 

bells or drums every kill ; but at this period a clock was constructed, 
consisting of four vessels, with machinery which caused a drum to be 
struck by day, and a bell by night, to indicate the hours and watches. 
No description of the works of this interesting invention can be found. 
It is possible, however, that the Saracens may have anticipated them in 
this invention of water-clocks. 

In the history of the Tong dynasty (620-907), it is stated that in the 
Fahlin country, (which in this instance, doubtlessly means Persia, 
though the best living authority amongst the Chinese makes it Judea), 
there was a clepsydra on a terrace near the palace, formed oi a balance, 
which contained twelve metallic or golden balls, one of which fell 
every hour on a bell, aud thus struck the hours correctly. It is not 
improbable that this instrument is identical with the celebrated one 
which the king of Persia sent, in 807, to Charlemagne. 

In 980 an astronomer,., named Tsiang, made an improvement on all 
former instruments, and which, considering the period, was a remark- 
able specimen of art. The machine, which was in a sort of miniature 
teriace, was ten feet high, divided into three stories, the works being in 
the middle. Twelve images of men, one for every hour, appeared 
in turn before an opening in the terrace ; another set oi automata 
struck the twelve hours, and the tih^ or eighths of such hours. These 
figures occupied the lower storey ; the upper was devoted to astronomy 
where there was an orrery in motion, which, it is obvious, must have 
rendered complex machinery necessary. We are only told that it had 
oblique, perpendicular, and horizontal wheels, and that it was kept 
in motion by falling water. 

As the Saracens had reached China by sea at the close of the eighth 
century, aud by land at an earlier period, some assistance may have 
been derived from them in the construction of this instrument ; but I 
am disposed to consider it wholly Chinese. Beckman, after much 
learned research, ascribes the invention of clocks to the Saracens, and 
the first appearance of these instruments in Europe to the eleventh 
century. Mention may here be made of other instruments of the same 
description, also constructed about this period. One (which, like the 
last, united an orrery and clepsydra) was formed in one part like a water- 
lily ; whilst in another were images of a dragon, a tiger, a bird, and a 
tortoise, which struck the kih on a drum, and a dozen gods, which struck 
the hours on a bell, with various other motions, besides a representation 
of the revolution of the heavenly bodies. The machinery of another of 
these was moved by an under-shot water-wheel ; its axis was even with 
the ground, and consequently the frame containing it was partly below 
the surface. The motions of the sun and moon, stars and planets, were 
made to revolve around a figure of the earth, represented as a plain 
from east to west. Images of men struck the hour, and its parts. In 
this, however, as in all the aforenamed instruments, the sounds struck 
were always doubtless the same, as the Chinese do not count their hours. 



ON CHINESE HOROLOGY, ETC. 221 

Another machine was constructed which also represented the motions of 
the heavenly bodies. It was a huge, hollow globe, containing lights, 
and perforated on its surface, so as to afford, in the dark, a good repre- 
sentation of the heavens. This, also, was set in motion by falling 
Water. Subsequently to this, various machines are mentioned, but the 
brief notices given afford nothing of interest, until we approach the 
close of the Yuen dynasty, the middle of the fourteenth century. 
Shungtsing, the last of the race of the great Genghis Khan, who is de- 
picted in history as an effeminate prince, and as having the physiognomy 
of a monkey, was evidently a man of great mechanical skill, and to the 
last, when his dominions were slipping from him, and confusion reigned 
everywhere, he amused himself by making models of vessels, automata, 
and time-pieces. His chief work was a machine contained in a box 
seven feet high, and half that in width, on the top of which were three 
small temples. The middle of these temples had fairies holding horary- 
characters, one of which made her appearance every hour. Time was 
struck by a couple of gods, and it is said they kept it very accurately. 
In the side temples were representations of the sun and moon, respec- 
tively, and from these places genii issued, crossing a bridge to the middle 
temple, and after ascertaining, as it were, the time of day from the 
fairies, returning again to their quarters. The motions in this case were, 
it is thought, effected by springs. An instrument somewhat similar is 
described as an ornament in the palace of the capital of Corea ; it was 
a clepsydra, with springs, representing the motions of the celestial orbs, 
and having automata to strike the hour. Since the introduction of 
European clocks, clepsydras have fallen into disuse. The only one, 
perhaps, in the empire, is that in the watch-tower in the city of Canton ; 
it is of the simplest form, having no movements of any kind, but it is 
said to keep accurate time. 

In dialling, the Chinese have never accomplished anything, being 
deficient in the requisite knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. It 
is true, the projection of the shadow of the gnomon was carefully 
observed at the earliest historic period ; but this was for astronomical 
purposes only.* Proper sun-dials were unquestionably derived from the 
West ; but they were not introduced, as Sir J. F. Davis supposes, by 
the Jesuits. The Chinese are probably indebted to the Mahouiudans for 
this instrument, although we find an astronomer endeavouring to 
rectify the clepsydra, by means of the sun's shadow, projected by a 
gnomon, about a century earlier than the Hegira. There is a sun-dial 
in the Imperial Observatory at Pekin, above four feet in diameter. 

* It was by a gnomon that the ancient Chinese endeavoured to ascertain the 
centre of the earth. A measurement of the length of the solstitial shadow, made 
at Loyang, on the Yellow river, 1200 B c, was found by Laplace (quoted by 
Humboldt, in Cosmos, vol. 2, p. 115) to accord perfectly with the theory of the 
obliquity of the ecliptic, which was only established at the close of the last 
century. 



222 ON CHINESE HOROLOGY, ETC. 

Smaller ones are sometimes met with, in public offices. These were all 
made under the direction of missionaries of the Roman church, or their 
pupils. From remote antiquity, a family named Wang, residing in 
Hiumng, north latitude 29° 53'., longitude E.G. 118° 17', in the province 
of Canhwui, has had the exclusive manufacture of pocket compasses, 
with which sun-dials are often connected. In most of these, a thread 
attached to the lid of the instrument serves as a gnomon, without any 
adaptation for different latitudes, although they are in use in every part 
of the empire. Another form, rather less rude, is employed by clock- 
makers for adjusting their time-pieces ; it is marked with notches, one 
for each month in the year, to give the gnomon a different angle every 
month. The Chinese instrument exceeds that of Corea in every respect. 

Time is not nnfrequently kept by igniting incense sticks, the com- 
bustion of which proceeds so slowly and regularly as to answer for 
temporary use tolerably well. 

Hour glasses are scarcely known in China, and only mentioned in 
dictionaries as instruments employed in Western countries to measure 
time. 

A native writer on antiquities says : " The western priest, Limatau 
(M. Ricci) made a clock which rendered and struck time a whole year 
without error." The clock brought out by Ricci, if not the first seen in 
China, is the earliest of which mention is made in Chinese history. 
They subsequently became an article of import, and, as already men- 
tioned, this branch of trade was at one time of considerable value. 
Clocks and watches of very antique appearance are often met with — 
specimens of the original models scarcely to be found in any other 
country ; some of the latter, by their clumsy figure, remind one of their 
ancient name, "Nuremberg eggs ;" but their workmanship must have 
been superior to that of most modern ones, or they would not be found 
in operation at this late day. 

The Chinese must have commenced clock-making at an early period, 
as none now engaged in the trade can tell when or where it originated ; 
nor can it be easily ascertained whether their imitative powers alone 
enabled them to engage in such an undertaking, or whether they are 
indebted to the Jesuits for what skill they possess. It is certain the 
disciples of Loyola had for a long time, and until quite recently, 
in their corps at Pekin, some who were machinists and watchmakers. 
One of these horologists complains, in "Les Lettres Edifiante et 
Curieuse," that his time was so occupied with the watches of the 
grandees that he had never been able to study the language. Doubtless 
the fashion which Chinese gentlemen have of carrying a couple of 
watches, which they are anxious should always harmonize, gave the 
fathers constant employment. A retired statesmen of this province 
has published a very good account of clocks and watches, accompanied 
with drawings representing their internal structure, in a manner suffi- 
ciently intelUgible. 



ON CHINESE HOROLOGY, ETC. 223 

The Chinese divide the day into twelve parts, which are not num- 
bered, but designated by characters termed, rather inaptly, horary. 
These terms were originally employed in forming the nomenclature of 
the sexagenary cycle (2657 B a), which is still in use. It was not until 
a much later period that the duodecimal division of the civil day came 
into use, when terms to express them were borrowed from the ancient 
calendar. The same characters are also applied to the months. The 
first in the list (meaning son) is employed at the commencement of every 
cycle, and to the first of every period of twelve years, and also to the 
commencement of the civil day at 11 p.m., comprising the period 
between this and 1 a m. The month which is designated by this term, 
is not the first of the Chinese year, but, singularly enough, it coincides 
with January. Each of the twelve hours is divided into eight kih, 
corresponding to quarter hours. This diurnal division of time does not 
appear to have been in use in the time of Confucius, as mention is made 
in the spring and autumn annals of the ten hours of the day, which 
accords with the decimal divisions so long employed in the clepsydras, 
the indices of which were uniformly divided into one hundred parts. 
A commentator of the third century of our era, in explaining the 
passage relating to the ten hours, adds a couple more ; but even at 
that time the present horary characters were not employed. 

The form I would recommend as suitable for the dial-plates of clocks 
manufactured for the Chinese market would be as follows : — The small 
characters on the outer circle are numerals, exactly corresponding to 
the Roman figures on Western clocks. The inner circle contains the 
twelve horary characters, and within these are the signs for noon, 
evening, midnight, and dawn. In the horary circle, the large single 
characters represent whole hours, and the small double ones half hours, 
equal to a whole European hour. 

Let the minute hand extend to the inner part of the outer circle, 
and make twelve revolutions in a diurnal period. The hour hand should 
reach to the inner edge of the horary characters, and make one revolu- 
tion in the same period of time. Let the pendulum vibrate seconds as 
now, and the minute hand, at the expiration of sixty seconds, make half 
a revolution. It should strike from 1 to 12 a.m. and p.m., and corres- 
pond in this respect to European clocks. It will be understood, then, 
that at our even hours the short hand will point to a large horary 
character — the middle of a Chinese hour— and the long hand will be 
directly upward ; and at our odd hours the former will be opposite the 
small characters, which point the commencement of their hour, and 
the latter will point directly downward, or at the 12 p.m. of our clocks. 
Or to repeat the same in another manner ; at 1 o'clock p.m., our 
reckoning, the hour hand will be half way b-tween the large characters 
on the top and the next one to the right, and the minute hand having 
made a half revolution, will point perpendicularly downwards, and the 
clock strike one. At the expiration of another of our hours, a whole 



224 ON CHINESE HOROLOGY, ETC. 

Chinese hour will have expired when the former hand will have reached 
the first large character to the right, and the latter be directed to the 
zenith, the clock striking two. 

After this perhaps unnecessarily minute description of what is 
wa t3d in the machinery, a few words remain to be added respecting 
the instrument as a whole. In the first place, it should be well made. 
A few worthless ones would damage the business irreparably. They 
should be of brass, and placed in frames of wood, which will not be 
easily affected by atmospheric changes. Common pine wood, veneered 
with mahogany, have answered well. Spring clocks will not succeed. 
Some of this description, sent from New York, cannot be kept in repair ; 
whilst a quantity of clocks moved by weights, manufactured chiefly in 
Connecticut, imported into China about seven years ago, have proved 
good time-pieces, and give no trouble. 

With regard to the external appearance, on which so much depends, 
I would advise that, in every case, there be as much of the works ex- 
posed as possible through an opening in the dial plate. A Chinaman 
not only wishes to see what he is buying, but what is going on in his 
instruments when bought ; and, as his countrymen have the merit of 
being extreme utilitarians, mirrors in the lower part of the door will be 
generally preferred to any other ornament. Some, however, should be 
ornamented at this point for the sake of variety ; and perhaps nothing 
would please more than such a grouping of objects by the artist as would 
represent a river, bringing into view a steamboat and a sloop, and on 
the banks a railroad, locomotive, and cars ; a steepled church, or a 
many storied hotel, in the distance ; and a stage coach also. Or another 
interesting device would be afforded by a representation of the solar 
system ; but this would need to be accompanied with several Chinese 
characters. 

It is of primary importance that a particular description of the 
manner of using the clock, the mode of putting it up, setting it off, 
winding up, and regulating, should be given. These directions, which 
should be more minute than if designed for English readers, can be 
tianslated and printed very easily in the country. But there would be 
no difficulty in printing the directions by means of wooden blocks in 
the manufactory at home. In copying the characters for the dial ex- 
treme care is requisite that every stroke and each line should be repre- 
sented exactly as given in the diagram. Astronomical characters or 
descriptions of any kind which may be needed by individuals trying 
the experiment of clock-making for China, I shall furnish most cheer- 
fully, for the privilege of increasing the utility of the instrument by 
introducing with them a few passages of sacred Scripture. 

It may be asked, why, if such a clock be needed by the Chinese, 
they have never constructed one for themselves ? It is certainly mar- 
vellous that they should manufacture clocks, including dial-plates, 
and always employ Roman figures, and follow the reckonings of 



ON THE CULTIVATION OF THE OLIVE. 225 

foreigners, which so few of them are able to comprehen d, and which 
by all are considered mysterious, and outlandish. It is only to be 
accounted for on the ground of their limited inventive abilities and 
high powers of imitation. That a time-piece of this description would 
be in demand in China, I am perfectly satisfied from inquiries made of 
natives in various quarters. Chinese merchants say that they should 
be retailed at about 5 or 6 dols. each. If I recollect rightly they can be 
made in Connecticut at 2 dols. 50, which would afford sufficient profit 
both for the mechanic and merchant. 



THE CULTIVATION OF THE OLIVE. 

BY DAVID SHEPHERD. 

The olive is supposed to have been originally a native of Asia, and 
grows abundantly about Aleppo and Lebanon, but it is now naturalized 
in Greece, Italy, Spain, and the South of France, where it has been 
extensively cultivated for an unknown length of time, for the oil 
expressed from its fruit. The wild olive is found indigenous in Syria, 
Greece, and Africa on the lower slopes of the Atlas- The cultivated 
one grows spontaneously in Syria, and is easily raised on the shores 
of the Levant. Much attention has, of late years, been paid to olive 
culture by the French in Algeria. Tuscany, the South of France, and 
the plains of Spain, are the parts of Europe in which the olive was 
first cultivated. The Tuscans were the first who exported olive oil 
largely, and thus it has obtained the name of Florence oil ; but the 
purest is said to be obtained from Aix in France. 

The olive in the western world followed the progress of peace of 
which it was considered the symbol. Two centuries after the founda- 
tion of Rome, both Italy and Africa were strangers to that useful 
plant : it was naturalized in those countries, and at length carried 
into the heart of Spain and Gaul. Its usefulness, the little culture 
it requires, and the otherwise barren situations which it renders 
productive, quickly spread it over the western face of the Appenines. 
According to Humboldt the olive is cultivated with success in every 
part of the old world, where the mean temperature of the year is 
between 58 degs. and 66 degs. ; the temperature of the coldest month 
not being under 42 degs., nor that of summer below 71 degs. These 
conditions are found in Spain, Portugal, the South of France, Italy, 
Turkey, and Greece. The olive also flourishes on the north-west of 
Africa, but is not found south of the Great Desert, except in parts 
of the Cape Colony where it has been introduced or grafted on- indi- 
genous species. 



226 ON THE CULTIVATION OF THE OLIVE. 

In Europe it extends as far north as latitude 44J? degs., in America 
scarcely to latitude 34 degs.— so much greater is the severity of the 
winter on that side of the Atlantic. In the neighbourhood of Q;iito, 
situated under the equator, at a height of 8,000 feet above the level 
of the sea, where the temperature varies even less than in the island 
climates of the temperate zone, the olive attains the magnitude of the 
oak, yet never produces fruit. 

Olive oil may be said to form the cream and butter of those coun- 
tries in which it is pressed ; the tree has been cultivated in all ages 
as the bounteous gift of Heaven, and the emblem ol peace and plenty. 
There is a common saying in Italy that " if you want to leave a 
lasting inheritance to your children's children, plant an olive." 

In Italy the young olive bears fruit at two years old ; that is in 
two years after it has been placed in the plantation. In six years 
it begins to repay the expense of cultivation, if the ground is not 
otherwise cropped. After that period the produce is the surest source 
of wealth to the farmer. 

Like most other trees that have been cultivated for a length of 
time, the olive has produced numerous varieties ; different countries, 
or even different districts, cultivating their peculiar favourite. The 
variety longifolio and its many sub-varieties are chiefly cultivated in 
France and Italy. The variety lavfolia and its sub-varieties are those 
chiefly cultivated in Spain. The fruit of the variety latifolia is nearly 
twice the size of the common olive of Provence and Italy, but the oil 
is greatly inferior. 

There are several varieties of olive, differing less in their fruit than 
in the form of their leaves ; two of these have been introduced into the 
Cape Colony — one of them from England, by Mr. Thomas Berry, in the 
year 1821, and the other variety I believe from France, since that period. 
The European olive may be propagated in various ways. Cut- 
tings of nine inches in length, taken from one year old shoots, 
may be planted in a rich light soil, and kept moderately moist ; the 
ground ought never to be allowed to become very dry ; these will root 
freely in a few weeks, and be fit for transplanting in twelve months. 

In Italy the propagation is conducted in the same manner in which 
it was during the time of the Romans. " An old tree is hewn down, 
and the ' ceppo,' or stock (that is, the collar or neck between the root 
and the trunk, where in all plants the principle of life more eminently 
resides), is cut into pieces of nearly the size and shape of a mushroom, 
and which from that circumstance are called novoli ; care at the same 
time is taken that a small portion of bark shall belong to each novolo ; 
these, after having been dipped in manure, are put into the earth, soc n 
throw up shoots, are transplanted at the end of one year, and in three 
years are fit to form an olive yard." — (Blunt's ' Vestiges,' &c. 216.) 

Truncheons, or stakes of the olive, two inches thick and five feet long, 



ON THE CULTIVATION OF THE OLIVE. 227 

may be driven into the ground where they are intended to remain, and 
root freely. Shoots of one or two years' growth may be laid down, 
giving them a twist to crack the bark ; or slit them half way through, 
when they root very readily. These operations should be performed 
in the month of August. 

Grafting on the Olea Capensis, and other indigenous species of the 
Cape olive, should also be performed in the month of August, and there 
is little doubt of the beneficial result of such practice, in procuring an 
early return of the green fruit for pickling, and the ripe fruit for oil. 
The scions or grafts should be placed rather low on the stocks, and the 
buds on the latter be carefully rubbed off as they make their appear- 
ance. 

In France and Italy, an uncertainty prevails in the crops of olives ; 
sometimes one that yields a profit, does not occur for six or eight years 
together ; and hence it is considered that the culture is less beneficial to 
the peasants of those countries, than that of corn ; but these circum- 
stances do not appear to apply to the Southern Colonies, especially as the 
olive may be cultivated on ground which is impenetrable to the plough 
or spade. 

The different kinds of South African olive trees are well known to 
the peasantry of the colony, by the general appellation of olyrenhout- 
boom, some of which attain a considerable size, and are useful as 
furnishing a hard and compact wood for cabinet work, and some more 
essential purposes of domestic economy. The iron-wood of the colony 
is in reality a species of olive, viz. — Olea undulata. 

The Boschjesmen sometimes form their keries and the well-known 
implement, the graafstock, of the Olea Capensis, and for the latter pur- 
pose it is peculiarly adapted on account of its hardness. Among those 
tribes, the nuts are preserved by the mothers, and given occasionally to 
the children, who appear to devour the kernels with much satisfaction. 

The Olea Capensis is widely disseminated over the whole Cape colony, 
and inhabits alike the highest mountains (where they maintain themselves 
by insinuating their roots into the crevices of the rocks), the strong soil 
of the Karoos, and the purer sands of the downs and sea shores. It is 
also found in the recesses of the forest, and along the margins of rivers. 
In the plains neighbouring the Sneeuwberg, the olive sheltered by 
piles of loose green stones or occasional schistus rocks, attains a 
larger size than any of the other trees which occur at a distance from 
rivers. It is common from thence to the Gariep or Orange river. 
In that country they occasionally shelter the flocks and herds ; and it 
is the kind so often confounded by botanists with the European species, 
but which differs in every essential specific character. It is recom- 
mended as stocks for grafting upon, until a sufficiency of the European 
kinds are produced from layers or cuttings to form permanent planta- 
tions, as, in strong soils and on the dry declivities of the hills, the 



228 ON THE CULTIVATION OF THE OLIVE* 

trees of the Cape species are observed to shrivel in dry seasons, and 
remain in a quiescent state like some of the succulent tribes, until 
refreshed by copious showers of rain. This circumstance might some- 
times injure a foreign scion on these stocks, but such remains to be 
proved. 

Choice cuttings of the olive, selected by the agent of the American 
Patent Office in France, Were distributed some few years ago in the 
Southern States bordering on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. This 
plant has been cultivated in parts of Florida and California for 
many years ; and, doubtless, there are many other tracts of country 
uniting the conditions necessary ior the growth and perfection of its 
roots. It may be stated that, while the Floridas were held by the 
English in 1769, one Dr. Turnbull, a famous adventurer of that nation, 
brought over from Smyrna, a colony of 1,500 Greeks and Minorcans, 
and founded the settlement of New Smyrna, on Mosquito river. One 
of the principal treasures which they brought from their native land, 
was the olive. Bertram, who visited this colony in 1775, describes that 
place as a flourishing town. Its prosperity, however, was of momentary 
duration. Driven to despair by hardship, oppression, and disease, and 
precluded from escape by land, where they were intercepted by the 
savages of the wilderness, a part of these unhappy exiles died, while 
others conceived the hardy enterprise of embarking for Havana in an 
open boat, and in three years their number was reduced to five hundred. 
The rest removed to St. Augustine, when the Spaniards resumed pos- 
session of the country, and in 1783 a few decaying huts and several 
large olive trees were the only remains to be seen of their wearied 
industry. Numerous attempts, at different times, have been made 
to propagate the olive from seeds, in various parts of the South, which 
have proved unsuccessful. This want of success may be attributed 
in part, to the tendency of the olive to sport into inferior varieties when 
propagated from seeds, but after the experiment has been fairly tested 
by cuttings of choice and well-proved varieties, it is hoped that this 
" first among trees " will, sooner or later, become celebrated in the 
regions of the South. 

A dry, calcareous, schistous, sandy, or rocky situation is the most 
congenial to the growth of the olive. Where soils of this description 
exist, with a loose and permeable subsoil, and a sloping surface, sheltered 
from high winds, and a distance not too great from the sea, every natu- 
ral advantage that can be wished for is obtained. The olive tree, how- 
ever, will accommodate itself to soils and situations far less favourable. 
Frequent complaints have been made by persons who have planted 
olive trees in rich alluvial soils ; that although their trees grow most 
luxuriantly, they scarcely ever produce fruit. The cause of this is 
evidently to be attributed to the continued and too vigorous growth of 
the trees, induced by the fertility of the soil. Now, as long as the 
trees continue in this state, an abundant crop need not be expected ; 



ON THE CULTIVATION OF THE OLIVE. 22i» 

but when their vital energies become less vigorous, either from age 
or from artificial treatment, they will he found to produce large quan- 
tities of fruit. Depriving the trees of a portion of their roots is 
probably the simplest and most effectual means by which to induce them 
to bear quickly and permanently. If the land selected for a plantation 
be of an open friable nature trenching may be dispensed with, deep 
ploughing will be sufficient preparation ; on the other hand, if it be of 
a close and binding nature, it will be useless waste to plant without 
first trenching the whole to an uniform depth of at least two feet j 
In trenching this description of land, where the subsoil is stiff and 
binding, it will be found of great advantage to future cultivation to 
keep the original surface soil on the top, care being taken, however, to 
have the whole broken up to the depth above stated. 

After the land has been prepared the intended position of each tree 
should be staked out, so as to insure uniformity in the plantation ; the 
proper distance from tree to tree every way is 40 feet, but if it is not 
intended to cultivate other crops between them, in the first instance, 
they may be planted at half that distance apart, with the intention of 
removing every alternate tree to a fresh plantation when they meet 
together, which, under ordinary circumstances, they will do in about 
fifteen years. 

Planting may be proceeded with at any time between the months 
of April and September, but May is considered the most favourable if 
the weather is moist. The plants should not be less than three years 
old, and if older all the better. In removing strong trees it is advisable 
to cut them down to within two or three feet of the ground, otherwise 
their growth will be much retarded. Small trees should not be cut 
down more than sufficient to prevent strong winds blowing them clown. 

The olive may be propagated by cuttings, truncheons, suckers, 
layers, grafts, and seeds, but it is only necessary to mention those 
methods which are considered the best and most suitable to the cir- 
cumstances of our Australian colonies and the Cape. Truncheons" are 
large cuttings taken from the branches, of not less than two inches in 
diameter, and cut in lengths of four feet. They should be planted in 
trenches, leaving a few inches of the upper end above the surface. 
The soil for this purpose should be light, friable, and sandy, and so 
situated that it may be kept moderately moist ; in three years they 
will be fit for the plantation ; autumn and winter are the proper seasons 
to operate. This is undoubtedly the quickest method for getting trees 
into an advanced state, but it retards the trees which furnish the trun- 
cheons, whose supply for some time to come will be limited. 

In Europe, the general mode of propagation is by suckers, which 
arise abundantly from the roots of the old trees. The next best and 
most advisable method is grafting upon the seedlings of the wild olive, 
which are easily obtained, and are fit for grafting when the stem has 
attained the thickness of a man's finger. August and September 



230 ON THE CDLTIVATION OF THE OLIVE. 

are the proper months to proceed with this operation. Propagation by- 
layers and small cuttings is tedious, and need only be practised when 
the other methods are impracticable. 

Although the propagation of the olive from seed cannot be recom- 
mended as a method for staking the plantation, yet it should not be 
altogether overlooked. If a few trees were occasionally raised in this 
way it is very probable that a variety might be originated which would 
suit the situation and the soil better than its parents. But this result 
is by no means to be depended upon ; indeed the qualities of the seed- 
ling tree are oftener found to be inferior rather than superior to those 
of the parent, hence this method of propagation should only be adopted 
as an experiment. 

After the plantation has been made, it is only requisite to keep down 
the weeds ; should the land be. required for other crops, the tillage for 
such will be an advantage rather than otherwise. Such crops as do 
not root deeply, and are calculated not to impoverish the soil to any 
great extent, are the most suitable. 

The proper time for gathering olives for the press is the eve of 
maturity, which is in April or early in May. If delayed too long the 
next crop is either wholly prevented or materially lessened, and the tree 
is then only productive in the alternate years. At Aix, when the olive 
harvest take3 place in November, it is annual. In Languedoc, Spain, 
and Italy, where it is delayed till December or January, it is in alternate 
years. The quality of the oil also depends upon the collection of the 
fruit in the first stage of its maturity. 

The fruit should be carefully gathered by the hand, and the whole 
harvest completed as quickly as possible. The outlay for preparing and 
planting an acre of land with olive trees will be about 351. The alter 
cultivation will cost no more than from 3^. to 4Z. a year ; but by the 
economy of labour on a small farm this expense may, of course, be 
greatly lessened. An acre of land will contain 30 trees, and if on the 
average each tree produces 20 gallons of oil (in Europe the average is 
greater) we shall have from this 600 gallons, which at the moderate 
price of 5s. per gallon (in the colonies it is more than double this price), 
will be worth 150Z. Now, the expense of gathering the fruit and pre- 
paring the oil must be very great indeed not to leave an ample profit to 
the cultivator. 



231 



THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF NOVA SCOTIA— THE COMMON 
HERRING. 

BY J. MATTHEW JONES, F.L.S. AND J. BERNARD GILPIN, M.D. 

Ichthyology has unfortunately "been a much neglected branch of 
zoology, and while we have many works treating upon mammalogy, 
ornithology, and entomology, there are comparatively few authors who 
have touched upon the natural history of fish. Perhaps this may in 
some measure be accounted for by the difficulties attending their study, 
it falling to the lot of few to be situate in the vicinity of a fishing station ; 
a matter of necessity, when, not only the habits, but the forms of 
fishes, have to be carefully observed ; as a naturalist, even if placed in 
the most eligible locality for procuring specimens, can never expect to 
complete a perfect list of the several species frequenting that locality, 
without the assistance of fishermen and others, who from daily experi- 
ence can add so much valuable information, which it would be almost 
impossible for one individual, by his own exertions, to become possessed 
of. At the present day, however, the value of fish considered as an 
article of food for the human race, attaches an importance to this branch 
of science which is growing every year, and it is to be hoped that ere 
long, the investigations of naturalists will afford some clue to the occur- 
rence or absence at particular seasons, of those great annual gatherings 
of fish, which appear on the coast of north-east America and Europe, 
and which I would venture to suggest are more particularly influenced 
by the paucity or abundance of the peculiar food preferred by each 
genus, and the instinctive habit of searching for suitable positions for 
spawning. 

An interesting fact in connection with the habits of fish is that of 
the extremely local range of some species, shoals being observed in one 
particular bay or inlet, while in those contiguous, and only distant a 
short space, not a specimen of that species can be taken. On our own 
shores here, this local habit in a more distant degree is well known ; 
the shad, so abundant in the Bay of Fundy, is almost unknown to 
our eastern coast from Cape Sable to Cape Breton, while looking 
further north we find the mackerel, which is common on this coast 
during the season, absent, in a great measure, from the waters of New- 
foundland and Labrador. At the Cape of Good Hope, Dr. Pappe, an 
observant naturalist, resident at Cape Town, states that several South 
African fishes are possessed of similar habits, but more strictly confined 
even to bays divided by a small promontory ; and in the Bermudas, 
where you would imagine, from the small size of the group, that the 
waters of the shores would be common to all, I find that some species 
are only taken on the south side of the islands, and others on the north, 
although these two positions are only divided from each other by a 



232 THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF NOVA SCOTIA : 

narrow strip of land, in places not much more than a quarter of a mile 
in width. 

Now the solution of this apparent mystery is not so difficult as some 
persons would imagine. We are all aware that each animal has a parti- 
ality for some particular kind of food, and wherever that food is to he 
found in the greatest abundance, there will be found the animal that 
feeds upon it. Indeed, so well known is this habit to English entomo- 
logists, that, when in search of insects, the sight of a field of thistles, or 
a patch of nettles at a particular season, proclaims the habitat of certain 
species which frequent those plants. The buffalo of the west prefers the 
open prairie, clothed with rich succulent grass ; the moose, as Capt. Har- 
ley informs us in his widely-known " Sporting Adventures," loves to 
dwell in forest solitudes, and browse on the leaves and tender branches 
of deciduous trees ; while the tiny mole scoops its tortuous way through 
the rich mould of the alluvial valley, where it finds an abundant supply 
of its favourite earthworm. And so it is with the various fishes ; the 
halibut, whose ponderous form we so often see in the Halifax market, re- 
sides, as it were, on the sandy slopes of the deep, where it feeds upon the 
smaller fiat fish, mollusks and crustaceans. The cod seeks its prey on 
the well known " Banks," while the shad delights in the muddy waters 
of estuaries, where it fattens, according to Perley, on the shrimp and 
shad worm. In each position these fish find the food they are partial to. 
But, although I imagine food to be the great inducement for fish in- 
habiting particular localities, there is yet another reason to be advanced, 
— search for a suitable position for spawning. These two circumstances, 
I firmly believe, have more to do with the appearance of vast shoals of 
fish, visiting, or residing in particular districts, periodically or otherwise, 
than aught else. In no other way can we account for the vast annual 
or continual gatherings of certain fishes in the waters of Europe and 
north-east America, than by presuming that this search for food and 
suitable positions for spawning are the main motives. Take the cod 
fishery of the Grand Bank of Newfoundland, that wonder of ichthyo- 
logy, where, throughout an extent of submarine formation measuring 
no less than six hundred miles from north to south, and in places two 
hundred miles from east to west, countless myriads of gadoid fishes have 
afforded for more than three centuries and-a-half, profitable employ- 
ment to the fisherman, and wholesome food for tens of thousands of the 
human race. To account for this, we have in the first place to consider 
the formation of this vast submarine bank, and the peculiar inducements 
it presents to the innumerable company congregated there. The Bank 
lies, as it were, at the point where the Gulf Stream and Arctic Current 
meet each other, and struggling for the mastery deposit the foreign 
matter they contain on this spot of contention. The Arctic Current it 
is which has formed, and is still forming, the bank itself, by bringing 
down annually, through the medium of icebergs, thousands of tons of 
earth, rocks, and gravelly matter from the frozen north. These icebergs 



THE COMMON HERRING. 233 

ground upon the bank, and thawing in that position, deposit their geo- 
logical burdens, thus year by year adding to the mass. To render this 
conclusion more satisfactory, it will be well to refer to the hydrogra- 
pher's chart, by which we ascertain that the ocean bed above the Bank is 
shelving, while after passing it, the depth suddenly increases by a pre- 
cipitous descent, of some three thousand feet, thus showing that it is 
formed from the north, while the current of the Gulf presents a barrier 
to this deposit, which would otherwise be washed away to the southward, 
and the great cod fishery of Newfoundland be diminished to a consider- 
able extent. 

Now, what an area is here presented for mollusks and crustaceans to 
inhabit — gravelly beds, sandy slopes, rocky masses, large and small to 
give them shelter, while those thousands of tons of earthy matter filled 
with minute organisms are continually being brought down from the 
northward to afford them food. And as it is such a promising pasture 
for these smaller residents, which, congregating there in myriads to feed 
and propagate their species, we may readily conclude that these crea- 
tures, which form the principal part of the food of the cod, attract those 
fishes to thepositi >n,and finding there an abundance of prey at all seasons, 
remain to spawn ; as codfish are reproduced by millions annually, we 
can in a measure account for the immense stock which for hundreds of 
years has rilled every part of that immense ichthyological storehouse, 
and proved such a blessing to mankind. 

These currents have also a great effect upon the migration of fishes, 
and to prove this I have only to call attention to the following 
facts. In summer time, when the Gulf Stream extends its northern 
boundary, which, commencing at Cape Cod runs close to our coast 
and thence to Newfoundland, several kinds of southern fishes are 
observed in our waters, one of these, a species of Mouocanthus, 
is so truly a southern genus that only one species has been 
recorded as having been captured so far north as Massachusetts. 
Another, the albicore, so well known in warmer latitudes, is abundant 
here during the months of July and August, the Rev. John Ambrose 
having observed twelve at one time off French Village, St. Margaret's 
Bay. Then as to northern fishes, when in winter time, particularly dur- 
ing the later months of that season and those of spring, the Arc- 
tic current comes pouring down from the north, forcing the waters of 
the Gulf to the southward, and washing the banks of Newfoundland 
exerting a cooling influence even to the latitude of 40 deg., it brings with 
it many fishes to our shores whose presence during that particular season 
I have just mentioned could in no other way be satisfactorily accounted 
for — hence we have the occurrence of the Gieenland Shark (Scymnus 
borealis) recently brought to our notice, an inhabitant of the seas of the 
far north ; the Norway Haddock (Sebastes Norvegicus), an extreme 
northern fish — and the Cusk (Brosmius vulgaris), another strictly 
northern form, having its proper habitat between the parallels of 60 deg. 

VOL. iv. T 



234 THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF NOVA SCOTIA : 

and 73 deg. north latitude, is also found in our waters. I could add 
other instances in support of my views, but those I have given 
will, I trust he sufficient to enable you to form some idea of their cor- 
rectness. 

A great question with Naturalists has been as to whether certain 
fishes inhabiting the seas of Europe and north-east America are identical 
in regard to species, and if identical how they managed to traverse 
two or three thousand miles of ocean from their original home. Now, 
if we can prove the arrival at our shores of fishes from distant latitudes, 
by means of the great ocean currents, which as highways, or I should 
say, seaways, pass as it were our own doers; may we not conclude that 
these very currents or seaways are the means oi affording a communi- 
cation from or to either side of the Atlantic. And while some of the 
Carribean types may be earned by the Gulf Stream to our shores, and on 
to Europe, the European types can be carried to our shores by the Arctic 
current, which setting from North Europe to Spitzbergen,. washes the- 
east coast of Greenland, and passing Iceland arrives at our position. 

Some species are more adapted than others from their peculiar for- 
mation to wander about the broad expanse of ocean, and like the hawk 
among birds cleaving the air, propel themselves at a prodigious rate 
through their watery element. Naturalists are therefore prepared in 
some measure for the occurrence of such forms in situations where no 
currents prevail. The most violent storms at sea cannot effect the 
migration of fishes, even if they blow from a direction contrary to that 
of the fish's course, for observations prove that the gale which agitates 
the surface to so great an extent, is- not perceptible at a comparatively 
small depth, and on the principle that migratory birds are generally 
known to take their course at a great elevation, in order to escape the 
agitation of the air near the earth's surface, so we may presume that, 
these wandering fishes, gifted with similar instinct, avoid the currents 
and counter currents of the ocean surface by stemming their way at a. 
depth free from such circumstances. But in case of species known more 
particularly as inhabitants of the littoral zone, and not endowed with a for- 
mation favourable for extensive migration, I may instance the Blennies or 
Gobioidce-, which are chiefly found in shore waters, rock pools, and 
among sea-weed — we must look to some other agpney than the. mere 
motive power of the fish itself. Now, during my investigations in the 
Bermudian waters, I found that the gulf weed (Fucus nutans) which is 
brought to that latitude from the Bahamas, on the eastern current, and 
being thrown aside, as it were, drifts along from and to all points of the 
compass as the winds blow, is a perfect preserve for the naturalist, being 
tenanted by various species of crustaceans, and affording shelter and 
food to several kinds of fishes. To give an idea of the vast extent of the 
fields of this gulf weed which float upon the ocean about the latitude of the 
Bermudas, I may state, that when a southerly gale blows for several days, 
the whole coast line of the Islands facing that quarter, becomes choked 



1'HE COMMON liKlililNO. 235 

up With this sea-weed, and on gaining an elevated position on land, vast 
fields are observed still setting in from the ocean. Have we not here 
again an excellent conveyance for many kinds of fishes, (particularly 
those unable to take long journeys without assistance) which keeping 
within the covert of these masses of fucus are carried along hundreds of 
miles, and obtain, the whole voyage, good shelter and abundance of food, 
which is all a fish requi-f-es to bring it safe to other positions, where the 
temperature of the ocean will not interfere with its constitution. And 
although the constitutions of fish are in some cases influenced by the 
temperature of the element they inhabit, and a few degrees above or 
below a certain temperature will drive them to seek other positions, yet, 
in many cases, they are not so influenced, ami the fact is well authenti- 
cated that certain species can bear the test of being frozen in solid ice, 
and on being gradually thawed, will regain their former signs of vitality, 
while others have been observed swimming about in hot springs at 
Manila and in Barbary in water, of a temperature of from 172 deg. to 
185 deg., and a species of Sihirss, according to Humboldt, was observed 
fey him thrown up alive with the heated waters of a South American 
volcano, which were proved to be of a temperature of 210 deg., or within 
two degrees of the boiling point. 

Some marine fish, and certain species of fish-like mammals, appear 
in some instances to live in fresh water as well as salt. As to the mam- 
mals, my friend Captain Blakiston, the celebrated explorer of the Yangste, 
states in his recent work that porpoises Were seen rolling about in the 
upper waters of that river, 1,000 miles from the sea, and in reply to a 
question of mine, he states that the water was perfectly fresh far below 
this point ; so that we have here marine mammals, generally supposed 
to be unable to exist long in fresh water, disporting themselves hundreds 
of miles from their briny home, in an element very different in its com- 
ponent parts from that to which they are usually accustomed. Again, 
I have myself observed in the Bermudas a species of Gob'ms exist- 
ing in a lively and healthy state in rock pools above the highest tidal 
mark, in which the water, chiefly rain, but partially salt, had become 
perfectly putrid and offensive. 

From five specimens of the common herring (Clupea e'ougata) 
before me, one taken at Red Bay, Labrador, the second from the 
" Banks," ten miles seaward ; the third from Halifax harbour ; the 
fourth from Annapolis Royal,_Bay of Fundy, and the fifth from a cod's 
stomach, caught upon the Banks, I may say they are identical, except 
in teeth and size ; they all may be called slender. In size the Labrador 
measures 15 inches; the Bank, 13^; the Shore, 11; the Annapolis or 
Digby herring 7 to 8, and that taken from the cod about 5 inches. Not- 
withstanding the difference in size and in teeth, I can only consider them 
of one species. 

Those taken on the Banks ten miles seaward are larger, go in separate 
runs, are fished for with larger meshes, and are sold as distinct fish in 
the market from the Shore herring. 



Z6b THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF NOVA SCOTIA [ 

They approach the Nova Scotia shore early in March, at first etrag- 
glingly and very lean. As the summer advances they hecome fat. 
During the latter part of August they are in their prime and are pre- 
paring to spawn, which operation takes place in September and 
October. 

The warm sandy coves and still land-locked bays about Sambro, 
Eastern Passage, Shelburne, and Prospect, are favourite resorts in from 
5 to 10 fathoms. Here the fish may be seen lying upon the bottom 
in thousands. They may be measured by the acre. The sea is white 
and turbid with the spawn ; and ropes, in passing through it, become 
as large as small haAvsers. The cod and his varieties approach to feed 
upon it, whilst quantities are cast upon the beach by the sea. 

Before the long cold nights and stormy seas of November arrive, 
the herring have left the surface to re-appear the following Spring. In 
New Brunswick, according to Perley, the great spawning ground i9 
Southern Head, Grand Manan. Here the herring commence in July and 
end in October. Along the Bay of Fundy a run of large, thin spawn- 
bearing herring appear about the middle of May. About the last of 
June a separate run of small barren herring appear in Digby Basin from 
the Bay of Fundy. These are fat, and about one in twelve have spawn, 
and in August immense numbers of fry appear on the shoal bars of 
the Basin, doubtless the spawn deposited in early spring. Perley 
reports that spawn is found in the Bay of Fundy in June. 

Thus we arrive at a very curious fact, that our herring, though of 
the same species, spawn some in June, and others in October. 

At Labrador, Newfoundland, and the Magdalen Islands, April and 
May are the spawning months. Allowing from six to t«n weeks for the 
period of hatching, from the analogy of other fish whose periods we do 
know, the one run must be produced during the stormy months of 
November and December, after the fish have long left the surface, whilst 
a second more highly favoured run commences its existence during the 
warm tranquil season of Midsummer, upon the shallow beaches and 
warm shoals of the basins emptying into the Bay of Fundy. Thus com- 
mencing life under such different auspices, it would seem that each 
hatching or " rim" keep by themselves, at least during their early life, 
and revisit annually their breeding places. 

Self-protection keeps them from the older ones, who prey upon them 
equally as the cod. The most intelligent observers informed Perley 
that it takes three years to perfect their growth, and that they spawn 
the second year. 

Thus we have a small run of 7 to 9 inches of the second year, about 
one in twelve spawning, revisiting the shallow basins of the great Bay 
of Fundy (which re-appears as the famous Digby herring in all the 
markets of the world) during July and August, and then retiring from 
the surface. The shore run of the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, about 
11 inches in size, appearing in early March, and spawning in September 
and October ; and the large Labrador, Bank, or Grand Manan run, appear? 



THE COMMON HERRING. 237 

ing in March, and spawning in April, May, and June. All seek the deep 
soundings in winter. At Fortune Bay, Newfoundland, they are taken in 
nets during mid- winter beneath the ice. Here the soundings are 70 or 
80 fathoms, the water land-locked and still. 

The fishermen suppose the frozen surface makes the sea dark and 
apparently more secure for them. The return of Spring warming the 
water and the summer seas, seems to be the s-ignal for this vast army, 
each in its separate brigade, to move upward to the surface, and onward 
along our coasts to fatten in the rolling pastures of the ocean, and 
prompted by instinct, whose causes are unknown to us, but irresistible 
to them, to shed their spawn now upon the ice-washed Labrador in 
early Spring, now upon the warm sand bars of the Digby basin, or 
lastly upon the shoals of Grand Manan or Prospect Bay, warmed by 
the summer heats and autumnal sun. The pursuit of food must be 
another great cause for their annual migrations. A close observation 
of the food found in the stomachs of herrings at different seasons would 
do much in discovering a general rule for the proverbial uncertainty 
and caprice of their movements. 

"Upon the authority of Yarrell, who quotes Dr. M'Neil, I have stated 
that the larger ones prey upon the smaller, but our fishermen deny the 
fact of finding young herrings in the stomach of the larger ones. The 
surface of the sea about our coasts in Spring and Summer, is fairly 
alive with the medusae, and our shores are covered in win-rows with 
small shrimps called brit and herring bait ; one cannot but fancy that 
these rich gelatinous masses must allure them to the surface. 

To sum up all that I have obtained with regard to our herring : 

1. It is of one species. 

2. With regard to teeth, those upon the tongue and vomer seem con- 
stant in all ; the larger specimens very rarely upon the lower lip ; 
the smaller usually having them there. Generalising from examining 
some hundred specimens, I would say the teeth become obliterated by 
age, and that the more readily as they have no bony origin like the genus 
Salmo. 

3. Some spawn in May and June, others as late as October. This 
very remarkable fact, causing suggestions of how far it modifies the 
growth and habits of each run, stands so far without any reason. 

4. These separate runs, hatched under very different circumstances, 
and necessarily of different age and size, revisit their old haunts, spawn 
the second year, and are three years in attaining adult size, and probably 
by that time become absorbed in the runs of older fish. 

5. That great and small of all ages approach the surface and the 
land in spring, and disappear in autumn. The warm seas and calm 
weather of the summer being necessary for their spawning and their 
food, — that as far as regards our coasts their only migration is from 
the deep soundings of the sea banks to the coasts and back again, — 
though I by no means assert that in higher latitudes they do not per-. 



Z6b THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF XOVA SCOTIA ■ 

form greater migrations. These migrations must cause a total change ill 
the food, the temperature, respiration, and external pressure during 
winter and summer. 

Following Dekay and Storer, I have considered it a distinct species 
from the Harenga, or English, though Richardson calls his taken at 
Bathurst inlet, Harenga ; and Yarr ell's description of the Harenga seems 
to vary hut little ironi ours. 

We have seen that our herring passes his existence alternately in a 
state of rest in deep soundings, (this rest not so deep though, as from 
recent facts we infer the mackerel does, who, it would appear, becomes 
torpid and blind during winter, like certain Batrachians whom he re- 
sembles in his colour), aud of a highly, aerated and lively existence 
upon the surface. During this state he presents himself as food for man 
who employs his arts in securing the rich bounty, spread as it were at 
his door. This brings us insensibly to the history of our Herring 
Fishery. 

As early as March, herrings are taken in nets on our coast, but the 
fish are so straggling and the seas so boisterous, that, except for bait, 
fishing does not commence till May. In this month a run of large fat 
herring are taken in nets upon the Banks, which lie 10 or 15 miles sea- 
ward, and carry about 75 fathoms water. A net 30 fathoms long and 
3 deep is passed from the stern of a boat at anchor. The free end drifts 
with the tide, held to the surface by cork floats, sometimes the tides 
carry the net down 15 fathoms in a slanting direction, — thus drifting 
from night to morning, — the net is overhauled, and from 20 to 100 
dozen is the ordinary catch. It is very evident from the distance from 
shore, the need of calm weather for the boats and nets, as well as for 
the fish, who are very susceptible to rough seas, this fishing must be pre- 
carious. The boats are stout, weatherly keel boats, with a half deck, 
from 5 to 15 tons, carrying a gib, fore and mainsail, and usually called 
second class fishermen, when entered at a regatta. 

The " in shore run,'" a fish of smaller size, are taken in nets set to a 
buoy, instead of a boat, the free end drifting to the tide. These nets are 
often moored from one buoy to another to preserve a permanent position 
across a creek or small bay. In these various ways herring are taken by 
the shore population of the whole Atlantic and Gulf coast of Nova 
Scotia, from the Bay of Fundy to Cumberland. The immense tides of 
the Bay of Fundy, leaving long flats and sand bars at low tide, and the 
steep trap formation of its southern coastline have singularly altered the 
character of the fishery. Here the drift-net fishing obtains, boats and 
nets drifting for miles upon the flow and returning upon the ebb, the nets 
twisted and coiled into apparently impossible masses. The shores of the 
trap formation being flat tables of trap reaching plane after plane into 
the sea, with no crevice to hold a stake or anchor a buoy, the fishermen 
procure stout spruce fir trees, and lopping off the branches, leave the 
long lateral roots attached to them. These they place upright in rows 



THE COMMON HKItRIXG. %?.) 

upon the bare rock, and pile heavy stones upon the roots as ballast} 
stretching their nets between them. Entirely submerged at flood, at ebb 
they are left high and dry, and often loaded down with fish caught, by the 
gills in the meshes of the net. These nets are usually set for a large, 
lean spring herring, running for the flats in early spring to spawn. This 
method of fishing obtains throughout the whole trap district of the pro- 
vince bordering upon the Bay of Fundy. With the exception of Briar 
and Long Islands, about whose coves nestle a hardy race of fishermen, 
whose red-tan sails are seen from Mount Desert to Cape Sable, and in 
all weathers, the population of these districts are farmers, rather than 
fishermen, tilling the southern slopes of the North Mountain, and employ- 
ing their spare time in procuring their winter supply, or a few boxes of 
smoked herring for barter. Where unopposed by the stern barrier of 
trap-rock, the great Bay pours its tide-waters up St. Mary's, or through 
the Digby Gut, into the Annapolis Basin, or sweeps up the Avon and 
Horton estuaries, or stays its flood on the Cumberland marshes, Minas 
Basin, or the Shubenacadie ; there, a rural population, dwelling on the 
borders of those streams and basins, hail with delight the periodically re- 
turning wealth teeming in its muddy waters. Smooth seas, sandy bars, 
and mud flats, dry at ebb, replace trap dyke and boisterous waves. The 
fisheries are curiously modified by these physical changes. Flats and punts 
take the place of keel-boats and whalers. Young fir-trees are driven into 
the soft sand dry at ebb. Standing eight feet high, their green branches 
interlacing, they are formed into circles or L's. The retreating tide, 
which, in its flow, swept some 30 feet above them, leaves a teeming mass 
of helpless fish stranded in the shallow pools within their circle. This 
brush weir-fishing, as it is termed, less rude than^ the rugged stone- 
loaded stakes of the trap coast, is yet inartistic enough to provoke 
criticism in its waste of life, fish too small for use being included in the 
catch ; yet we must recollect that it requires capital and population to be 
humane, and that these fir-trees, renewed yearly, are the the cheapest and 
only material at hand for a population, with no surplus time or capitaL 
In these weirs are taken the Digby or smoked herring, known so well in 
all markets. 

Mr. Benjamin Hardy, speaking of the Digby Herring, says i — 
The first herrings that make their appearance in the Basin, come the 
last of March and first of April ; about the first of May they begin to 
spawn, and by the 20th of May they have mostly left the harbour. 
About the time they leave, a small sized run of herrings come in ; they 
stop but a short time, scarcely two weeks, and then leave. From the 
middle of June to the first of July the regular school come in — they stop 
generally about six weeks, sometimes longer, and then leave. There are 
a very few spawn fish amongst the last-named ; of the second there are 
none ; the first are nearly all spawn, or what is called melt fish, — which 
means male and female. The spawn, or young herring, grow rapidly ; 
I think the first year about four inches, as near as I can ascertain. I 



240 THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF NOVA SCOTIA, ETC. 

think, in about six. \ears they attain to what is called the large Digby 
herrings. Their food is a small insect, just discernible with the naked 
eye, which I think generally keeps near the surface of the water. 
Their manner of taking them is by swimming along with their mouth 
open, and catching them, and then emitting the water through their 
gills. They are timorous ; thunder drives them into deep water. They 
follow their prey close in shore in the night, but retire as soon as broad 
daylight appears, and then return the next night, and so on. I have 
heard them jumping and skipping about, till about half-an-hour before 
the weir would show out of the water, and then retire just outside of 
the weir, and there stay and feed awhile. When they go over the 
weir, as before named, there would be some three feet of water over 
the weir. I have seen them, just at night, come within about 300 
feet of the weir, and stay there, not coming nearer that night, their 
line would be in some places straight, and others crooked, just as our 
weirs were shaped, though there were from six to eight feet of water 
over the weirs. 

The export returns for the year 1861, give 190,000 bbls. of pickled, and 
35,000 smoked herring, for the Province ; but the number sold as fresh, 
in the market at Halifax, and those cured by the families living on the sea- 
board, tor their own use, as well as those in the interior, who may be met 
in strings of 20 or 30 waggons, returning laden with fresh or round fish, 
as they are technically called, to be cured at home, would, at least, give 
50,000 bbls. more. 

In this paper I have endeavoured to prove by facts seen myself, by 
others gleaned from old and experienced fishermen, from the best 
American writers — Dekay and Storer, — and from the very able report 
of the late Moses Perley, Esq., that our common herring makes no 
long migrations as those of the British Isles are said to ; that he passes 
his winter either in our deep bays, ice-locked, or in deep sea soundings : 
that the summer heats and smooth seas bring him to the surface and to 
the land, in separate runs of different aged fish, caused by his spawning 
in early spring and autumn. I say endeavoured to prove, for I am con- 
scious that many of the facts need more proof and closer investigation, 
and may turn out not facts after all. I have merely hinted at the 
different existences of winter under deep pressure, half torpid, perhaps 
beneath 70 fathoms, and his summer life on the surface — of the differ- 
ent times "of spawning, as yet without reasons for so singular a fact, 
modifying, as it must, the early life of the fry. I do not advance any 
of these facts as new, but rather as newly put together ; and I have given 
a slight sketch how, out at sea, he is waylaid by the fishermen, conducted 
in shore and beset with drift and set nets, fir-tree stakes and pine brush 
weirs, by a rural population intent on gathering their rich sea harvest to 
their homes. 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



NOTES AND QUERIES ON ASIATIC COPALS. 

BY M. C. COOKE. 

Notwithstanding all the additions which have of late years been 
made to our knowledge of the sources of economic products, there still 
remain some to be determined, and many doubts concerning others to 
be cleared up. Every effort, however small, to clear up mysterious 
synonymy, or determine the true origin of articles of commerce or con- 
sumption, is of interest to the Technologist ; and, trivial as may 
appear, the few notes now hastily collected together, I trust that they 
will not be found utterly valueless. There are many difficulties in the 
way of procuring the information we seek, and one of the chief of these 
is the want of interest in the subject by the majority of those who have 
really the best opportunity for affording us assistance. Travellers find 
nothing in such a pursuit to render their narrative more interesting to 
the public. Merchants consider the fluctuations in the market prices of 
their commodities of far more importance than their ultimate sources, 
and Seamen of all ranks study to forget all such commissions, which 
promise a certain trouble, but a very prospective profit. We must there- 
fore pick up such small scraps of information as may come to hand in 
the form of " waifs and strays," and be thankful. 

For many years we have received from somewhere in the East Indies, 
by way of Singapore, and probably other ports, resinous substances 
called either Copal or Dammar. Amine" must be left out of the en- 
quiry altogether, since what is called Bombay Anime, or Indian Anime, 
is known to be an East-African product, re-shipped from Bombay and 
other ports. 

The commercial resins of these regions of Southern Asia and the 
Archipelago, according to trade lists, are confined to East Indian Copal, 

VOL. IV. U 



242 NOTES AND QUERIES ON ASIATIC COPALS. 

Dammar and Manila mastic. If we are to believe implicitly in what 
the majority of writer's on the subject tell us of the first of these sub- 
stances, we shall regard it as solely the produce of an East Indian 
forest tree named, botanically, Valeria Indica. SirW. B. O'Shaughnessy 
writes — " The substance called East Indian Copal, and sold in England 
as gum anime, exudes abundantly from this tree." It should be noted 
that the substance known in the London market as gum aniine is a very 
different resin to that of Vateria Indica, and though I have, during the 
past ten years, carefully watched the market here, especially in so far as 
Asiatic resins are concerned, I have never met with a fragment of genu- 
ine piney resin (Valeria Indica), offered for sale. There are several 
kinds of hard resins produced on the Asiatic continent, and others in 
the islands of the Archipelago, to which it will be well to devote a 
few remarks in succession ; although of local interest and value, only a 
few of these reach our shores. 

. Piney Resin {Vateria Indica), when recent is soft, and is then called 
piney varnish, but on exposure it becomes hard and brittle, of all shades, 
from a pale, bright green, to a deep amber. It readily assumes the form 
of any vessel in which it has been collected, and when hardened is ordina- 
rily broken up into irregularly shaped pieces without any traces of regular 
" tears." It is remarkably clear and transparent, especially the greenish 
varieties, and would probably find a ready market. Major Drury says, 
" It is procured by cutting a notch in the tree, sloping inwards and 
downwards, from which the resinous juice runs, and is soon hardened 
by exposure to the air. It is usual, when applying it as a varnish, (in 
India), to apply the resin before it hardens, otherwise to melt it by a 
slow heat, and mix it with boiling linseed oil. A spirit-varnish is pre- 
pared by reducing to powder about six parts of piney and one of cam- 
phor, and then adding hot alcohol sufficient to dissolve the mixed 
powder. Alcohol will not dissolve piney without the camphor, but, 
once dissolved, retains it in solution. The varnish thus prepared is 
good for varnishing pictures, &c, but before being used requires to be 
gently heated to evaporate the camphor, which would otherwise pro- 
duce a roughness on the picture, in consequence of its subsequent 
evaporations. In addition to these uses it is made into candles, on the 
Malabar coast, diffusing an agreeable fragrance, and giving a clear light 
and little smoke. A vulnerary balsam is also made of the resin mixed 
with oil. The tree which produces this resin is a native of Malabar, 
and is found abundantly in the Coorg forests, and in many other parts 
of Southern India. Dr. Buchanan mentions the varnish in his 
" Journey through Mysore, &c," where he gives a curious account of 
the method of applying it, as pursued by the natives. — " Some men of 
the Pauchala tribe, which here is called Peningelan, paint and varnish 
by the following process : They take buttermilk, and boil it with a 
small quantity of quick linie until strings form in the decoction, and 
separate from the watery parts, which they decant. The stringy matter 



NOTES AND QUERIES ON ASIATIC COPALS. 24.'j 

is then mixed with the paint, which has been well powdered ; with 
these the wooden work is first painted, it is then allowed to dry for one 
day, and afterwards receives a coat of pundum, which is the fresh juice 
of a tree called Peini Marum. The pundum must be used while it is 
fresh, and will not keep for more than two or three days. After the 
first coat of pundum has dried, another coat of paint is given, and that 
is followed by another of varnish. In the same manner leather may 
be painted and varnished. The varnish effectually resists the action 
of water. All my attempts, however, to find out the varnish tree were 
vain." 

The tree which yields the piney resin, the Elosocarpus copaliferus of 
Eetz, Chlor^xijl m dupada, Buchanan, and the Vateria Indica, Gaertn., is 
called Peini-Marum in Malabar, Velli-koondricum in Tamul, and Du- 
pada mara in Telugu, and is the white Dammar tree of English resi- 
dents. As already stated, this resin forms no portion of the India Copal 
of English commerce. 

Saul Dammar (Shorea robusta). — This resin also has such a distinct 
character that it could not be mixed with or mistaken for any other. It 
is the produce of a tree still more common on the continent of India 
than the last, forming immense forests, and yielding a valuable timber, 
perhaps only second to teak. The tree is confined more. to the northern 
portions of India, along the bases of the Himalayas, where it attains a 
height of from 100 to 150 feet. Dr. Royle has observed that these 
trees form extensive forests of themselves, frequently unmixed with any 
other tree. The resin, when hardened, is of a dull opaque tawny colour 
with darker streaks. It is met with in irregular flattened masses, from 
an inch or two in length and width to several inches, flattened, and with 
the impression or fragments of the bark on the under surface. The up- 
per, or exposed face, is furrowed irregularly by the trickling of the semi- 
fluid resin, as it issues from the trunk. It is of a dull fracture, brittle, 
and entirely different from any of the substances known as copal or 
Dammar in this country. This resin is affirmed to be partially soluble 
in alcohol, almost entirely in ether, perfectly in oil of turpentine, and 
sulphuric acid dissolves and gives it a red colour. Equal parts of 
this Dammar and oil of turpentine make a good varnish for lithogra- 
phic drawings. 

In Southern India the Saul tree is replaced by an allied species 
(Vatica Tambugaia) which yields a similar resin; but smaller quanti- 
ties are collected, and it is doubtful whether it forms any proportion of 
the Saul Dammar of the bazaars. 

The true resin of Shorea Robusta is also produced in Borneo and 
Sumatra, and is one of the kinds known to the Malays as Dammar 
Batu. It is not an article of export to Great Britain. 

Black Dammar (Canarium striatum): — This is another very charac- 
teristic resin, and likely to prove a valuable one, if the prejudice against 
its colour can be overcome. This also is an Indian product, though not 

u 2 



244 NOTES AND QUERIES ON ASIATIC COPALS. 

exclusively, for I have reason to believe that it is collected in Assam, 
Burmah, and the Malay Peninsula. Dr. Wight writes of it thus : — The 
Canarium stricttim of Roxburgh is known in Malabar under the name 
of the " black Dammar tree," in contra-distinction to the Valeria, or 
" white Dammar tree." This tree is rather common in the Alpine forests 
about Courtalum, in the Tinnevelly district, and is there regularly 
rented for the sake of the Dammar. This is transparent, and of a deep 
brownish yellow or amber colour, when held between the eye and the 
light, but, when adhering to the tree, has a bright shiuing black ap- 
pearance." 

Notwithstanding this account, a question arose in India some few 
years since as to the identity of the resin of Canarium strictum and the 
"Black Dammar" of Travancore, but this was finally settled, chiefly 
through the investigations of Messrs. E. J. Waring and J. Brown, both 
resident on the spot. The latter gentleman in his report states that, 
both the black and white Dammar trees grow in the forests of Trevan- 
drum, about 1,800 feet above the level of the sea, but the white Dammar 
tree seems to be more common than the other, perhaps, because the 
Hill-men getting more dammar from the latter, destroy it more readily. 
The best specimens of the black Dammar tree which I examined were 
about two yards in girth, at the height of four feet above the spread of 
the roots. The trunk is round, straight, and smooth, rising twenty or 
thirty feet before branching ; the bark generally whitish, dotted with 
small papillee, peels off in long flakes. The Hill-men to get the dammar, 
make a great number of vertical cuts into the bark, all round near the 
base of the trunk ; they then set fire to the tree below the cuts, and, 
having thus killed it, they leave it for two years before they collect the 
dammar ; they say that, after one year only, the quantity of dammar is 
much less than after two years. The tree is killed in the hot season, 
and the dammar is collected in February or March. When on the 
Ghauts previously, as -well as this year, we were struck, on looking 
towards the forests on both the eastern and western slopes, as high as 
3,000 feet above the level of the sea, by numbers of trees, with bright 
red, often crimson foliage, contrasting strongly with the various greens 
around. These crimson trees are black Dammar trees ; the colour due 
to the young leaves disappears gradually in April. Lieutenant Hawkes 
also, in reporting on this resin says, " It occurs in large stalactite-shaped 
masses, of a bright shining black colour, when viewed fiom a distance, 
but translucent, and of a deep reddish brown when held in thin 
laminae between the eye and the light. It is perfectly homogeneous, 
and has a vitreous fracture. Its shape appears to be due to the fact of 
the balsam having exuded in a very fluid state, and trickled down the 
trunk of the tree, where it gradually hardened by exposure to the sun ; 
the fresh resin continuing to flow over that already hardened, gives 
rise to the stalactitic appearance of the huge lumps of resin, the out- 
side of which much resemble the guttering of wax, caused by placing 



NOTES AND QUERIES ON ASIATIC COPALS. 245 

a lighted candle in a draught. It is insoluble in cold, but partially 
soluble in boiling alcohol, on the addition of camphor ; when powdered 
it is readily soluble in oil of turpentine. Powdered and burnt 
on the fire, it emits a more resinous smell, and burns with more 
smoke than white Dammar. This substance also is unknown in our 
markets. 

A cui'ious and interesting substance is known in Burmah under the 
name of Poonyet, which has the appearance of a blackish resin, traversed 
with cells, excavated by a species of Dammar-bee in the resin, whilst 
still in a semi-fluid state. Having had occasion to examine a specimen 
of this substance, I, at once, pronounced it to be the resin of Canarium 
strictum, and not, as some had supposed, a secretion of the insect. This 
view I have since seen borne out by the remarks of Mr. Brown, of 
Trevandrum, who states, that the dammar which exudes from the cuts in 
the trunks of the black dammar tree seems to be a great favourite of 
several species of insects, especially of one resembling a bee, called by 
the Hill-men " kulliada," which live in pairs in holes in the ground. A 
similar substance is known in Malacca, as Dammar Klootee, containing 
larger cells, probably formed by a different species of Dammar-bee in 
the resin exuded from the same tree, which is not uncommon in that 
district. 

Dammar Daging, or Rose Dammar, is the produce of some tree 01 
trees unknown, inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula. This resin occurs in 
immense masses, of a form very similar to those of the black dammar, 
but streaked and variegated with dull crimson, alternating with pale 
ochraceous bands. It is less brittle, harder, and of equally vitreous 
fracture to black dammar. The extent to which it is found, the uses to 
which it is specially applied by the natives, and its botanical sources, 
are still to be determined. 

Dammar mata kooohing (Hopea micrantha). This substance seems to 
be very common in Borneo, Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Assam, and 
probably, elsewhere. It greatly resembles the ordinary Gum Dammar 
imported from Singapore ; indeed, except in greater hardness, it seems 
to be undistinguishable. If a quantity of both were intermixed, it 
would be almost impossible to separate them. I am disposed to believe 
that the whole of a consignment of East India copal, as it was termed,, 
which was sold in Mincing-lane, about two or three years since, and im- 
ported from Singapore, was this resin. Large quantities arrive at 
Singapore from Borneo and Sumatra, and are dispersed over the world, 
under the name of Dammar, and, probably, much of this is sold here. 
It is acknowledged that there is a great difference practically in the 
quality of Singapore dammar, and this may be due to some consignment 
being the resin of Dammara orientalis, and others of Hopea micrantha 
The latter being doubtless the best. 

Singapore Dammar (Dammara orientalis), claims but a passing 
record, and the expression of a doubt whether so much of the white 



246 A HISTOEY OP THE SODA MANUFACTURE. 

Dammar from Oriental ports, as many of us have hitherto believed, is 
really the produce of the above-named coniferous tree. 

Manila Copal, or Mastic. — Occasionally parcels of copal arrive 
here from the Philippines, sometimes under the name of Mastic, at 
others as Copal. Excellent specimens of all the varieties produced in 
Manila are exhibited in the Technological Museum at the Crystal 
Palace, which were received direct, but no indication is given of their 
sources, and here again is a fair field for inquiry. 

The above " notes," are merely what they profess, and are rather sugges- 
tive than exhaustive. Only the most important of the resins ol Asia have 
been alluded to, these being produced in sufficient quantities to supply a 
large export trade should a demand arise. Other allied substances, un- 
known to the writer, probably also fulfil the above conditions* Borneo, 
or Sumatra, may possess indigenous trees, yielding valuable copals. Other 
islands of the Archipelago very likely have their dammars yet unknown 
to Europeans. It is not supposed that the few above enumerated can be 
accepted as the whole copalline resins of Asia ; India alone is known to 
produce as many others, but these are of secondary importance. The 
subject thus opened is an interesting, useful, and practical one, and 
claims further investigation and development. 



HISTORY OF THE SODA MANUFACTURER 

BY WM. GOSSAGE, F.C.S. 

Baron Liebig has suggested that the wealth and civilisation of a 
country may be measured by its consumption of sulphuric acid. I am 
of opinion that if soda were substituted, in the place of sulphuric acid, 
for this test, the estimate would be more correct ; in fact, the greater 
part of all the sulphuric acid made is applied to the manufacture of 
soda, or mineral alkali ; and when we refer to the various purposes for 
which this alkali is essentially necessary, such as the production of 
glass, of soap, of bleached and printed fabrics, of paper, of glazes for 
porcelain and earthenware, &c, we see that all its applications are 
those closely connected with the civilisation and refinement of the 
human race ; to which we may add the fact, that this is the most ex- 
tensive of all chemical manufactures, both as regards the employment of 
capital and labour. 

Previously to the establishment of the French Republic, in 1703, 
soda was obtained almost entirely from the ashes of certain plants 

* The Hymencea Cowrba/ril which has been introduced into Asia, yields no copal 
known in local commerce ; and none reaches this country even from South Ame- 
rica, where the tree is indigenous. 

t Eead before the British Association. 



A HISTORY OF THE SODA MANUFACTURE. 247 

growing on the sea coast, the chief localities for these being Alicant, in 
Spain, the islands of Sicily and Teueriffe, and our own coasts of Scot- 
land and Ireland. There was also imported into this country, as well 
as into France, from Eussia and America, a large quantity of potash, 
and this alkali fyas then used for many purposes for which soda is now 
exclusively employed ; and it may be noticed, that such a remarkable 
change has been effected by the cheap production of soda, that we now 
export large supplies of this alkali to those countries from which we 
formerly imported alkali in the form of potash. 

One of the first effects of the war, consequent upon the French 
Revolution, was to cut off all supplies of alkali from other countries 
into France, and the progress of those important manufactures depen- 
dent on the use of alkali having been thus impeded, the Conventional 
Government of the French Republic issued an appeal to the chemists of 
their country in the following terms : — 

" Considering that the Republic ought to extend the energy of liberty 
to all the objects which are useful in the arts of first necessity — free 
itself from all commercial dependence — and draw from its own sources 
all the materials deposited therein by nature, so as to render vain the 
efforts and the hatred of despots ; and should place equally in requisi- 
tion for the general service all industrial inventions aud productions of 
the soil, it is commanded that all citizens who have commenced establish- 
ments, or who have obtained patents for the extraction of soda from 
common salt, shall make known, to the Convention the locality of 
these establishments, the quantity of soda now supplied by them, the 
quantity they can hereafter supply, and the period at which the in- 
creased supplies can be rendered." 

A commission was appointed in the first year of the French Republic, 
consisting of Citizens Lelievre, Pelletier D'Arcet, and Giroud, and they 
made their report in the following year, 1794. This report gave a 
summary of thirteen different processes, of which particulars had been 
submitted to the Commission, six of these commencing with the produc- 
tion of sulphate of soda by the decomposition of salt. The preference 
in the judgment of the Commission was given to the Operations devised 
by " un Pharmacien " (a term equivalent to our apothecary or druggist), 
namely, Le Blanc, who had already erected a soda manufactory near 
Paris, in conjunction with two of his countrymen, named Dize and 
Shee. 

It has been thought generally, that, the invention of Le Blanc's pro- 
cess was a consequence of the appeal made to their countrymen by the 
French Convention. It will be seen from the following particulars that 
this notion is erroneous. The Commissioners say in their report : — 
" Citizens Le Blanc, Diz6 and Shee (co-partners), were the first who 
submitted to us particulars of their processes ; and this was done with a 
noble devotion to the public good. Their establishment had been 
formed some time previously at Frangiade ; but the consequences of the 



248 A HISTORY OF THE SODA MANUFACTURE. 

French. Revolution, and of the war which followed it, having deprived 
them of funds, the works were suspended, and for some months past the 
manufactory had become a national establishment." 

And further, " This establishment had been erected entirely with 
the private funds of the partners. It would be difficult to collect 
together, in so moderate a space, more means and conveniences than are 
met with in this manufactory. Furnaces, mills, apparatus, magazines, 
are all arranged in the best order for the convenience of the service." 

The report then gives a full description of the various processes 
which constitute Le Blanc's invention, which had evidently been perfected 
previously to the Revolution. These consist of — 

I s ! — The decomposition of common salt by means of sulphuric acid, 
and the consecpient production of sulphate of soda. 

2° — The decomposition of sulphate of soda by means of chalk and 
carbon, and the consequent production of black ash or rough soda, con- 
taining carbonate of soda and sulphide of calcium. 

3 Q — The separation of the two constituents of the last product, by 
lixiviation with water, and the obtainment of carbonate of soda in a 
state fit for application in the arts. 

These are the processes now used for the manufacture of soda on 
the largest scale. 

In my recent perusal of this report of the Commissioners, I have 
been much stiuck with the completeness of Le Blanc's invention as 
therein described ; in fact, as regards the main principles of the inven- 
tion, and even the proportions of materials used, these are identically 
the same as those now in use in this countiy, as well as in France, after 
the lapse of seventy years from the date of the invention. 

Thus was given to the world, by an humble apothecary, an invention 
which has done more to promote the civilisation of mankind than any 
other chemical manufacture, as well as affording employment to a large 
number of workmen, and yielding wealth to their employers. I regret 
to add that the poor inventor met with the too common reward for the 
application of his talents to the public good. After a life of great pri- 
A'ation, he ended his days in an asylum for paupers. 

The manufacture of soda from common salt having been thus made 
clear to the chemists of France, the requirements of that country for 
this alkali were speedily met by the erection of sundry establishments 
for its preparation. The chief of these were located near the Mediterranean 
Sea, a few miles from Marseilles, this locality being selected on account 
of its proximity to Sicily, from whence sulphur was imported for the 
manufacture of sulphuric acid, and a cheap supply of salt was obtained 
by solar evaporation of sea-water; limestone was found on the spot. 
But this situation had the grave disadvantage of being far from a supply 
of coal, which is now chiefly imported from England. An additional 
inducement for the manufacture of soda near Marseilles arose from this 
city being the chief seat of the soap manufacture in France. 



A HISTORY OF THE SODA MANUFACTURE. 249 

The whole art of the extraction of soda from common salt having 
been made patent to the French community by its publication, in 1797, 
in the Annales de Cliimie, it would appear extraordinary that so many 
years should have elapsed before these processes were adopted in our 
own country. This was probably occasioned, in the first instance by 
the war then raging, which cut off nearly all communication between the 
two countries ; but a still greater obstacle existed (also a consequence of 
the war), namely, the duty of 30Z. per ton on salt, and this continued to 
exist until 1823, eight years after the restoration of peace. 

In the latter part of the last century — viz., 1774, the Swedish che- 
mist, Scheele, was the discoverer of chlorine (then called oxy-muriatic 
acid) ; also of its property to destroy vegetable colours, and this property 
was studied by the French chemists, Lavoisier and Berthollet, who 
succeeded in founding upon it a successful process for bleaching 
linens. 

This process was brought over to Scotland in 1787 by Professor 
Copeland, of Marischal College, Aberdeen, who communicated it to 
Messsrs. Gordon, Barron, & Co., bleachers, of Aberdeen, and these 
gentlemen applied the process successfully as a practical operation for 
bleaching calicoes. In the following year, a large bleaching establish- 
ment was formed near Bolton, founded upon the employment of this 
process. Thus was commenced the application of one of the many dis- 
coveries contributory to the establishment of the great " Cotton Trade," 
which has done so much to provide employment and create wealth for 
the inhabitants of this country. 

Previously to the use of chlorine, bleaching was effected by the 
exposure of fabrics to sunlight and air, and nearly all goods requiring to 
be bleached for this country were sent to Holland or Germany, where a 
period of many months was required before the operation was com- 
pleted, and the goods returned to be finished ; whilst the same opera- 
tion can now be effected in a few hours. 

It is obvious that without the discovery of some more rapid method 
than the former one, we should have been compelled either to do with- 
out bleached fabrics, or without the existing and astounding Cotton 
manufacture. 

In the first instance chlorine was used in the state of solution in 
water, but in this form its use was attended with grave inconvenience 
to the workmen employed. This was remedied by the addition of 
potash to the water, producing a solution called " Eau de Javelle " by 
the first makers of it. 

The next step was to substitute lime for potash, thus producing so- 
lution of chloride of lime. This was the idea of the late Mr. Charles 
Tennant, of St. Rollox, who was engaged in business as a bleacher, and 
a patent was granted to him for the invention in 1798, but this was set 
aside in 1802. In 1799, Mr. Tennant obtained a patent for the manu- 
facture of chloride of lime in the state of powder. 



250 A HISTORY OF THE BOD A MANUFACTURE. 

This manufacture was carried out by Mr. Tennaut's then existing 
firm, and subsequently by bimself and sons, to an extent which has 
surpassed that of all other manufacturers engaged in the same business. 

I have already referred to the obstruction to the establishment of the 
soda manufacture, occasioned by the excise duty on salt. In proof of 
this I may notice the regulations which at that time prevented the 
use of bleacher's residua, containing lai-ge quantities of sulphate of soda, 
for any purpose whatever ; and, consequently, these were then rejec- 
ted as useless, although now the same material forms the basis of a most 
important business. As this affords a very striking example, amongst 
many others, that manufactures, as well as commerce, must be free 
from fiscal restrictions, if they are to be carried on for the benefit of the 
many, as contradistinguished from that of the few, I may give some par- 
ticulars of the manner in which this obstruction operated. 

At the period of the French Revolution, the duty on salt in this 
country was 10Z. per ton. This was subsequently raised, as a war tax, 
to 30Z. per ton, or thirty times the value of the salt ; and this rate was 
continued during the whole period of the war, and until 1823, when the 
duty was repealed. 

In 1798 an act was passed to allow a drawback of the duty paid on 
salt used and consumed in making oxy-muriatic acid. This boon was 
confined to those who used the chlorine produced for bleaching pur- 
poses, and did not extend to the manufacturers of chloride of lime for 
sale. It also required that the residua, containing sulphate of soda, 
should be thrown away, thus effectually preventing its application to 
the manufacture of soda. These regulations continued until 1814, when 
the law was altered, and the manufacturers of chloride of lime were 
allowed a drawback of the salt duty, and the restriction as to the use of 
the residua was removed. About this time Mr. Tennant's patent for 
bleaching powder having expired, other parties began to manufacture 
this article, and attention was directed to the utilisation of the mixed 
sulphate of soda and sulphate of manganese resulting from this manufac- 
ture ; and some quantity of carbonate of soda, in the state of crystals, 
was gradually introduced into the market, the value at that time being 
about 301. per ton. The process usually employed consisted in drying 
down the solution of mixed salts, roasting the product, mixed with 
small coal, so as to decompose the sulphate of maganese, then dissolving 
out the sulphate of soda, drying down the solution, and fluxing the sul- 
phate of soda with small coal, adding some iron scales, or scrap iron, 
near the end of the fluxing. The product contained some quantity 
of carbonate of soda with sulphide of sodium. It was lixiviated, and car- 
bonate of soda obtained from it by crystallisation. 

During this period, the late Mr. W. Losh was making crystals of 
soda by Le Blanc's process, and this gentleman may be considered as the 
father of the soda trade in this country, although not the first to intro- 
duce the manufacture of soda-ash, on the large scale, by the special 



A HISTORY OF THE SODA MANUFACTURE. 251 

decomposition of common salt for that purpose. Mr. Losh was born in 
1770, and finished his education on the Continent, where he was a fellow 
collegian with the renowned Humboldt. He was resident in France 
when the French Republic was established, and had to fly from thence 
with others of his countrymen. On his return to this country, he com- 
menced some experiments, at Walker, on the river Tyne, for the manu- 
facture of soda crystals (which were then obtained from kelp, and sold 
at 60Z. per ton, the present price being 41. 10s., or about one-fourteenth 
part) ; and during the short peace of Amiens, in 1802, he again visited 
France, and obtained a more complete knowledge of Le Blanc's pro- 
cesses. 

After Mr. Losh's return, he applied to Government for permission 
to avail himself of a spring of weak brine (which he had discovered 
to exist at Walker) for the manufacture of soda ; being permitted 
to use this, without any payment for salt duty, and having asso- 
ciated himself with Lord Dundonald, Lord Dundas, and some other 
gentlemen, he proceeded to erect a vitriol chamber and to apply sul- 
phuric acid to the decomposition of salt contained in the weak brine, 
so as to produce sulphate of soda, and from this to manufacture 
soda-crystals by Le Blanc's process. The extent of these proceed- 
ings were necessarily limited by the use of weak brine in the place of 
ury salt. 

Notwithstanding these previous essays, 1823 may be considered as 
the natal year of the soda-trade, as a special manfacture in Great 
Britain ; and my enquiries lead me to the conclusion, that the county 
of Lancaster was its birthplace as a special trade. In that year common 
salt being relieved from fiscal impost, Mr. James Muspratt commenced 
the erection of works at Liverpool, wherein salt was decomposed by 
sulphuric acid, specially for the production of sulphate of soda to be 
used for the manufacture of carbonate of soda. Mr. Muspratt at once 
adopted Le Blanc's processes in their entirety, and thus led to the 
establishment of the most important chemical manufacture of the pre- 
sent day. As might be expected, Mr. Muspratt had to contend with 
many difficulties, but these were overcome by indomitable energy and 
perseverance, and it is gratifying to know that he has realized a satis- 
factory reward. 

About the same time, and subsequently, other manufacturers, who 
had been working with mixed sulphates, commenced to make sulphate 
of soda, by the special decomposition of common salt, for the purpose 
of making soda ; and it has since been found advantageous to adapt this 
method of working to the production of bleaching powder by using 
hydro-chloric acid so obtained to generate chlorine by its action on 
oxide of manganese. 

In the early days of the soda-trade, the decomposition of salt was 
effected in open furnaces, without any attempt to condense the liberated 



252 A HISTORY OF THE SODA MANUFACTURE. 

hydro-chloric acid gas ; and bo long as the extent of manufacture "was 
comparatively small, the inconvenience arising from this was "borne by 
the neighbouring public; but when this noxious gas was evolved from 
Mr. Muspratt's chimneys in torrents beyond endurance, the Corporation 
of Liverpool instituted proceedings, by indictment, to suppress the 
nuisance, which resulted in Mr Muspratt being compelled to remove 
his works from the town of Liverpool to Newton. This caused the 
attention of practical men to be directed to the provision of means by 
which the hydro-chloric acid could be condensed, and obtained in a form 
to be commercially useful. The difficulty of this arose chiefly from the 
immense volumes of gaseous 'matter evolved. The old apparatus of 
cylinders and Wolfe's bottles were totally inadequate to the purpose. 
Many plans were suggested, and, amongst others, I devised certain 
means for effecting this object, for which I obtained a patent in the year 
1836. Having demonstrated the practicability of effecting a complete 
condensation of hydro-chloric acid, by the erection and working of a 
complete set of apparatus at the soda works with which I was then con- 
nected, I introduced the plan to the trade, and it has been subsecpiently 
adopted by every manufacturer of soda in the Kingdom. 

The principle of this invention consists in causing the acid gas to 
percolate through a deep bed of coke in small lumps, contained in a high 
tower, at the same time that a supply of water flows very slowly over 
the surface of the pieces of coke. By these means an almost unlimited 
extent of moistened surface may be presented to the gas (the currents 
of which are being continually changed in their direction) for effecting 
its absorption ; and as the same fluid descends through the tower, it 
meets with more gas, and gradually becomes charged to saturation ; 
whilst at the upper portion of the tower, any gas, which might other- 
wise escape, is exposed to the absorbing power of unacidulated water. 
When this apparatus is used judiciously, a -perfect condensation of the 
hydro-chloric acid gas can be effected. This has been proved satisfac- 
torily at the works of Messrs. Crosfield Brothers and Company, at St. 
Helens, where the acting partner Mr. Shanks, my friend and former 
pupil (who was the first after myself, to adopt my invention), has 
effected such complete condensation of the gas proceeding from the de- 
composition of 25 tons of salt per diem, that, the escaping gases passing 
from the apparatus being caused to bubble through solution of nitrate 
of silver, contained in a set of Liebig's bulbs, not the slightest turbidness 
was produced, although the same solution was retained in the apparatus, 
and used for many trials. By these means was removed one great obsta- 
cle to the development of the soda manufacture ; and although my re- 
ward for this has been the reverse of a pecuniary benefit, it is highly 
satisfactory to know that all the soda manufacturers are reaping great 
advantages from my labours. 

In the year 1838, a curious episode occurred iu rhe soda manufacture, 



A HISTORY OF THE SODA MANUFACTURE. 253 

which again shows that freedom from restrictions is necessary for the 
existence of a successful trade. In that year a French house, Messrs. 
Taix and Co. of Marseilles, persuaded the King of Sicily that his mis- 
erable revenue would be improved if he granted to them a monopoly of 
the export of sulphur. The first consequence of this was an advance in 
the price to 14Z. per ton, from the previous rate of 51. This insane 
measure produced its own proper remedy. It was soon found that in our 
Cornish mines, and more particularly in those of Wicklow, in Ireland, 
we possessed an inexhaustible supply of sulphur in the form of pyrites, 
and our practical chemists speedily devised the means to avail them- 
selves of this source for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. In this 
manner the feeble-minded king bestowed, although unintentionally, a 
great boon upon this country, as we were relieved from his monopoly, 
and a large amount of money was beneficially circulated in Ireland. 

In working with pyrites, it was found that a great portion of this 
mineral contained sulphide of copper, as well as of iron ; and, at an 
early period I commenced to extract the copper from the burned resi- 
duum by smelting. I was then engaged in the soda manufacture, in 
Worcestershire. The ordinary pyrites contained only one per cent, of 
copper, and this being deemed so small a proportion as to be worthless, 
the residua were thrown away, and accumulated in large heaps in this 
country, and on the banks of the Tyne. In 1850 I purchased some of 
these large accumulations of so-called rubbish, and erected works at 
Widnes for the extraction of copper and silver therefrom. This led to 
my smelting upwards of fifty thousand tons of this rejected material, 
affording employment to nearly one hundred workmen. The practi- 
cability of such an operation having been thus demonstrated, other 
manufacturers adopted the same proceeding. Subsequently to the time 
I have referred to, large importations of copper pyrites for the use of 
the soda trade have been made from Spain, from which also copper is 
extracted by smelting. 

In giving directions for the decomposition of sulphate of soda, Le 
Blanc recommends the following proportions of materials to be used : — 

1,000 parts of sulphate of soda. 
1,000 „ of chalk. 
550 „ of carbon. 

These proportions are in the ratio of about three equivalents of 
chalk to two equivalents of sulphate of soda. They are the same 
which are now generally employed by the soda manufacturers of the 
present day, except that about 750 parts of small bituminous coal are 
substituted for the 550 parts of carbon. 

The mixture is fluxed in reverberatory furnaces, producing black 
ash containing carbonate of soda and sulphide of calcium, and, accord- 
ing to the skilfulness of the workman in conducting this operation, there 



254 A HISTORY OF THE SODA MANUFACTURE. 

remains in the black ash or rough soda obtained, less or more of unde- 
composed sulphate of soda, and there is produced less or more of 
soluble sulphide of calcium. 

The true composition of black ash or rough soda, also the rationale 
of its formation, are not settled questions. It has been held by Dumas 
and other eminent French chemists, when explaining the reactions 
which occur in Le Blanc's masterly process, that a peculiar compound, 
insoluble in water, consisting of sulphide and oxide of calcium (called 
by them oxy-sulphide of calcium), is formed during the decomposition 
of sulphate of soda by carbon in the presence of lime ; also that it is 
essential that sulphide of calcium should be thus combined with oxide 
of calcium to destroy the supposed solubility of the former in water, 
and thus prevent the formation of sulphide of sodium at the expense 
of carbonate of soda. And they assumed that, in consequence of the 
necessity to form this supposed compound, it was needful to employ 
more than one equivalent of lime for each equivalent of sulphate of 
soda used for the production of rough soda. 

According to this theory, it is essential that the supposed insoluble 
compound should continue to exist in its integrity, so long as it is 
exposed to the reaction of water or of solution of carbonate of soda. 
Now I pointed out in the year 1838, in the specification of a patent 
obtained by me for " Improvements connected with the Soda Manufac- 
ture," that the undissolved residuum remaining from the lixiviation of 
black ash with water consisted almost entirely of mono-sulphide of 
calcium and carbonate of lime. In fact, when the lixiviation is effected 
with a large proportion of water so as to produce a weak solution, the 
oxide of calcium may be converted entirely into carbonate of lime, 
which is then found mixed with the mono-sulphide of calcium ; and 
yet this conversion of oxide of calcium into carbonate of lime, and 
consequent disintegration of the supposed insoluble compound, is 
effected, and the supposed soluble sulphide of calcium is set at liberty, 
in the presence of solution of carbonate of soda ; and this takes place 
without occasioning the production of sulphide of sodium in solution. 
The fact is, that mono-sulphide of calcium is perfectly insoluble in 
water ; and it is only to the extent to which poly-sulphide of calcium 
is formed, that solution takes place, and consequent production of 
sulphide of sodium. The real advantage obtained by the use of an 
extra proportion of lime arises from this affording a larger amount of 
surface for re-action, and thus expediting the fluxing operation, and 
thereby preventing the formation of poly -sulphide of calcium. 

In connection with this view of the subject, I pointed out that, 
when well-made black ash is digested in alcohol, there is no caustic 
soda dissolved, although the same black ash yields caustic soda abun- 
dantly by lixiviation with water. From this I inferred that caustic 
soda did not exist in the black ash ready formed, and that it was pro- 
duced, during lixiviation with water, by the re-action of caustic lime 



A HISTORY OF THE SODA MANUFACTURE. 



255 



on carbonate of soda, which could not have been effected without the 
disintegration of the supposed insoluble compound. 

Assuming these views to be correct, and omitting the minor pro- 
ducts of the black ash operation ; also assuming the decomposition of 
the sulphate of soda and formation of carbonate to be perfect, we may- 
form this diagram as exhibiting the reaction of the materials employed, 
and of the products obtained : — 



MATERIALS 
EMPLOYED. 


EQUIVALENTS. 


EQUIVALENTS. 




PRODUCT IN 
EQUIVALENTS. 


144 of Sul- ) 




' 2 Fa 
1 2 S 
I 60 
20 


2Na 


) =2XaOC0 2 


phate of > 
Soda. ) 


2 Na 3 3 j 


20 i 
60 


> Carbonate of 
\ Soda. 




1 


r 2Ca 


2Ca] 


1 =2CaS 






j 1 Ca 


2 S 


Sulphide of 






2C 

; l c 

j 20 




I Calcium. 


150 of 1 




1 c a ; 


| =1 CaO 


Limestone > 


3CaOC0 2 i 


1 


Oxide of 


or Chalk. ) 






| Calcium. 






1 

[ 60 


10 C | 
10 1 


| =10 CO 
► Carbonic 
) Oxide. 


54 Carbon 9 C 




...9 C 







In this formula I have assumed pure carbon to have been used ; also 
that the gas evolved is entirely carbonic oxide, whilst, in fact, a large 
proportion of carbonic acid is produced. Small coal is also used, in 
practice, instead of pure carbon ; and it is desirable that the finished 
black ash should contain a considerable proportion of unconsumed 
pieces of coke ; therefore, a proportion of small coal is used in the 
mixture, about double the quantity indicated for carbon. 

I have already referred to the presence of caustic soda in the liquors 
obtained by the lixiviation of black ash. In the ordinary course of 
manufacturing soda ash, as this was formerly effected, these liquors were 
boiled down in open furnaces, and the salt obtained was roasted, so as 
to produce a salt consisting mostly of dry carbonate of soda. During 
these operations much of the caustic soda was converted into carbonate, 
but the product still retained sufficient caustic to give it the objection- 
able property of deliquescing when exposed to air. For some years 
past the evaporation of black ash liquors has been conducted in iron 
pans, so as to yield crystals of mono-hydrated carbonate of soda, which 
are transferred to open furnaces to be desiccated ; also yielding residual 
liquors containing a great part of the caustic soda originally present in 
the black ash liquors. These residual liquors were the cause of addi- 
tional expense to the manufacturer, and a course was pursued with 
them which was very similar to " advancing backwards ;" inasmuch as 
great labour and expense was applied to convert the ready-made caustic 
into carbonate, and this product being sold to the soap manufacturer, 
he incurred much expense to re-convert the carbonate of soda into 



256 A HISTORY OF THE SODA MANUFACTURE. 

caustic. In 1853 I obtained a patent for certain modes of working by 
which this " backward " course was rendered unnecessary, and a large 
proportion of the caustic soda found ready made in black ash liquors 
was obtained in a solid state, convenient to be supplied to consumers. 
This process hag been adopted by sundry manufacturers under my 
patent. 

I have endeavoured to define the "rise" of the existing soda manu- 
facture, as consisting in the invention of Le Blanc's process, and the 
carrying this into practical working by himself and partners, the raw 
materials consumed being sulphur and nitre (used for the production 
of sulphuric acid), common salt, chalk, carbon, and fuel, yielding as 
products hydro- chloric acid, carbonate of soda, and a material contain- 
ing nearly all the sulphur previously consumed, but in such a state, 
that it has so far resisted all attempts to make it useful, and it has 
acquired the expressive designation of " Alkali Waste." At this period 
the commercial value of carbonate of soda in crystals was about 601. 
per ton in England. 

I have also endeavoured to trace the " progress " of this manufacture 
in Great Britain to its present state, beginning with the first operation of 
Mr. Losh, with his weak brine, and those of other manufacturers who 
were using bleachers' residua, and arriving at the period of the salt 
duty being remitted, when Mr. Muspratt commenced that development 
of the manufacture, which has now become one of national importance. 

When Mr. Muspratt commenced his operations the value of sulphur 
was 81. per ton, of common salt 15s. per ton, of lime 15s. per ton, 
and of fuel about 8s. per ton. When the works arrived at activity, the 
products obtained were soda ash, of which the value was 241. per ton, and 
soda crystals worth 18?. per ton. At the present time the products ob- 
tained by the soda manufacturer are soda ash worth 8Z. per ton, soda 
crystals about 4Z. 10s. per ton, bleaching powder 91. per ton, bi-carbonate 
of soda 10Z. per ton ; whilst the cost of raw materials now used in Lan- 
cashire are, sulphur 81. per ton, for which is substituted pyrites, at a cost 
equivalent to 51. for sulphur ; salt 8s., limestone 6s., and fuel 6s. per ton. 
It will be thus seen, that with a reduction in the cost of raw materials, 
not more than equal to 10 per cent., the public is supplied with the 
products of the soda manufacturer at a reduction of at least 60 per 
cent. It may, therefore, be fairly assumed that, although the British 
manufacturers can lay no claim to the invention of the soda process, 
they are entitled to much credit for having worked this out in the 
most economical manner. Thi3 result has been facilitated by the 
invention of new apparatus employed, and sundry modifications in the 
details of working. Amongst the former I may notice the decom- 
posing furnaces of the late Mr. Gamble — the salting pans of Mr. 
David Gamble — the lixiviating vats of Mr. Shanks, and the sulphuric 
acid chambers of Mr. Deacon. 

As nearlv as I can obtain information, there are now fifty establish- 



A HISTORY OF THE SODA MANUFACTURE. 257 

merits in Great Britain in which soda is manufactured by Le Blanc's 
process, producing 

about 3,000 tons of soda ash per week. 

„ 2,000 „ of soda crystals „ 

„ 250 „ of bi-carbonate of soda... „ 

„ 400 „ of bleaching powder „ 

The total annual value of these products may be estimated as ex- 
ceeding Two millions sterling, which is so much entirely added to the 
annual income of the country, excepting about 100,000£. paid for 
materials obtained from other countries. The number of workmen 
actually employed in the several manufactories, may be estimated as 
being at least 10,000, exclusive of those engaged in the manufacture 
of salt, and in mining for pyrites, limestone, and coal ; also exclusive 
of the men engaged in the transport of raw material and manu- 
factured goods by sea, canals, and railroads. 

In reference to this part of the subject, I must not omit to notice 
the promise of a new market for British-made soda, which has been 
opened up by the successful labours of Mr. Cobden in the Commercial 
Treaty with the French Government. Although our manufacturers 
have to meet an import duty of 15 per cent, on soda ash, or thirty-six 
shillings per ton (exclusive of the commutation for salt tax), also to pro- 
vide for cost of transit, the cheap supplies of salt and coal at their com- 
mand, will enable them to carry on a trade in that country where the 
soda process was first brought into existence. The import duty will be 
reduced in 1864 to 10 per cent., or twenty-four shillings per ton. 

At the time of this treaty being negociated it was estimated that 
the consumption of salt in France for the manufacture of soda was 
59,000 tons, whilst that in Great Britain was 260,000 tons per annum. 

I will now attempt to give a prospective view of the soda manu- 
facture, but which must necessarily be, to a large extent, conjectural. 
Many attempts have been made to supersede Le Blanc's process, by 
some more direct means of operating on salt so as to eliminate its soda 
at once. Up to the present time the result of all these attempts has 
been the wasteful expenditure of large sums of money ; therefore I 
will confine my further remarks to processes depending on the decom- 
position of sulphate of soda. 

By the existing mode of working, there is required for the produc- 
tion of a ton of soda-ash, the following raw materials : — 

£ s. d. 

1|- tons of Irish pyrites, costing 1 15 

1 cwt. nitrate of soda „ 12 

U tons of salt „ 10 

l| tons of limestone ,, 10 

3| tons of fuel „ 110 

£4 S 

VOL, IV. X 



258 



A HISTORY OF THE SODA MANUFACTURE. 



The other charges consist of interest on capital, wages, repairs, 
packages, freight, &e. I may remark that, at the present moment, 
the soda trade is suffering from great depression of demand and price, 
consequent upon the unfortunate war in the formerly United States. 

It will he seen from this table, that two-fifths -of the total cost for 
raw materials is incurred for pyrites, from which to procure- a supply of 
sulphur ; and it is a well-known fact, that more than nine-tenths of this 
sulphur is retained in the material called " Alkali Waste," which is 
thrown away by the manufacturer. Thus is presented a problem which, 
if it can be solved, would effect a large reduction in the cost- of soda. 
Many chemists, both scientific and practical, have given a great amount 
of attention to this subject. I have been s& unfortunate as to be among 
the number, as I have devoted a great portion of my time, during a 
quarter of a century, and a large amount of bath money and labour, to 
this hitherto delusive subject. 

I commenced by demonstrating, m 1838, that one equivalent of car- 
bonic acid would decompose an equivalent of sulphide of calcium, pro- 
ducing mono-carbonate of lime and sulphide of hydrogen in a state of 
gas. This decomposition was contrary to the received views of scienti- 
fic chemists of that day, as it was held that an excess of carbonic acid 
was needful to effect the perfect decomposition of sulphides. 

Chronology of the Soda Trade. 



Period. 


Raw Materials and Prices. 


Quantity 

Manufactured. 


Priees. 


1790 


Barilla and Kelp 


Not known. 


Not known, 


1792 


Le Blanc's process invented 








and applied in France . . . 


ft 


n 


1814 


Crystals of soda made from 




Soda Crystals 




bleacher's residua and by 




60L per ton. 




Mr. Losh from brine 


M 




1823 


Mr. Muspratt's works com- 
menced—using 


Probably 100 


Soda Crystals 


& 


tons per week 


\8l. per ton. 


1824 


Common salt at 15s. per ton. 


of crystals and 


Soda-ash 24?. 




Sulphur at ... 81. „ 


soda-ash. 


per ton. 




Lime at 15s. „ 








Coal at 8s. „ 






1861 


50 works in operation in 


5,000 tons per 


Soda Crystals 




Great Britain using Le 


week. 


41. 10s. per ton. 




Blanc's process. 




Soda-ash 81. 




Raw materials in Lancashire 




per ton. 




costing — 








Common salt 8s per ton 








Sulphur from pyrites, 5Z. „ 








Limestone 6s. 8d. „ 








Fuel 6s. „ 







1861— Annual value of produce, two millions sterling. Number of 
workmen employed in the manufactories, 10,000, exclusive 
of those engaged in mining for pyrites, limestone, and coal ; 
also those employed in navigation and other means of transport. 



THE VEGETABLE IVORY OF COMMERCE. 250 

I am convinced that, whenever the utilization of the sulphur in 
alkali waste may be effected, it will he by means of this action of carbonic 
acid. I demonstrated also, at the same period, that one equivalent of 
carbonic acid would decompose one equivalent of sulphide of sodium, 
producing mono-carbonate of soda and sulphide of hydrogen. My 
present impression is, that Le Blanc's process will be modified by the 
omission of lime when decomposing sulphate of soda, thus producing 
sulphide of sodium ; and that the carbonic acid evolved by this decom- 
position will be applied to decompose the sulphide of sodium, producing 
carbonate of soda and eliminating sulphide of hydrogen, which latter 
will be absorbed by peroxide of iron, and the product applied in the 
manufacture of sulphuric acid. I have proved the practicability of all 
these decompositions and actions, but the ideas have still to be worked 
out into a practical operation, and I have now left the subject to 
my juniors as one which presents an object worthy of their attain- 
ment. 

Widnes, near Warrington, 



THE VEGETABLE IVORY OF COMMERCE. 

The vegetable ivory, or corozo nuts of commerce, are the fruit of the 
Phytelephas macrocarpa, a South American palm. There is no official 
record kept of the imports, but large quantities are frequently offered at 
the public sales. In some years not less than 250 to 300 tons are im- 
ported into England, and they have been occasionally sold wholesale at 
8s. to 10s. a thousand.; but now that there is a more extensive demand 
for them for buttons and other small fancy articles, 31. 10s. the thousand 
for small, and 51. to 71. for large, is a more frequent price. In New 
Granada they sell at about 57. the ton. They are imported from Savan- 
illa, Carthagena, and Zapote. 

Dr. Seemann gives the following account of it : " The ivory plant is 
confined to the continent of South America, where it grows between the 
ninth degree of north, and the eighth of south latitude, and the 
seventieth and seventy-ninth of west longitude. It inhabits damp locali- 
ties, such as confined valleys, banks of rivers, and rivulets, and is found 
not only on the lower coast region, as in Darien, but also on mountains 
at an elevation of more than 3,000 feet above the sea, as in Ocana.- 
Amongst the Spaniards, and their descendants, it is known by the name 
of " Palma de rnarhl" (ivory palm) whilst its fruit is called by them 
" Cabeza de Negro" (Negro's head), and its seed " Marfil vegetal" 
(vegetable ivory). The Indians on the banks of the Magdalena teim the 
plant " Tagua," those on the coast of Darien " Anta," and those in Peru 
"Pullipunta' and "Homero." It is generally found in separate groves, 
seldom intermixed with other trees or shrubs, and where even herbs are 



260 THE VEGETABLE IVORY OF COMMERCE. 

rarely met with ; the ground appearing as if it had been swept. The 
trunk is always pulled down, partly by its own weight, partly by 
its aerial roots ; and thus forms a creeping caudex, which is fre- 
quently twenty feet long, but is seldom higher than six feet. The top is 
crowned with from twelve to twenty pinnatisect leaves, the entire length 
of which is from eighteen to twenty feet. The segments are towards 
the base of the leaf alternate, towards the apex opposite ; they are three 
feet long, two inches broad, and their entire number amounts 
generally to 160. 

The fruit, a collection of from six to seven drupes, forms clusters, 
which are as large as a man's head ; and stands at first erect, but when 
approaching maturity, its weight increasing, and the leaf-stalk, which 
having up to that period supported the bulky mass, having rotted away, 
it hangs down. A plant bears at one time from six to eight of these 
heads, each weighing, when ripe, about twenty-five pounds. The drupes 
are covered outside with hard woody protuberances. Each drupe con- 
tains from six to nine seeds, but generally seven. The testa is thick, 
bony ; the embryo peripherical, and placed near the hilum. The seed 
at first contains a clear insipid fluid, with which travellers allay their 
thirst ; afterwards this same liquor becomes milky and sweet, and it 
changes its taste by degrees as it acquires solidity, until at last it is 
almost as hard as ivory. The liquor contained in the young fruit turns 
acid if they are cut from the tree and kept some time. From the kernels 
(albumen) the American Indians, as well as European turners, fashion 
the knobs of walking sticks, the reels of spindles, small boxes, and little 
toys, which are whiter than animal ivory, and equally hard, if they ar e 
not put under water ; and if they are they become white and hard 
when dried again. Bears, hogs, and turkeys devour the young fruit 
with avidity."* 

It is of the same nature, though not of the same consistence as the 
flour of the cereal grains, the aromatic substance of the nutmeg, and 
the pulp of the cocoa-nut, which in some palms becomes more hard- 
ened. That of the date, and other pahns, is quite as hard, if not harder, 
but it is neither large enough, nor white enough to be of use to the 
turner. 

According to an analysis by Muller, the composition of the seed may 
be represented by C 84 H 21 O a2 = 2 C la H 10 O 10 +HO; Baumhauer 
obtained a precisely similar result some years later. 

Dr. Phipson states that he has found that vegetable ivory takes in 
contact with concentrated sulphuric acid, a splendid red colour, almost 
equal to magenta. This colour, at first pink, then bright red, becomes 
much deeper, and more purple when the acid has been allowed to act for 
about twelve hours. This reaction may sometimes be found useful in 
order to distinguish small pieces of vegetable ivory from the ivory of the 

* Popular History of Palms. 



THE TANNING TRADE OF NEWCASTLE, ETC. 261 

elephant's tusk, or from bone, neither of which take this beautiful red 
colour in contact with sulphuric acid. The analysis quoted above 
shows that the greater portion of vegetable ivory is pure cellulose, 
but the reaction produced by sulphuric acid proves that other substances 
are present, for cellulose does not become red with sulphuric acid. 
Mr. Connel found in 1845 that vegetable ivory contained 81.34 per 
cent, of cellulose, and that the other substances were, gum 6.73, legu- 
mine 3.80, albumine 0.42 (that is, 4.22 of albuminous substances) oil 
0.73, water 9.37, and ash 0.61 = 100. Filings of vegetable ivory dried 
at 140° to 150 Q C. give 1 per cent, of ash. 

Payen found that these filings when boiled with caustic soda took a 
yellow colour, a point confirmed by Baumhauer, who asserts that 
potash does not produce any colour. The reaction of sulphuric acid on 
vegetable ivory enables one to distinguish immediately between filings 
of this substance and bone or ivory filings. It is owing to the well- 
known action of this acid upon albuminous substances in presence of 
sugar, and which has been utilized by Raspail in his microscopic re- 
searches. But whether the sugar is formed by the action of the acid on 
the cellulose, or pre-exists already formed in the substance is of little 
import. 

Dr. Phipson, however, inclines to the first opinion, as the colour takes 
a little time to show itself (five or ten minutes), and as Mr. Connel did 
not find any sugar ready formed. The white pulp of the cocoa-nut 
presents a similar reaction with sulphuric acid ; the colour produced is 
first pink, then red, reddish purple, and, finally, in about sixteen hours, 
a fine violet. The colours thus produced with vegetable ivory and 
cocoa-nut disappear gradually in contact with water, like the fine 
reddish-brown colour produced with essence of turpentine and sul- 
phuric acid. 



THE TANNING TRADE OF NEWCASTLE AND 
GATESHEAD. 

BY T. C. ANGUS. 

The following is the most correct account I have been able to obtain 
respecting the tanning trade of Newcastle and Gateshead. Some of the 
persons engaged in the trade have an objection to supply information ; 
but I believe the figures appended to the paper will pretty nearly repre- 
sent the actual transactions in this branch of local trade. 

At present we have only nine tanyaids in operation in Newcastle 
four of some magnitude, the remainder small ones. Thirty years ago, 
Newcastle was styled the leather metropolis of the north, and buyers 
came from all parts to purchase. Public fairs were held twice a year, 



262 THE TANNING TRADE OF NEWCASTLE, ETC. 

and supplies sent in from all parts of the country by small tanners, who 
generally had a few pits in apiece of open ground, and about two or three 
acres of grass land to fill up vacant time, and on these they managed to 
get wealthy.* 

The character of the tanning trade in Newcastle has considerably 
changed of late years. The goods most in favour formerly were dry 
Russian hides, imported into this port at a cost of from 7§d. to 8d. per 
pound. These were eagerly bought up by the tanners, and the price 
realised left them 25 per cent, for manufacture. This trade continued 
for some time, but Yorkshire enterprise discovered it, and at Leeds 
most extensive yards, fitted with every known improvement, were laid 
down. In this way the Leeds tanners succeeded in securing the trade 
almost exclusively to themselves ; one tanner there alone producing as 
many tanued hides in one week as the Newcastle tanners could in one 
month. Thus, gradually, by improvements and perseverance, they, to a 
great extent, obtained the bulk of this portion of the trade. Owing to 
the great demand for these Russian hides, and the home consumption 
increasing at the same time, prices in Russia ran up to 12d. and 14d. 
per pound, and thus nearly cut off the importation. At these prices the 
hides yet continue, and they are now scarcely worth the tanner's notice. 
The substitute has been East India hides ; but here, again, the Leeds 
men have taken the lead, surpassing us in the rapidity of manufacture 
and cheapness of production, and securing the greatest portion of the 
trade to themselves. Newcastle can boast of being at the head of the 
trade in the manufacture of seal skins, calf skins, and sheep skins ; and 
it is gratifying to find that although one branch of our trade has changed 
hands, another, and one perhaps as profitable, has come to its place. 
A consumption of 163,000 seal skins, 62,124 calf skins, and 46,452 
sheep skins, in one year, shows that the spirit of leather manufacture has 
not yet left Newcastle. In the production of this kind of goods I believe 
our tanners cannot be excelled. 

The products of leather in Newcastle are a mere item in the con- 
sumption. We have to resort to Bristol, London, Liverpool, &c, &c, 
for our great supplies. In those places so much attention has been 
devoted to produce work by the use of other tanning materials than oak 
bark, as to give them a great advantage over Newcastle, enabling them 
to supply goods thoroughly in accordance with the requirements of this 
north country trade. 

On the whole, I think the tanning trade of Newcastle is in a healthy 
condition, but few improvements or efforts to increase it have of late 
been made. One remarkable circumstance should be noted in conclu- 

* A singular mode of remitting the proceeds of his leather at Newcastle fair, 
in 1810, was adopted by a Lancashire man. The amount (2001.) was put into the 
old sheets which had covered his leather. He dare not carry it, nor would he trust 
any banker with the remittance, but it arrived safe by carriers' wagons after several 
days' journey. We are in advance of this in these days. 



THE TANNING TRADE OF NEWCASTLE, ETC. 



2(53 



sion : a few years ago we used to import a large portion ot raw hides 
from Denmark, Holland, and Germany ; now the tables have turned, 
and we are weekly sending raw hides from Ireland, for which they will 
give a higher price than we can afford for manufacture here. The 
Hollanders and Norwegians who used to wear wooden soles will now 
have leather boots and shoes, which greatly increases our export of 
leather. 

The following are the statistics of the tanning trade in Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne and Gateshead, for the year 1862 : — 



QUANTITIES AND VALUE OP TANNING MATERIALS. 





Tons. 


£ 


Bark .... 


1,780 


9,753 


Valonia 


154 


2,202 


Gambier 


50-| 


980 


Divi divi 


55 


772 


Shumac 


314 


4,315 


Lime and Pigeons' dung 


— 


324 


Dogs' Manure 


— 


280 


Oils (Cod and Linseed) 


118 


5,310 


TaUow 


— 


100 


Dyes .... 


~- 


800 


Striping materials 


— 


100 


Eggs .... 


— 


600 


Alum and Soda . 


OF RAW HIDE 


200 


UMBER, WEIGHT, AND VALUE 


3 AND SKIN 


No. 


Tons. 


£ 


Butcher Hides . 38,02 


. 713 


24,908 


CalfSkins . . 62,12 


4 . 84 . 


9,320 


Sheep Skins . 46,45 


2 . — 


2,322 


SealSkins . . 163,00 


. 873 


40,750 



£25,736 



£77,300 



VALUE OF THE ABOVE WHEN MANUFACTURED. 

Butcher Hides ...... £47,500 

CalfSkins ...... 16,373 

Sheep Skins ...... 3,871 

SealSkins 67,915 



£103,036 



135,659 



264 



NOTES ON SOME OF THE EDIBLE FRUITS OF THE WEST 
INDIES. 

BY J. R. JACKSON. 

Amongst the tropical edible fruits brought into this country, none, 
perhaps, are more universally in favour than the Pine-Apple, though 
there are many which, if we can rely upon the statements of European 
travellers, are equal, and even more delicious, than this much prized 
fruit : take, for instance, the Mangosteen of the Malay Islands, the 
Cherimoyer of Peru, the Mango of the East, and the Guava of the West 
Indies. Many of these, as well as others, when once tasted, require no 
further recommendation to the European ; and yet there is an amount 
of prejudice amongst us which inclines us towards our own fruit pro- 
duce, or those to which we have been long accustomed, before we can 
suit our palates to a new production of other lands. There are many 
imported fruits which, as they form a large portion of our commerce, are 
as necessary for domestic purposes, and perhaps more so, than those 
produced in our own island ; for Christmas would be wanting in one of 
its gieatest features were there any lack of raisins and currants, which 
we receive in such large quantities from the Ionian Islands, Greece, 
Liparis, &c. 

It is not my intention in this short paper to speak of the merits or 
demerits of the fruit produce of all parts of the globe, but briefly to 
notice those indigenous to the West Indies, where many have been 
spoken of so highly by travellers. The Cherimoyer (Anona Cherimolia, 
Willd.) attains its greatest erf'ection in Peru, where it is considered one 
of the finest fruits known amongst the natives. Its growth extends from 
Peru up to Mexico, but it has been naturalised in the West Indies, and 
is also cultivated in some parts of Europe, as in the south of Spain it is 
sometimes found fruiting, as an orchard tree. It has also been intro- 
duced into England, but never cultivated. It is a small tree, attaining 
about twenty feet in height ; the leaves have a very strong and agree- 
able scent. The fruit, which is by some considered the most delicious 
fruit grown, is of a soft pulpy nature, with a pleasant sweet taste ; its 
colour, when ripe, is of a darkish purple, the exterior scaly, somewhat 
resembling a pine-apple, as is the case with most of the Anonas, and of 
a somewhat conical form with a blunt apex, and about the size of a small 
melon. The seeds, which are enveloped in the pulp, are covered with a 
shining brown testa, and like all other species of the genus, when cut In 
half, exhibit a beautifully ruminated albumen. 

Closely allied to this are the Sour Sop (Anona murlcata, L.), the Sweet 
Sop (A. squamosa, L.), and the Alligator Apple (A. palustris, L.). These 
are all now common in the West Indies. The Sour Sop and Alligator 
Apple would seem to be indigenous, but the Sweet Sop is probably a 
native of South America, though now cultivated extensively in the East 



NOTES ON SOME OF THE EDIBLE FRUITS, ETC. 265 

and West Indies, as well as in Africa and other tropical countries — as, 
indeed, are all three species. The Sour Sop is a small tree, fii'teen to 
twenty feet high, producing a very hard and dense wood. All parts of 
the plant have a very sweet scent. The fruit much resembles the Cheri- 
moyer in form, hut is of a lighter or greenish colour ; the flesh, or pulp, 
is also lighter, and is considered of a cooling nature. It is very com- 
monly eaten by the negroes, by whom it is greatly esteemed ; but with 
the better classes it is seldom sought after, owing, perhaps, in a great 
measure, to its abundance. The tree was introduced into England so 
early as 1 656, but never established as a fruit tree ; it is, however, very 
common all over the West Indies, and especially on the savannahs of 
Jamaica. 

The Sweet Sop, as has been said before, is undoubtedly a native 
of South America, but now cultivated in nearly all tropical coun- 
tries, where the fruits are always eaten in large quantities, but are 
said to attain much greater perfection in the Indian Archipelago than 
anywhere else ; the pulp is said to be very delicious, and has been 
likened in flavour to clotted cream and sugar. The size of the fruit is 
about that of an artichoke, and it is covered with tubercular scales. The 
plant grows to a height of from twelve to twenty feet, and was intro- 
duced into this country about the middle of the eighteenth century, but 
has never been naturalised. 

The tree which bears the Alligator Apple is small, not more than 
twenty feet high, very common in low damp situations and the borders 
of rivers in Jamaica. This fruit is not so common an article, of food as 
the other species of Anona, owing to a strong narcotic principle con- 
tained in it ; but nevertheless it is agreeable to some tastes, having at 
first a sweet and pleasant flavour. It is somewhat heart-shaped, and 
smooth on the outside. In Brazil, a wine is sometimes made from the 
fruits, but ie not much esteemed. The wood of this tree is so soft that 
it is called cork-wood in Jamaica, and is there used for stoppers for 
bottles, and other purposes to which cork is usually applied. 

The -tree' producing the Mammee Apple (Mammea Americana, L.) 
grows to about sixty or seventy feet in height, with a thick spreading 
head, forming a beautiful tree. The wood is very much esteemed for 
various kinds of work, for ornamental purposes, as well as where strength 
and durability is required ; indeed, it is considered one of the best timber 
trees in Jamaica. The fruit is round, about the size of a cannon ball ; 
the outer skin, or covering, is of a brown leathery texture, the inner of a 
lightish yellow, fibrous nature, so united with the pulp as to be difficult 
of separation. The seeds which are embedded in this pulp are about 
four inches long and one broad, of a triangular form, two sides being 
flat, and one partly rounded. The number of seeds in each fruit is four ; 
the outer coating is hard, and much reticulated. They have an exceed- 
ingly bitter taste, owing to a resinous matter which seems to abound in 
them ; but the pulp is the part for which the fruit is prized, and for 
vol. iv. y 



266 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

which it is classed amongst the best of the "West Indian fruits in tfee 
markets, where it is always to he seen in great abundance. This- pulp 
is of a sweet aromatic smell, and of a peculiar yet delicious flavour. It 
is, however, nnsuited to a delicate or weakly constitution, as it is said to 
leave a cloying bitterness upon the palate, which lasts for a considerable 
time. It is usually eaten in the same manner as an ordinary pear or 
apple, but is sometimes sliced, and taken with sugar or wine. It like- 
wise makes a very good jam, by being preserved in sugar. In some 
parts, the flowers are used for making an intoxicating beverage, by dis- 
tillation with spirit. 

The Avocado Pear (Per.s-ecs gratitsima, Gaertn.) is the fruit of a large, 
straight-growing tree, producing a soft wood, of little or no use. The 
fruits are, however, eaten both by men, birds, and quadrupeds. It is 
sometimes called vegetable marrow, and is eaten with salt and pepper. 
The flavour has been likened to that of a peach, but by some is consi- 
dered even more delicious. The fruit is very seldom eaten alone, on 
account of its richness, lime juice, spices, or sugar, being most frequently 
added. The pulp is firm, of a rich yellow colour. The form of the fruit 
is very similar to that of the common pear, but somewhat larger. The 
time of ripening extends over August, September, and October. The 
seeds are enclosed in a soft rind, and embedded in the pulp. They 
have a strong astringent property, and it has been said that, by 
writing with one of them on a whitewashed wall, the letters are imme- 
diately changed to a bright red, and are permanently fixed. We have 
been told, also, that by puncturing them, a bright yellow juice instantly 
flows from them ; some doubt ought probably to be attached to this 
assertion. 

The Guava is a fruit well known in all tropical countries, several 
species of the genus producing in their respective habitats valuable 
fruits. The common, or pear-shaped Guava (Psidium pyriferum > K), 
and the red, or apple-shaped (P. pomiferum, L.), are both found in the 
West Indian Islands, and are very generally cultivated in the East 
Indies. P. pyriferum is a small tree, ten to twenty feet high, flowering 
in June and July, and producing a fruit in form and size much resem- 
bling a pear, and when ripe, of a delicate yellow colour. It has a plea- 
sant aromatic flavour, and is in great favour, as much by Europeans as 
by the natives, both as a fruit in its crude state, and as a preserve. A 
delicious jelly is made from it, which is well known in this country, and 
which is in every way suited to the refined palate of an Englishman. It 
is considered one of the best conserves imported from the West Indies. 
The fruit, like the mango and several other tropical fruits, soon deterio- 
rate, and is consequently almost unknown in England, except as a con- 
serve. The plant in its wild state is short and shrubby, but by careful 
cultivation, it may be changed to a large and beautiful tree. It was 
introduced into this country about the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
turv, and occasionally fruits in our stoves, but is not cultivated with us 



EDIBLE FRUITS OP THE WEtiT INDIES. 267 

as a fruit tree. The fruit of P. p&miferum is said to be of no great 
value, on account of its astringency, but it has a pleasant, agreeable 
odour, and by careful cultivation would, no doubt, prove a good, whole- 
some, and pleasant fruit All parts of the plant have a strong astringent 
taste, the root and young leaves being considered stomachic. This 
species is only a shrub, growing about twelve to sixteen feet high. 

The Anchovy Pear, the fruit of Grias cauliflora, L., is another of the 
many esteemed fruits of these islands. The tree producing it is straight 
and handsome, growing from 30 to 50 feet high. It has lanceolate acu- 
minate leaves, from two to three feet long, and large whitish blossoms. 
The fruits are about the size of a large pear, and of a russet-brown 
colour. The seeds are embedded in a firm, fleshy pulp, which is com- 
monly eaten amongst the natives. In flavour it somewhat resembles 
the mango, and is frequently pickled in like manner. The tree is com- 
mon in all parts of the West Indies, and very abundant in thickets 
and damp situations in Jamaica. It can be easily raised from seeds in a 
moist stove. It was introduced in the middle oi the eighteenth century. 

The Star Apple (Chrysophyllum Cainilo, L.) is a beautiful tree, grow- 
ing from thirty to fifty feet in height, with a spreading head, composed 
of very flexible branches. The leaves are from two to three inches 
long, of an oblong form, acute at the apex, the under side covered with 
a deep yellow or golden down — hence the name Chrysophyllum, com- 
posed of two Greek words meaning golden-leaved. There are several 
species or varieties of this genus, all furnishing fruits much resembling 
C. Cainito. The variety Jamaicense would appear to produce the best 
fruit, or that which is most esteemed by the natives. The fruit is large, 
of a globose form, with small black seeds arranged in the ceils, radiating 
from the centre in the form of a star, each cell containing one seed. The 
pulp, or flesh, is soft, of a sweetish, insipid taste, not much in favour 
with Europeans, but esteemed by the natives. All parts of the tree 
are said to be highly astringent, as well as the unripe fruit, but 
upon becoming ripe it loses this property. It was introduced into this 
country early in the eighteenth century, and is frequently found in 
stoves as an ornamental plant. The trees seldom bear fruit till they attain 
a considerable height. The Damson Plum of Jamaica is supposed to be 
a species or a variety of this genus — viz., C. oliviforme, Lam., var. 
monopyreum. This is a smaller tree, producing a close-grained wood, 
somewhat resembling box. The fruit is not much sought after as an 
article of food. Both plants grow abundantly in all the West Indian 
Islands. The former species is also common in South America, within 
the tropics. 

Lucuma mammosa, Gaertn. — A large Sapotaceous tree, sometimes 
growing one hundred feet high, with large shining leaves and small 
whitish flowers, furnishes a fruit known as the " Mammee Sapota," or 
American Marmalade, from the similarity of the flavour of the pulp 
to the marmalade made from quinces. The fruit is large, of an ova"' 



268 NOTES ON SOME OF THE EDIBLE FRUITS, ETC. 

;diape, with a rough brown skin. The seeds are large, of a somewhat 
oval form, with a shining brown testa. The pulp of the fruit is much 
esteemed, both by the natives and by Europeans. This tree is cultivated 
in many parts of the West Indies on account of its fruit. It is found 
growing spontaneously in South America, and other parts within the 
tropics. 

The Grenadilla (Passiflora quadrangularis, L.) is a large fruit, some- 
what resembling a melon, but rather more oblong ; its size is frequently 
fifteen or sixteen inches long, with a diameter of five or six inches. 
This fruit is much valued for its soft and delicate pulp, which is very 
cooling and refreshing in hot climates. It has a sweetish, acid taste, and 
when ripe is of a purplish colour. It is often eaten alone, but wine and 
sugar are frequently added. The external colour of the rind is of a 
greenish yellow. The flowers are very fragrant, blossoming fully in 
August and September. A strong, healthy plant, is very prolific in 
fruit bearing, producing fine fruits unceasingly up to the end of Decem- 
ber. It ia a small, shrubby plant, with a quadrangular stem, hence its 
specific name, and is a native both of Jamaica and South America. It 
has been introduced into this country, and has borne fruit at Kew, in 
the Horticultural Society's and other gardens. 

The Papaw (Carica papaya, L.) is a peculiar plant, both as to its 
manner of growth, and the properties which different parts are said to 
possess. Some doubts exist as to its native habitat, but it is now found 
in both the East and West Indies, many parts of South America, Africa, 
and other tropical climes. It is a tree rising some twenty feet high, 
with a soft, slender, hollow stem ; it has no lower branches — indeed, it 
may be said to have no branches at all, the leaves being borne upon 
long slender stalks diverging from the top of the trunk or main stem ; 
the leaves themselves are very deeply seven-lobed, the lobes pinna- 
tifid and pointed. The plants are dioecious, the flowers of the 
female being much larger than those of the male ; they are bell- 
shaped,and of a yellow colour. The fruit which succeeds the flowers 
is about the size of a melon, but of a more oval form. The 
fleshy pulp is covered with a thin, smooth skin. The fruit, when 
ripe is greatly esteemed by the natives in some parts, being eaten 
either sweetened with sugar or flavoured with pepper to take away the 
strong acrid taste which prevails, owing to the presence of a milky juice. 
The immature fruits, when pickled, much resemble the East Indian 
mango. The milky juice from the unripe fruits is used medicinally, as 
is also the powdered seeds, both being considered a powerful vermifuge ; 
another peculiarity of this juice is its effect upon the flesh of animals, 
for by steeping meat in it, even for a few minutes, it becomes tender, 
and it is even asserted that meat hung in the tree is operated upon in a 
singular manner * The leaves have the power of creating a lather, and, 

* An article " On the Supposed Influence of the Papaw on Meat " will be 
found in the Technologist, vol. ii., p. 15.— Editoe. 



THE COLLECTION AND MANUFACTURE OF LAC, ETC. 269 

for this reason, are used as a substitute for soap by the natives of tha 
West Indies. 

The foregoing is a brief description of the most common edible fruits 
of these islands. In a climate like that of the West Indies, many fruits 
are brought to greater perfection than they would be in a more tempe- 
rate clime, and this is the cause of so great a variety of fruits being in 
repute amongst the natives, which, not being suited to the palate of 
Europeans, are not included in this paper. 



THE COLLECTION AND MANUFACTURE OF LAC IN THE 
NAGPORE TERRITORY. 

BY RAMASAWMY MOODLIAR. 

The Koosumb tree (Schleichera trijuga), from which stick lac is pro- 
curable, is generally found located on hills ; but it flourishes also along 
the banks, and in the neighbourhood of nullahs, and in itself presents 
the appearance of a jungle. It attains both a great height and diameter, 
the first varying from thirty to seventy feet, and the latter from one to 
four feet ; its branches are wide spreading, and the wood is strong and 
pliable. The tree blossoms in February, and the fruit is ripe in April 
and May ; from the seeds of which an oil is procured, and used for the 
lamp, and considered a good cure for poora. In the Nagpore territory, 
the tree (called by the natives Koosumbia) is found in the districts of 
Lanjee, Comtah, Roypore, Joucknuddee, Chandah, Bundara Buster, and 
Ranjem ; but most abundant in this last-named district. 

The lac insect is produced inside the bark of the tree, and may be 
observed on removing a portion of it early in the month of August ; 
and during the prevalence of heavy fogs the insect perforates the bark 
and forms the lac, the insect itself forming the colouring matter. The 
first crop is picked in November, December, and January. If allowed 
to remain on the tree for a month or so longer, a whitish insect or 
maggot is generated, which consumes the lac insect. Should fogs not 
prevail in August, as is usual, there would be a failure in the lac crop : 
there is a second crop of lac procurable in July, but its quality is very 
inferior to the first. 

The Goands collect the crude stick lac, and bring it to the village 
bazaars, where it is sold for tobacco and salt, and sometimes cash ; but 
merchants generally make a contract with the Goands for it, and an ad- 
vance is made by merchants to them. They furnish it at the rate of four 
to six coodoos, equal to from thirty-two to forty-eight pounds weight 
per rupee. When the lac is kept for a few months, after it is collected,' 
it is reduced to half its original weight, 



270 THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS OF THE FISHERIES 

After the lac is brought from the jungle, it is converted into dye in 
this country for leather, tusser, or common silk, and good silk at 
Nagpore ; but the Nagpore country people do not understand the 
use of it for dyeing cotton cloth and thread, and it is only used in a 
rough way. 

The process of making lac-dye is as follows : the lac having been 
carefully picked from the branches is reduced to a powder in a stone 
hand-mill, then thrown into a cistern, covered with two inches of 
water, and allowed to soak for sixteen hours, or say, from four p.m. 
to six a.m. It is then trampled by men for four hours or so, until the 
water appears well coloured, each person having a portion of about ten 
pounds weight of lac to operate upon. The whole is then strained 
through a cloth, boiling alum-water being poured on it during the pro- 
cess, and the coloured water run off into another cistern, where it re- 
mains for one day to settle. The water is then run into a second cistern, 
and the day following into a third, and the water is then allowed to run 
off as waste ; the colouring matter is then taken up in tin vessels from 
the three cisterns and placed in a canvas strainer, where it is allowed to 
remain from two to three clays, or until such time as all the water has 
been strained off. It is then placed in a pressing machine, and all re- 
maining moisture squeezed out. The square cakes of dye are then mad e 
according to the mark of the manufacturer. The shell lac is made from 
the lac which remains in the cloth alter the first straining. 

The branches contain the insects under the bark ; a removal of 
which will exhibit them to the naked eye (red). To promote their in- 
crease, all that is necessary is, to attach or bind a branch containing the 
insect to the ordinary berry fruit (or Ellenda) tree ; but the Koosumba 
tree yields the best lac. 

The Moorka tree yields lac largely, but very inferior in quality. 



THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS OF THE FISHERIES IN THE 
INDIAN OCEAN AND THE EASTERN SEAS. 

BY THE EDITOR. 

Although the products obtained from the sea in the East are very 
extensive, yet no collective estimate or description has ever been given 
of them. Some of these have incidentaUy been noticed in our pages,* 
and we now proceed to describe others. The Pearl oyster fishery, Tor- 
toiseshell and Mother of Pearl, the Chank fishery, Trepang, or Beche de 
Mer, and Cowries, are some of the many articles which commerce largely 

* Beche de Mer, Technologist, vol. 1, p. 40 ; Mother of Pearl and its uses, 
Technologist, vol. 1, p. 219 ; The Tortoiseshell of Commerce, Technologist, 
vol. 1, p. 375 ; Chanks and Bangles, Technologist, vol. 2, p. 185. 



IN THE INDIAN OCEAN AND THE EASTERN SEA.g. 271 

developed in India and the far East, but the fishes sought for food are 
equally important. 

Firstly, we have the products of that sea monster, the shark, in its 
edible fins and oil. 

There are shark fisheries on the eastern coast of Africa, and in several 
parts of the Indian Ocean, chiefly for the sake of the fins which are 
exported to China. . About 7,000 cwt. were imported into Canton alone 
in 1850, chiefly from India and the Eastern Archipelago. From 7,000 
to 10,000 cwt. of sharks' fins are exported annually from Bombay. In 
1853, 7,373 cwt. of these valued at 14,748Z., were imported into Bom- 
bay from the Arabian and Persian Gulfs, Sonmeannee and Mukran. 
About 1,400 cwt. of these fins are sent from the Madras territories to 
China. Sumatra, Manila, Malacca, Arracan, and the Tenasserim Pro- 
vinces, also send large quantities. There are two kinds recognised, the 
white and the black shark fins, which are eaten by Chinamen. The 
species from which they are chiefly obtained are Rhynocoiaius pectinata 
and R. laevis and Galiocerda tigrina. 

The late Dr. Buist, of Bombay, in a communication to the Zoological 
Society in 1851, stated that there were thirteen large boats, with twelve 
men in each, constantly employed in the shark fishery at Kurrachee. 

The value of the fins sent to market varies from 15,000 to 18,000 
rupees (1,500^. to 1,800Z.), or 1,000 to 1,200 rupees for each boat, after 
allowing the Banian or factor his profit. One boat will sometimes cap- 
ture at a draught as many as 100 sharks of different sizes. The average 
capture of each boat probably amounts to about 3,000, so as to give the 
whole sharks captured at not less than 40,000 a year. The great basking 
shark, or mhor (Salaclius maximus), is always harpooned ; it is found 
floating or asleep near the surface of the water. The liver of a large 
fish of this species will yield eight barrels of oil. The oil is of a very 
low specific gravity. 

The fish, once struck, is allowed to run till tired ; it is then pulled 
in, and beaten with clubs till stunned. A large hook is now hooked 
into its eyes or nostrils, or wherever it can be got most easily attached, 
and by this the shark is towed on shore ; several boats are requisite for 
towing. The mhor is often 40, sometimes 60, feet in length ; the mouth 
is occasionally 4 feet wide. All other varieties of shark are caught in 
nets, somewhat like the way in which herrings are caught at home. 
The net is made of strong English whip-cord ; the meshes about 6 
inches ; they are generally 6 feet wide, and from 600 to 803 fathoms, or 
from three-quarters to nearly a mile, in length. On the one side are 
floats of wood about 4 feet in length, at intervals of 6 feet ; on the other, 
pieces of stone. The nets are sunk in deep water, from 80 to 150 feet, 
well out at sea, 

They are put in one day and taken out the next ; so that they are 
down two or three times a week, according to the state of the weather, 
and success of the fishing. The lesser sharks are commonly found dead, 



272 THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS OF THE FISHERIES. 

the larger ones much exhausted. On being taken home, the back fins, 
the only ones used, are cut off, and dried on the sands in the sun ; the 
flesh is cut off in long strips, and salted for food ; the liver is taken out 
and boiled down for oil ; the head, bones, and intestines left on the shore 
to rot, or thrown into the sea, where numberless little sharks are gene- 
rally on the watch to eat up the remains of their kindred. The fisher- 
men themselves are only concerned in the capture of the sharks. So 
soon as they are lauded they are purchased up by Banians, on whose 
account all the other operations are performed. The Banians collect 
them in quantities, and transmit them to agents in Bombay, by whom 
they are sold for shipment to China. 

In Akyab harbour, about 200 maunds of black fins are collected 
annually, worth 9 rupees per maund, and 150 maunds of white fins. 
White fins fetch the higher price of 30 rupees per maund. The local 
name for them is Gua-maget. They are exported to China and the 
Straits. Shark skin is used by the native workmen for polishing wood 
and ivory, and is also made into shagreen. 

Another important marine product is the fish-glue, or isinglass, ob- 
tained from various fisheries of the Indian Ocean. 

The solid dried sounds or swimming bladders of many fishes, are 
largely shipped to China and other parts under the name of " fish maws." 

The Polynemus plebeius and indicus seem to furnish the largest por- 
tion. These fish are caught of a great size, and sold in the Calcutta 
bazaar during the cold season. This isinglass is also said to be pro- 
duced of good quality by Indian species of Silurus and Pimelodus. 
Isinglass, the produce of Bengal, has been celebrated in China from the 
earliest times ; it is called there Fish sago. About 2,500 cwts. of fish 
maws are exported from Bombay, and smaller quantities from Madras 
and Bengal. At Akyab, fish maws, known locally as " Zeebaeing," are 
produced to the extent of 30 or 40 maunds per annum, the price being 
35 rupees per maund. They are exported to Cnina and the Straits. 

Among the fish and other oils locally obtained or met with in 
commerce in the East, are at Madras, karahmanoo fish oil (from Polynemus 
plebeius and P. uronemus), seri-nei (shark-liver) oil, and Bochet-fish liver 
oil, Cooawanoo oil from the loggerhead turtle (Caouana divacea, Esch.), 
Amaci nai (turtle oil), shark oil, Bombay and Tellichery ; fish oil, 
Malabar ; porpoise oil, Patna ; fish maw oil, Joree oil, and Seephoo oil, 
Calcutta ; muria ekam fish oil, Indian Archipelago ; fish oil, Japan. 

Fish-liver oil is now prepared in large quantities on the Western 
and Malabar coasts for exportation. That supplied to hospitals for the 
use of the troops, is obtained from the liver of the skate, seer, and 
white shark indiscriminately. From analysis and experiments made 
in England, it has been found to equal in its medicinal properties the 
best cod-Liver oil, but from its disagreeable taste and odour, it can never 
supersede the oil of Newfoundland. A more agreeable kind of oil may 
be prepared from the livers of the skate or seer fish, but when the liver of 



IN THE INDIAN OCEAN AND THE EASTERN SEAS. 273 

the shark is also used with the livers of the other fish, the oil so ob- 
tained has a very offensive odour and unpleasant taste, which cannot by 
any mechanical or chemical process be removed, however carefully it 
may be prepared. 

At Moutrah, a town situated in a deep bay not far from Muscat, 
they dry and export large quantities of a diminutive fish, about tw r o 
inches long, which are packed in bales. This species of fish literally 
fills the waters of Oman. Dr. Ruschenberger (' Voyage Round the World,' 
vul. i., p. 121), says, — " They sometimes appeared in dense strata about 
the ship, so thick as completely to hide the cable from view, which was 
distinctly seen when they were not present." 

The Lates nobiiis, different species of Polynemus and the Magil 
Corsida, daily cover the tables of Europeans in Calcutta, who will more 
readily recognise these fishes under the names of the Begti or Cockup, 
Sudjeh, Tupsi (Mango fish), and the Indian mullet. The mango fish is 
so named from its visiting the Indian rivers annually to spawn, during 
the mango season. It arrives as soon as the mango is formed on the 
tree, and disappears at the close of the season, or about the middle of 
July. This fish has, perhaps, the most agreeable flavour of any in the 
world, and is so much sought after by natives as well as Europeans, 
that although not so large as a middling-sized whiting, they are 
sold at the beginning of April, at from 2 to 4 rupees (4s. to 8s.) 
per score. Before the end of May, as they become plentiful, they are 
sold at 2s. per score, and later from two to three score may be had for 
a rupee. 

Hilsa or sabti, the Indian mackerel, makes its appearance in July. 
The fish is delicious either boiled, baked, or fried, but it is generally 
considered very unwholesome. The natives devour it in such quantities 
as to occasion great mortality among them. The fish, on being cured 
with tamarinds, forms a good substitute for herrings. It is then known 
by tHe appellation of the tamarind fish. 

Burtah, the salted and spiced flesh of the suleah fish, is a piquant 
relish well known at the breakfast-tables of Bengal ; other delicious fishe3 
are the Indian soles, the roll fish, and above all, the black and white pom- 
frets, and the Bummaloh, which latter in a dried state, is known by the 
name of the " Bombay duck." The bazaars in Calcutta are always 
stocked with an ample supply of dried fish, which is consumed partly by 
the Europeans and native shipping of that port, partly by the poorer 
classes of Bengal and the Upper Provinces. Cargoes of this article are 
annually imported by the Burmese and Arabs. 

In the Maldive Islands the bonita is thus prepared : — The back bone 
is removed, and the fish laid in the shade, and occasionally sprinkled 
with sea water. After a certain period has elapsed, the fish is wrapped 
up in cocoa-nut leaves and buried in sand, when it becomes hard. Fish 
thus prepared is known in Ceylon, and perhaps over all India by the 
of cummelmums. The pieces of this fish brought to the market 

VOL. IV. Z 



274 THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS OF THE FISHERIES 

have a horny hardness. It is rasped upon rice to render it 
savoury. 

The Terussan, a large fish like a salmon in shape, and of a reddish 
colour, caught off Sumatra, is delicious eating. The air-bladder, called 
by the natives lupa lupa, is a great article of trade, and sells for 30 dols. 
per picul at Penang. It is dried in the sun, and the Chinese make great 
use of it. 

The Malays strike the porpoise or loma, and the paree, ray or skate, 
■with an iron harpoon, to which a long coil of rope is attached. The 
porpoise is chased during the day, but the skate is harpooned at night, 
being attracted to the boats by the light of torches. The skate some- 
times attains to the size of six feet in diameter ; those of three or four 
feet in diameter are common. As they come close up to the surface, 
they are easily struck. When the barb has been driven into the fish, 
and the shaft has separated from it, the skate dives with considerable 
velocity ; and if large, it may be secured after about an hour's labour. 

Dried fish of three kinds, under the native names of Plaheng, Pla- 
salit, and Platu (some of them are flounders) to the extent of 79,000 
piculs of 1331b., and dried shrimps to the extent of 1,000 piculs are 
annually exported from Siam to the Eastern ports. There is an exten- 
sive trade carried on in China, and the other Eastern nations in 
Crustacea aud molluscs. Dried shrimps and prawns form a large article 
of commerce. All sorts of oysters, mussels, and other shell-fish, of 
which there is a great plenty and surprising variety in the Japanese 
and other seas, are eaten, none excepted — raw, pickled, salted, boiled, 
or fried. The ear-shell (Haliotis), called Awabi, is sought for generally 
for the fish. The flesh is cut into slices or strings, wdiich are extended 
on a board and dried. As this shell-fish was the common food of their 
necessitous ancestors, when the Japanese entertain company at dinner, 
they always provide a dish of it. Koempfer states that it has hence 
become a custom among all classes, when they forward one another pre- 
sents of any kind, to send along with it a string or piece of this dried 
flesh, as a good omen, and as a reminder of the indigency of their fore- 
fathers. Several species of cuttle fish dried, dried oysters, mussels, 
cockles, and clams, and the dried ink fish (called Zekat), are largely ex- 
ported from Japan for Chinese consumption. 

Koempfer, in his " Account of Japan," thus speaks of the latter : 

" Ika is a common sea-qualm. Both the Chinese and Japanese 
esteem it as a scarce and delicate bit. Fish are easier caught with the 
flesh of this qualm than with any other bait. Jako, or sepia, is another 
sea-qualm, with long tails or feet, at the end whereof are, as it were, 
small hooks, wherewith the creature fastens itself to the rocks, or the 
bottom of the sea ; it is a common soccano, or side dish, and eaten either 
fresh, boiled, or pickled. There are two sorts of kurrage, which is also 
of the sea-qualm land. One is called ruidsukurage — that is, the white 
qualm. This is common in all seas, whitish, transparent, watery, and 



IN THE INDIAN OCEAN AND THE EASTERN SEAS. 275 

not fit to eat. The other is scarcer, fleshy, and eatable, after it has been 
prepared, and deprived of its sharpness. It is prepared after the follow 
ing manner: — They first macerate them in a solution of alum for three 
days together ; then they rub, wash, and clean it till it grows trans- 
parent, which done, it is pickled and preserved for use. Before the in- 
fusion, the skin is taken off, washed, pickled, and kept by itself. Some 
of these sea-qualms are so large that two men can scarcely lift them up. 
Pickled, as they are brought upon the table, they are of the same sub- 
stance, colour, and taste as the edible birds'-nests brought from China •, 
and I have been credibly informed by Chinese fishermen that these 
birds'-nests are made of the very flesh of this animal." 

Gnapee or Nga-pee is made of prawns, shrimps, or any cheap fish, 
pounded into a consistent mass, and frequently allowed to become 
partially putrid. It is known in commerce by the name of Balachong, 
and largely consumed as a condiment to rice in all the countries to the 
east of Bengal, including the southern part of China and the islands of 
the Eastern Archipelago. Its distribution gives rise to an extensive in- 
ternal trade, and like the herrings and salt fish with the negro population 
of the West Indies, it forms to the natives a palatable addition to their 
ordinary food. To show its importance tu Pegu, gnapee to the value 
of 142,OO0Z. was exported across the frontier into Barmah Proper in 
the year 1861. The best balachong is said to be made in Siam, being 
compounded of dried shrimps, pepper, salt, and seaweed beaten into 
the consistence of a tough paste, and then packed in jars for use and 
exportation. It is also made and exported in large quantities from 
Sumatra. The shrimps (udang) of which they make it are very plen- 
tiful, and there are very many varieties as udang mangkara (large 
lobster shrimp), udang gala (long- legged shrimp), udang sumut, and 
udang pasang, &c. 

It has been supposed that nearly a tenth of the population of China 
derive their means of support from the fisheries. Hundreds and thousands 
of boats crowd the whole coasts, sometimes acting in communities, 
sometimes independent and isolated. There is no species of craft 
by which a fish can be inveigled which is not practised with suc- 
cess in China. Every variety of net from vast seines, embracing miles, 
to the smallest hand-filet in the care of a child. Fishing by night and 
fishing by day ; fishing in moonlight, by torchlight, and in utter dark- 
ness ; fishing in boats of all sizes ; fishing by those who are stationary 
on the rock by the sea-side, and by those who are absent for weeks on 
the wildest of seas ; fishing by cormorants ; fishing by divers ; fishing 
with lines, with baskets — by every imaginable decoy and device. There 
is no river which is not staked to assist the fisherman in his craifc. 
There is no lake, no pond, which is not crowded with fish. A piece of 
water is nearly as valuable as a field of fertile land. At daybreak every 
city is crowded with sellers of live fish, who carry their commodity ia 
buckets of water, saving all they do not sell to be returned to the pond 
or kept for another day's service, z 2 



276 THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS OF THE FISHERIES, ETC. 

A gentleman sent to China on an agricultural mission by the French 
Government, M. Eugene Simon, has made a valuable report on the 
fish and fisheries of that country, and ha3 also despatched specimens of 
several kinds which he thinks capable of being bred in Europe. He 
speaks ol these in the highest terms, and says that it would not be 
difficult to select 40 or 50 species worthy of observation. Amongst 
others he reports is the Loin or king of fish, classed as Crenilabrus by 
Dr. Bridgman, measuring sometimes six or seven feet in length, weigh- 
ing from 50lbs. to 2001bs., or more, and said to be equal to the famous 
salmon of the Rhine. Then come the Lein-in-wang and the Ean-in, 
almost as good and even larger than the other ; the Lin-in, finer than 
any carp in Europe, and weighing sometimes 30lbs. ; and the Kin-in, 
or Tsi-in, which does not weigh more than from lOlbs. to 12lbs., and is 
the finest and most delicate of all in flavour, partaking at once of the 
characteristics of the trout and sole. 

Whale-fishing in the Indian Ocean constitutes a large and profitable 
trade. In this pursuit, however, Great Britain has no share. From Java 
Head to Cape Leeuwin the distance is about 1 ,600 miles. Far and wide 
along this whole line of sea, ships of the United States are constantly 
cruising about in search of whales, and occasionally meet with immense 
prizes, even within sight of the colony which Great Britain has planted 
on the Western coast of the Australian continent. England in her own 
waters is, in this respect, England no longer, and while ships of foreign 
nations making light of a voyage of 13,000 miles, traverse the ocean 
to fish on British coasts, carrying away annual prizes of industry to the 
value of 1,000,000/. sterling, Great Britain looks on unheedingly. 

An American whaler is usually about 450 tons burthen, and it ia 
supposed that, in all parts of the Indian Ocean, there are not less than 
eighty always cruising about at one time. This gives an aggregate ton- 
nage of 36,000 tons. Dutch and French whalers are also occasionally 
to be met with in this region ; and although, in point of number, they 
perhaps do not constitute above a tenth of the number of American 
vessels, yet the quantities of oil which they, too, succeed in taking, 
sometimes in British waters, illustrate still further the apathy of the 
English in regard to this source of wealth. 

In 1838, American and French whalers cruising in the vicinity of 
Cape Leeuwin captured, at one onslaught, a school of whales which 
yielded about 10,000 barrels of oil estimated in value at 25,000/. ; not a 
single British or colonial craft being present to share in the gains. In 
February, 1845, several American vessels encountered and captured a 
considerable number of wdiales at Champion Bay in the 27th degree of 
S. lat,, about ten miles from the shore — their operations being distinctly 
seen by some colonists from land. The yield of oil was on this occasion 
upwards of 6,000 barrels, estimated in value at about 16,000/. 

In October, 1857, American, Dutch, and French whalers cruising 
off King George's Sound took prizes of oil amounting to 12,000 barrels — 
in value about 28,000/. These various captures were exclusive of extensive 



CHINA GREEN. 277 

ones made by the same vessels in their cruises further out at sea, and 
being only isolated occurrences amongst many of a similar kind that 
might be named, they forcibly illustrate the anomaly that British enter- 
prise, hitherto so active and vigilant, shjuld permit foreigners to 
approach the very threshold of British territory, and carry away wealth 
which is so easily within their own grasp. 

The whales on the coasts of Japan not only afford oil in great 
abundance, but their flesh, considered wholesome and nutritious by the 
Japanese, is largely consumed. No part of the animal indeed is thrown 
away ; all is made available to some useful purpose or another. The 
skin, which is generally black ; the flesh, which is red and looks like 
coarse beef ; the intestines and all the inward parts, besides the fat or 
blubber, which is boiled into oil, and the bone, which is converted into 
innumerable uses ; all is made available to purposes of profit. 



CHINA GREEN. 

BY PROCESSOR H. DDSSAUCE. 



Mr. Charvin has extracted from the Rhamnus catharticus a green 
colouring matter similar to the Chinese green (green indigo), but less 
costly. This product is in irregular plates with a variable aspect, ac- 
cording to the thickness of the plate. 

Like the Chinese Lo-Kav, this product seems to be a lake — that is, a 
combination of an organic substance with an earthy matter. Gradually 
heated, it lost first water without any sublimate product ; in burning, it 
left an inconsiderable quantity of ashes. 

The following is the result of a comparative experiment done at the 
same time with that product and the lu-Kav, with the analysis of Mr. 
Persoz : 

Green Charvin. Chinese. Chinese by Persoz. 
Water . . 13.5 9.5 9.3 

Ashes . . 33. 28.5 28.8 

Colouring matter 53.5 62. 61.9 

100.0 100.0 100.0 

Mr. Persoz defines the lu-Kav " a lake formed by cyanine, having for 
base phosphated magnesia, alumina, and oxide of iron." In Mr. Char- 
vin's process lime is only found, mixed with a little alumina and silica 
without phosphoric acid, but the colouring matter is the same in the two 
products. The chemical reactions of Mr. Charvin's green are similar to 
the Chinese lu-Kav. 

Preparation. — In a kettle containing boiling water he puts two 



278 ON JAPANESE PAPER. 

pounds of Rhammus catharticus bark ; a few minutes a pink skim is 
produced. He then puts the whole into an earthen jar, well covered, 
and then allows it to rest till next day. The liquid is yellowish ; it is 
decanted and lime water added to it, which produces a change oi 
colour ; it turns reddish-brown, the liquid is put in jars — very little 
in each one — and the whole is exposed to air and light. The reddish- 
yellow colour is modified and takes a green shade ; little by little the 
green colour becomes more general, and is then deposited in plates. 
All the liquids are mixed together and carbonate of potash is added ; 
or green precipitate is produced ; he leaves it in deposit, decants the 
liquid and collects the precipitate and dries it. 

The experiments of Mr. Charwin prove, 

1st. That his green colouring matter is of the same nature as the 
Chinese lo-Kav, and will dye silk in as beautiful a green as the lo-Kav. 

2nd. This matter is extracted from an indigenous plant, the 
BJiammus catharticus. 

3rd. That the process will permit its manufacture for dyers at the 
price of 37s. per pound. 



ON JAPANESE PAPER. 

BY P. L. SIMMONDS. 



Extensively as paper is employed in Japan, we are not yet thoroughly 
informed as to the materials of which it is manufactured. A large 
portion is, we know, made from a species of mulberry, to which Von 
Siebold has given the name of Broussoneti Kaminoki. Whether this is 
a distinct species from the Broussonetia pajjyrifera, the bark of which 
is used for making paper in China, or only a variety, is not yet clear. 
Some young trees of the Japan mulberry are, however, said to have 
been introduced recently into the gardens of the Acclimatisation 
Society of Paris. The tree might be grown in various parts of Europe 
and America, if the culture were remunerative enough in the yield of 
bark. It prefers a strong soil, especially of a calcareous nature, and 
should be planted at intervals not exceeding three feet ; otherwise the 
branches would extend, whereby the bark would become full of knots, 
causing much loss of substance in the manufacture. The soil is not 
manured until the second year ; in the autumn of that year the plant is 
lopped close to the root ; and this operation, as well as that of manuring 
slightly, is repeated every second year. 100 lb. of branches thus ob- 
tained, stripped of their leaves, yield 10 lb. of bark. The branches, 
on arriving at the manufactory, are put into hot water for half ah 
hour ; the bark can then be easily stripped off by the hands, and is 



ON JAPANESE PAPER. 279 

afterwards left in the sun to dry. It is next macerated for three days in 
river water and bleached in the sun. These operations having been 
several times repeated, the bark is at last boiled in a lye of ashes for 
the space of three hours, then manipulated for some time to separate 
any epidermis that may have remained ; and lastly, when dry, the mass 
is pounded fine and made into a pulp with water, to which a glutinous 
liquid extracted from a shrub called Nebooicko — probably the Acacia 
Nemu — is added in the proportion of about two pints per cwt. of pulp. 
The latter is then made into sheets much in the usual way. Sir Ruther- 
ford Alcoek states that the barks of different shrubs are used, and his 
collection in the International Exhibition of 1862 contained some 60 or 
70 kinds of paper, with the various applications for pocket-handker- 
chiefs, bank-notes, printing and room-paper, waterproof clothing, imi- 
tation leather, &c. 

In Koempfer's " Ameenitates exoticee," there is an account of the 
mode of preparing Japanese paper, which very much resembles the 
Chinese. The plants used for the purpose are there called Kaadsi. The 
botanical description of Kcempfer is Papyrus fructi mori celsce, five morus 
sativa, folis urticos mortuce, cortice papyri/era. According to this descrip- 
tion, the plant cannot be other than the paper mulberry tree, which, as 
already remarked, is very like the ku-chu of the Chinese. 

Every year, after the fall of the leaves, the young shoots, already 
rather thick, are cut off in lengths of three to four feet, and made up 
into bundles in order to be boiled in soda ash. They are tied together 
and placed upright in a very large and closely covered vessel. The 
boiling is carried on until the bark loosens and the wood is left bare. 
It is then allowed to cool, and the wood split, in order to remove the 
whole of the bark, which is then put into water from three to four 
hours. "When the bark is sufficiently tender, the black skin is scraped 
off, and at the same time the annual bark is separated from the bark of 
those branches which are not yet so old. The youngest bark gives the 
finest and best paper. That made from the older bark is blackish, but 
not unpleasant. Bark more than a year old must be thrown aside, as it 
yields a very coarse paper. Parts which are knotty, thick and other- 
wise faulty, are also picked out, and very ordinary paper made there- 
from. 

When the bark is duly arranged according to its different qualities, 
it is boiled in ley, and during the boiling is stirred with a thick rod, 
occasionally adding fresh ley to prevent its boiling over, and to replace 
the loss by evaporation. The bark is allowed to boil until it can be 
rubbed to pieces between the fingers, and forms a paste. To make the 
ley, two pieces of timber are set crosswise on a tub, and covered with 
straw, upon which are placed wood ashes, over which boiling water is 
poured. 

The bark, after boiling, is taken out of the vessel and washed. This 
washing is a delicate operation, as it must not be carried too far. If the 



SStiU ON JAPANESE PAPER. 

stuff is only slightly washed, the paper is strong and firm, but coarse, 
and of little value ; if it be too much washed, the paper is beautifully 
white, but weak, runs, and is useless for writing. Experience only 
teaches how the washing is to be done, which must be in running water. 
The stuff is thrown into a strong basket, through which the water only 
can pass, and continually agitated until it is sufficiently pure. 

To make fine paper, the stuff is washed twice, but in a cloth instead 
of a basket ; for the more it is washed, the more the bark disunites, and 
the greater the loss. In the process of washing, the knots and other 
extraneous substances are, as much as possible, removed. 

When the stuff is sufficiently washed it is thrown on a strong, 
smooth wooden table, and beaten by two or three men with sticks, and 
a hard wooden implement called " kusnocki," until it is as clean as 
paper. It is now put in water and stirred until it forms a paste. The 
paste is washed in a tub, into which is then poured a slimy and 
glutinous fluid, prepared by steeping rice and the root Oreni (ahea radice 
viscosa, Flore ephemero magna puniceo) in water. The mixture is stirred 
with a rod until the three substances are well mixed, and form a liquid 
and uniform paste. The sheets are then made on forms, which consist 
of rushes. Nothing now remains but to dry the paper. The sheets are 
laid on a table covered with a mat, and between each sheet there is 
placed a board called kama-kura, that is, cushion. This board, some- 
what larger than the sheet, is of use to remove the sheet subsequently. 
Each heap is also covered with a mat, upon which a board is laid, and 
gradually a heavier weight, in order to press out the water. The next 
day the weight is removed, and one sheet after another lifted with a 
rod and placed on a thin board, to which it is made to adhere by hand, 
and then placed in the sun. The thoroughly driel sheets are collected, 
cut, and taken to the warehouse. 

The steeping in rice water makes the paper white and strong. This 
6ize is prepared in a glazed earthen pot, in which the grains of rice are 
soaked in water. The pot is at first slowly shaken, afterwards more 
quickly, then cold water is added, and the whole strained through a 
cloth. The remaining rice is put in fresh water, and the process re- 
peated so long as the rice gives a glutinous matter. Japan rice is ex- 
cellent for this purpose, as it is the whitest and most glutinous of Asia. 

The liquid from Oreni is prepared by putting the cut and bruised 
root in water. In twelve hours the water is glutinous. According to 
the season of the year more or less of this liquid is used, and the whole 
art of making good paper depends upon the quantity of Oreni used. 

The coarse paper for packing purposes is prepared in the same way 
from the bark of the shrub Kadse-kadsura, which Koempfer calls, 
" papyrus procumbens, lactescens folio longe-lanceato, cortice cartaceo." 

Japan paper is strong, made in large sheets, and so much like linen 
that it may be mistaken for it. 

Dr. Hawk describes the process much in the same manner. In De- 



THE ECONOMIC PRODUCTS OF THE PALMYRA PALM. 281 

cember, he says, after the tree has shed its leaves, they cut off the 
branches about three feet in length, and tie them in bundles. They 
are then boiled in a lye of ashes in a covered kettle, till the bark is so 
shrank that half an inch of the wood may be seen projecting at either 
end of the branch. When they have become cool, the bark is stripped 
and soaked in water three or four times, until it is soft, when the fine 
black skin is scraped off with a knife. The coarse bark is then sepa- 
rated from the fine ; that from the young branches make the finest 
paper. The bark is boiled again in fresh ley, continually stirred with a 
stick, and fiesh water from time to time added. It is then put in a sieve 
and taken to a brook, and here the bark is incessantly stirred till it 
becomes a pure pulp. It is now thrown into water and separates in 
the form of meal. This is put into a small vessel with a decoction 
of rice and a species of Hibiseus, and stirred until it has attained a tole- 
rable consistence. It is then poured into a large vessel from whence it 
is taken out and put in the form of sheets on mats or layers of grass 
straw ; these sheets are laid one upon another with straw between, 
and pressed to force the water out. After this they are spread upon 
boards in the sun, dried, cut, and gathered into bundles for sale. This 
paper will better endure folding and last longer than ours. 



THE ECONOMIC PRODUCTS OF THE PALMYRA PALM. 

BY WILLIAM FERGUSON. 

The Borassus flabelliformis is one of those palms enjoying the widest 
geographical distribution. A glance at one of the maps in Berghaus's 
or Johnston's Physical Atlas, showing the range of the most remarkable 
plants, will help to illustrate this fact. 

The number of uses for which the Palmyra is employed may be 
said to be almost infinite ; indeed one of the Eastern languages, the 
Tamil spoken in a portion of the region which the tree acknowledges 
as its native country, possesses a poem entitled " Tala Vilasam," 
enumerating no fewer than 800 different purposes to which the Palmyra 
may be applied, and this poem by no means exhausts the catalogue. 

Fruit. — The spadix bearing the fruits is generally simple, and 
covered with a single sheath or spathe as in the Areca Catechu and cocoa- 
nut palms, but it is sometimes compound and bearing two bunches of 
fruit in a compound spathe. The fruits are with beautiful regularity, 
arranged round the spadix in three rows, and whichever way examined, 
are found in nearly opposite pairs. Each spadix bears from ten to 
twenty fruits, and one of these spadices, with the fruits ripe, would be 
nearly as much as a man could carry. Each palm bears seven or eight of 



282 THE ECONOMIC PRODUCTS OF THE PALMYRA PALM. 

these spadices, so that a tree often bears about 150 fruits in one season ; 
each fruit is about the size of a young child s head. The fruits, when 
young, are pretty distinctly three cornered, but when old, the pulp round 
the nuts so swells as to give the fruit the appearance of a perfect globe. 

The ripe fruits or drupes contain two or three nuts embedded in a 
ma->s of soft yellow pulp, intermixed with dark straw-coloured fibre or 
coir. These nuts are oblong, and a good deal flattened, and covered with 
a mass of short fibre which adheres to them. Besides this fibre they are 
covered with a thick shell, so difficult of fracture that the Tamils say 
an elephant cannot break them. 

Leaves or Fronds. — The fronds are fan-leaved, armed with spines 
radiating from a common centre, and the stipes serrated at their edges. 
The fan part is about four feet in diameter. It answers as a kind of 
umbrella when held by the stem over one's head. The spines are cut 
off and the middle is formed into large fans called vissaries and pun- 
kahs. These are lacquered for sale, or used plain as may sivit the taste 
of the purchaser, but one never sees a Budhist priest without one of 
the smaller sort, or a fan of some kind or other ; of which some are 
heart-shaped, others circular with handles of carved ivory. 

The leaves of this tree as well as those of the talapat tree are used 
instead of paper by the natives. They write letters upon them, which 
neatly rolled up, and sometimes sealed with a little gum lac, pass 
through the post office. During the operation of writing, the leaf is 
supported by the left hand, and the letters scratched upon the surface 
with the stylus. Instead of moving towards the right hand which per- 
forms the writing, the leaf is moved in a contrary direction by means 
of the thumb. 

All their olas or books treating of religions and the healing art, &c, 
are transcribed on them, but in a language elevated above the common 
idiom. The leaves of both these palm trees lie in folds like a fan, and 
the slips stand in need of no other preparation than merely to be sepa- 
rated and cut smooth and even with a knife, after having been slowly 
dried in the shade and rubbed with oil. Their mode of writing upon 
them consists in carving the letters with a fine pointed style, and in 
order that the characters may be the better seen and read, they rub 
them over with an ink made of lamp black, or some other substance, 
and a solution of gum, so that the letters have altogether the appear- 
ance of being engraved. 

The iron point made use of on these occasions, is either set in a 
brass handle, which the Moormen and others carry about them in a 
wooden case, and which is sometimes six inches in length, or else it is 
formed entirely of iron, and together with the blade of a knife designed 
for the purpose of cutting the leaves and making them even, set in a 
knife handle common to them both, into which handle it shuts up, so 
that it may be carried by the owner about with him, and be always 
ready at hand. 



THE ECONOMIC PRODUCTS OF THE PALMYRA PALM. 283 

On such slips all the letters and edicts of the Dutch Government 
used to be written, and sent round open and unsealed. When a single 
slip was not sufficient, several were bound together by means of a hole 
made at one end, and a thread on which they were strung. If a book 
had to be made for the use of the Wihares or any other purpose, they 
sought for broad and handsome slips of talapat leaves, upon which 
they engraved the characters very elegantly and accurately, with the 
addition of various figures delineated upon them by way of ornament. 
All the slips had then two holes made in them, and were strung 
upon an elegantly twisted silken cord, and covered with two thin 
wooden boards. By means of the cord, the leaves are held even 
together, and by being drawn out when required for use, they are 
separated from each other at pleasure. 

In the finer binding of these kind of books, the boards are 
lacquered, the edges of the leaves cut smooth and gilded, and the title 
is written on the upper board ; the two cords are by a knot or jewel, 
secured at a little distance from_ the boards, so as to prevent the 
book from falling to pieces, 'but sufficiently distant to admit of the 
upper leaves being turned back while the lower ones are read. The 
more elegant books are in general wrapped up in silk cloth, and bound 
round by a riband in which the Burmese have the art to weave the 
title of the book. The palmyra books are never much beyond two feet 
in length and two inches in breadth, as the parchment-like ribs between 
the little ribs will not admit of their increase in size. 

Narrow strips of the leaf are braided into winnows, hats, and caps, 
baskets, mats, and bags ; the baskets are used for drawing water as well 
as other purposes, and the bags not only for carrying rice, salt, &c, in 
small quantities, but for storing grain, being made very large and 
strong, while the mats are necessary for the natives, not only to sit, eat, 
and sleep on, but for drying various kinds of fruit, treading out this 
grain and many other purposes. On the stem of the leaf is a very hard 
and strong covering like that on the bamboo or rattan, which slit off is 
formed into coarse strong ropes. 

Each tree has from twenty-five to forty fresh green leaves upon it at 
a time, and of these the natives frequently cut off twelve or fifteen annu- 
ally, or a greater number once in two years, to be devoted to various pur- 
poses, as well as with the view to enable the fruit to ripen and increase 
in size. When the leaves are intended for thatch, or for making fences, 
they are placed fiat on the ground in layers over each other, and often 
with weights upon them to assist in the process of flattening them. The 
thatch formed of these does not last longer than two years, nor is it so 
handsome as that made from the plaited cocoa-nut leaves. The leaves 
make very close and elegant fences. 

Toddy. — At the season when the inflorescence begins to appear, 
when the spathes have had time to burst, the "toddy-drawer" is at 
work in the palmyra groves. His practised eye soon fixes on those trees 



284 THE ECONOMIC PRODUCTS OF THE PALMYRA PaLM. 

fit for the " scalping knife," and if they have not dropped the foot 
stalk of the leaves, the first operation, if the trees are valuable, is to 
wrench them off. This done, the tGddy-d rawer, armed with his leathern 
protector for his breast, his raceme-batten of wood, his small thongs, 
straight and crooked knives, with the side leather pouch to contain 
them, procures a piece of tough jungle vine, or a strip of the stalk of a 
young palmyra or cocoa-nut tree, which he converts into a sort of loop, 
of such dimensions as to admit of his feet getting through to a 'space 
large enough to allow them to clasp the tree. This done he puts his 
feet in this thong, stands close to the tree, stretches himself at full 
length, clasps it with his hands, and pulls his feet up as close to his 
arms as possible ; again he slides up his hands, and repeats the process, 
until by a species of screw process, he ascends to the summit of the tree. 

An expert climber can draw toddy from about forty trees in a few 
hours. In Jaffna a distinction is made between toddy and sweet toddy, 
the former called by the Tamils " culloo " is the fermented, the latter 
the unfermeuted juice. 

Toddy serves extensively as yeast, and throughout Ceylon no other 
is employed by the bakers ; large quantities of it are also converted 
into vinegar, used for pickling gherkins, limes, the undeveloped leaves 
of the cocoa-nut, and palmyra trees, and other substances ; but by far 
the greatest quantity is boiled down for jaggery or sugar. About 1,000 
tons are said to be manufactured of it in Ceylon. 

According to Forbes three quarts of toddy will make 1 lb. of jaggery. 
Malcolm remarks that jaggery resembles maple sugar, and that in the 
neighbourhood of Ava, one pound sells for the third of a penny. In Jaffna 
3 lbs. are sold for 2d. The usual process of making jaggery, as pursued 
at Jaffna is exceedingly simple. The sweet toddy is boiled until it 
becomes a thick syrup, a small quantity of scraped cocoa-nut kernel 
is thrown in that it may be ascertained by the feel if the syrup 
has reached the proper consistency, and then it is poured into small 
baskets of palmyra leaf, where it cools and hardens into jaggery. In 
these small plaited palmyia baskets it is kept for home consumption ; 
sent coastwise, chiefly to Colombo, or exported beyond seas to be re- 
fined. To make vellum or crystallised jaggery, which is extensively 
used as a medicine, the process is nearly the same as for the common 
sugar, only the syrup is not boiled for so long a period. 

The pot which contains it is covered and put aside for some months, 
at the end of which period the crystals are formed in abundance. The 
juice of the palmyra is richer in saccharine matter than that of most 
other palms, in consequence, perhaps, of the tree more generally growing 
in dry sandy soil and in a dry climate. The great fault of the jaggery 
made at Jaffna seems to arise from the too free application of lime, a 
small quantity of which is absolutely necessary to prevent fermentation. 
Jaggery forms an article of commerce from the upper to the lower 
provinces of Burmah, and is also of importance in some of the islands 



THE ECONOMIC PRODUCTS OF THE PALMYRA PALM. 285 

of the Indian Archipelago. Besides being exported in large quantities 
from Ceylon forms a considerable portion of the food of the Tamil 
people of Jaffna. Amongst a variety of purposes to which it is put, is 
that of being mixed with the white of eggs and with lime from burnt 
coral or shells. The result is a tenacious mortar, capable of receiving so 
beautiful a polish that it can with difficulty be distinguished from the 
finest white marble. 

Timber. — A full grown palmyra is from sixty to seventy feet high ; 
its trunk at the bottom is about five and a half feet, at the top two and 
a half feet in circumference. Its wood is generally known in Ceylon 
and the maritime ports of India. Large quantities of it are exported 
from Point Pedro and other ports of Jaffna to Madras and Colombo. 
At certain seasons of the year, the felling, splitting, dressing, and ex- 
porting of it give work to thousands of the Tamil people of the 
northern peninsula of Ceylon. The trees have to arrive at a consider- 
able age before they are of use for timber ; when a hundred years old 
they are excellent. The wood of this palm near the circumference, when 
of sufficient age, is remarkably hard, black, heavy, and durable, and uni- 
versally used for rafters in pent-roofed houses, for which purpose Rox- 
burgh states it is the best wood in India. The centre is soft and spongy, 
containing little else than a coarse kind of farinaceous matter, inter- 
mixed with some soft, white woody fibres and is cut out, as the black 
exterior hard part only is employed. The wood is capable of taking a 
fine polish. Its specific gravity is, according to Mr. Mendis, sixty- 
five pounds per solid foot. For house building and various domestic 
purposes, the timber is the most generally used of the palm tribe. 
Pillars and posts for the verandahs of houses, well-sweeps, joists, and 
reepers or laths, &c, are made from it. The trunk is split into four for 
rafters, into eight for reepers, and these are dressed with an adze. From 
the structure of the fibres, it splits easily in the direction of its length, 
but supports a greater cross strain, than any other wood ; iron nails, 
however, will rust rapidly in it. 

Palmyra trunks split into halves, with the heart scooped out, are 
used as spouts for various purposes, but more especially for carrying 
away the water from the eaves of houses. The dark outside wood of 
very old trees is used to some extent in Europe for umbrella handles, 
walking canes, paper rulers, fancy boxes, wafer stamps, and other 
articles. 

Kelingoes. — The nuts are collected and buried in heaps in the ground. 
When dug up after the space of three months, the young shoots called 
kelingo supply the inhabitants with a nourishing aliment. In size, 
colour, and shape they resemble a parsnip, and look like a cold potato. 
In its fresh state it will keep good for a couple of months, and when 
well dried in the sun, for a whole year. In this state they are called 
odials. When reduced to flour or meal, the favourite cool or gruel is 
made of it. 



286 REVIEWS. 

Punatoo.— The pulp of the fruit is preserved for use in the following 
manner. The ripe fruits are put into old baskets containing water, and 
are then squeezed by the hand till the pulp forms a jelly. Layers of 
this jelly are spread on palmyra leaf mats to dry on stages. Layer after 
layer is deposited to the number of about fifteen. These are left in the 
sun about a fortnight or three weeks, only covered at night, and pro- 
tected from the dew and rain. The best sort is called Pimatos, and the 
tough withery kind made from the remaining fruits gathered at the end 
of the season, which is much in favour, Tot Punatoo. Punatoo is sold 
by the mat at 3s. to 6s. each (about 1,000 pints of three nuts each being 
sufficient for a mat), and is the chief food of the islanders of Ceylon, and 
of the poorer classes of the Peninsula, for several months of the year. 



lUiimtis. 



A Treatise on Sugae Machinery, &c. By N. P. Burgh, Engineer. 
E. and F. N. Spon. 

This is a most valuable work on a subject on which but little has 
hitherto been published. The manufacture of sugar machinery in this 
country rests in very few hands, and there has been a disposition to 
withhold rather than to furnish any information to the public, unless it 
were some specific inquiry as to the cost of parts of machinery. Mr. 
Burgh's work comes, therefore, most opportunely, looking at the high 
prices of sugar, and the steady extension of cultivation in the East and 
West Indies, the Mauritius, Natal, Brazil, and other quarters. It 
treats of the processes of producing sugar from the cane, and refining 
moist and loaf sugar, home and colonial, as well as the practical mode 
of designing, manufacturing, and erecting the machinery, together with 
rules for the proportions and estimates. The estimates given are 
very full, clear, and explicit on all points of cost for the minutest 
article. Crushing mills, boilers, clarifiers, heaters, pumps, tanks, 
vacuum pumps, receivers, centrifugal machines, charcoal- burning fur- 
naces, and retorts, are all figured and described in four single and 
twelve folding plates. 

Mr. Burgh's work will be equally valuable to the producers and 
refiners on the Continent, as to the sugar planters of the two Indies, 
Natal, and Louisiana, and the refiners of New South Wales, Victoria, 
and America. The whole getting up of the work is admirable, am' 
will command for it a ready sale in all quarters interested in sugar pro 
duction. 



REVIEWS. 287 

Petroleum and its Products. By A. Norman Tate, F.C.S. London : 
J. W. Davies. 

The trade in petroleum has already attained to such a magnitude, 
that Mr. Tate has done good service to the public in issuing this 
treatise, which gives an account of its history, origin, composition, 
uses, and commercial value, the methods employed in refining it, and 
the properties, uses, &c, of its products. Mr. Tate has dealt with the 
subject thoroughly and exhaustively in all its branches, and his little 
work may be recommended as a reliable hand-book for all interested in 
this substance. 



The Ghost as Produced in the Spectre Drama, &c. By H. 
Dircks, C.E. E. and F. Spon. 

Mr. Dircks has, we think, been ill-advised in thrusting so much of 
his private quarrels in the matter of the ghost apparatus before the 
public. More than one-half of this little book of 100 pages is taken 
up with details and extracts from correspondence, and remarks upon the 
manner in which he has been treated. It would seem that the right of 
representing his phantasmagoria inventions was freely presented by him 
to the Polytechnic Institution, and what Mr. Dircks complains of is, that 
his name as the inventor has been almost generally withheld, and that 
having been thus liberal to the Institution, common justice demanded, 
that at least the honour, when honour was due, should have been awarded. 
This appears to be the sore point. The book before us, divested of this 
personal discussion, would have been interesting enough ; for Mr. 
Dircks not only gives us the benefit of all his progressive discoveries 
in the matter, from the paper first read at the British Association 
Meeting at Leeds, in 1858, to the more recent improvements, with full 
explanations of the machinery, apparatus, and processes adopted in 
these ghost dramas, and further favours the public with a number of 
new adaptations. As a curious description of these spectral illustra- 
tions, the book is most interesting. 



The Colouring Matters Derived from Coal Tar. By Prof. H. 
Dussauce. Philadelphia ; Baird. 

A useful compilation of the most important and recent information 
relative to the coal dye3 now so extensively used. The several colours, 
and the practical mode of employing them, are specifically given, 
and the theory of the fixation of colours and mordants popularly ex- 
plained. 



288 REVIEWS. 

An Inquiry into the Nature of Heat, &c. By Zerali (ML urn. 
London : E. and F. Spon. 

The author considers that the prevalent hypotheses respecting the 
nature and precise mode of action of heat are unsatisfactory, and, therefore, 
advances opinions and theories of his own. The subject is one of great 
interest to all who have to do with the question of steam, the prepa- 
ration of metals, or any of the other various and important industrial 
applications of heat. We cpiote the following extract : — 

" Heat is supposed to be extruded from irom by hammering it, 
until it is red-hot, upon an anvil ; thus (bearing in mind that we are all 
along dealing with a supposition) savages obtain fire by rubbing sticks 
of dry wood together ; thus Desaigues, by subjecting fluids to strong 
pressure, rendered them luminous ; thus compressed air inflames tinder . 
thus the heads of wooden piles sometimes burst into a blaze under the 
heavy and rapid blows of a steam pile-driving engine ; thus a cannon- 
shot, striking an iron armour plate, often throws off a flash of fire, and 
is afterwards found to be too hot to be handled ; thus the turning, 
boring, drilling, planning, and polishing of metals are attended with 
the development of heat ; thus the agitation of the sea in a storm is 
found to have warmed the water. The same effect being produced also 
by the compression of water in an hydraulic press ; and thus, in short, 
heat is supposed to be extruded wherever friction or compression takes 
place ; and, indeed, wherever atoms of ordinary matter of any kind ap- 
proach each other. 

" The separation of material atoms cannot, upon the same supposition, 
be effected except through the agency of heat or electricity, which latter 
appears to be a linear form of heat, acting in definite directions only, 
and not in the contagious and diffusive manner of so-called " solar'' 
heat and the ordinary heat of combustion." 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

Enquete sur le Commerce et la Navigation de 1' Algerie (Alger Bas- 
tide). — A .familiar Epistle to Robert J. Walter (Saunders, Otley, and 
Co.) — Skin Diseases and their Cure, by a Diaihetical Treatment. By 
Edwin Payne, M.D. Renshaw. 



THE TECHNOLOGIST. 



THE TECHNOLOGY OF SOME OF THE PRODUCTS OF THE 
DISTILLATION OF COAL. 

BY WILLIAM PROCTER, M.D., F.C.S. 

Some years ago Dr. Ure wrote thus : — " There is not, perhaps, any- 
waste article of our manufacturing industry which has been so singularly 
neglected as coal-tar, and yet there can be but very few which offer any- 
thing like so fair a field for the exercise of skill and ingenuity." At 
the present time what a different state of things exists ; for there is 
perhaps no substance which has been, and is being, so fully investigated 
as Coal-tar, or which has produced results so serviceable to the arts, 
manufactures, and domestic comfort, or which has shown more fully the 
value of science in suggesting plans for the utilization of waste sub- 
stances. We have now large manufactories established solely for the 
production of Coal-tar, and substances capable of affording it are brought 
from most distant lands. It is a singular fact that every substance pro- 
duced by the distillation of these coals, shales, bitumens, &c, has some 
valuable economic application. Although the illuminating oil is fre- 
quently the primary object of the manufacturer, the advance of Science 
has enabled him to utilize a large number of secondary products which 
would otherwise have been waste. It is to the consideration of these 
secondary products that this paper is to be devoted. 

When coal-tar is submitted to distillation, a light oil or naphtha in 
the first instance passes over, then a heavy or dead oil, and, lastly, pitch 
remains behind in the retort. By distilling in this way there is obtained 
from 100 parts of coal-tar, about 9 parts of naphtha, 60 parts of dead 
oil, and 31 parts of pitch. 

In a large number of places in various parts of the world, an inflam- 
mable liquid exudes, to which the term naphtha is applied, such as 

VOL. IV. A A 



2SyO THE TECHNOLOGY OP SOME OF 

Persian naphtha, Burmese naphtha, &c, but it is now more exactly 
applied to the light oil, which is the result of the action of heat in 
organic matter. Naphtha, and its chief constituent Benzole, has, on 
account of its numerous applications, become an important commercial 
article and one of special manufacture from coal, shales, or some of the 
natural tars or naphthas. The process by which it is procured from coal 
is of this kind. Tar obtained from coal at a comparatively low tempera- 
ture, is placed in large iron stills and distilled by direct steam. The 
distillate constitutes " rough naphtha," is very impure and has a foul 
odour due to the presence of a large number of organic impurities ; it 
contains basic and acid oils and neutral hydro-carbons. To remove 
these and purify it, the naphtha is transferred to large cylindrical 
vessels lined with lead ; through them passes a vertical shaft capable of 
being rotated, furnished with blades pierced with holes. Sulphuric acid 
is now run into the vessel and mixed with the naphtha by rotation of 
the shaft. Most of the basic oils, &c, are absorbed, and the acid of a tarry 
consistence subsides to the bottom of the vessel and is drawn off. When 
the naphtha is required to be highly rectified, it is a second time 
treated with the acid. The naphtha still retains in solution the acid 
oils, some sulphuric acid as well as sulphurous acid produced by deoxi- 
dation. To remove these substances and effect further purity, the 
naphtha is treated with caustic soda in an apparatus similar to that used 
for the acid. The liquid is then distilled and constitutes the Coal Najrfitha 
of commerce, and is mainly composed of a series of hydro-carbons, of 
which Benzole constitutes the larger part. Benzole or Benzene (C 12 H 9 
or C 12 H 5 , H Hydride of Phenyl) is at ordinary temperatures a clear 
colourless liquid with a somewhat fragrant odour, and at 32° freezes to 
a white substance like camphor. Its sp. gr. is 0.85, if it is lower, im- 
purity or adulteration is indicated. Benzole was discovered in 1828 by 
Prof. Faraday during some investigations into the nature of oil gas, and 
was prepared artificially by Mitscherlisch, by the distillation of Benzoic 
acid with lime. It boils at 177°, and this being a lower temperature 
than the hydro-carbons with which it is associated in naphtha, pass into 
vapour, affords a ready method of separation by fractional distillation 
On these principles the benzole is separated from the naphtha in an 
ingenious apparatus devised by Mr. Mansfield ; it consists of a metal 
still of about two gallons capacity. A worm passes from the top of the 
still through a closed cistern full of water, and communicates with a 
discharge pipe connected with a condensing apparatus. Naphtha being 
placed in the vessel and heat applied, nothing comes over until the 
water in the cistern reaches 177°-, Benzole is then condensed. The pipe 
being surrounded with water can never attain a temperature higher than 
212°, the result is that all the hydro-carbons as toluol, cumol, cymol, 
&c, which are not volatile at 212° are condensed and fall back into the 
still, a second distillation keeping the head at 180° or 190° produces an 
extremely pure article. The residue which is left in the still is by no 



THE PRODUCTS OF THE DISTILLATION OF COAL. 291 

means valueless, and is adapted for nearly all the purposes for which 
ordinary coal naphtha is applicable. If Benzole is required free from all 
admixture, it must he frozen and placed in a funnel that the impurities 
may drain away. 

Although equally well adapted for many of the economic purposes 
for which they are used, Benzole has these advantages over Naphtha, the 
odour is less unpleasant and, being more volatile, it is more rapidly and 
effectually removed by evaporation. Under the name of Benzine Collas, 
Sherwoodole, &c, Benzole has been extensively used to remove grease 
and fatty matters from all textile fabrics, and Mr. Calvert has made such 
application the subject of a patent, and cites a large number of purposes 
for which it is adapted. In order to remove grease, etc., from these 
articles, if small they are simply rubbed with it ; but on a large scale, 
they are put into a suitable vessel and the naphtha is run in ; after a 
time it is drawn off and the fabrics are submitted to pressure to remove 
as much as possible of the adhering liquid. After being used in this 
manner the naphtha or benzole is not wasted, but is freed by distilla- 
tion from the greasy matters which it has dissolved, and which may be 
utilized as a lubricant for machinery, etc. The powerful solvent pro- 
perties which Benzole possesses over a large class of resinous substances 
has given to it an extensive economical application. It is one of the 
materials used for the solution of caoutchouc in the manufacture of 
Macintosh waterproof articles. One method of making vulcanised 
India-rubber consists in rubbing caoutchouc softened by naphtha with 
sulphur and heating to 320°. It dissolves gum mastic, etc., camphor, 
wax and essential oils with great facility, and for some of these pur- 
poses is becoming an important agent in the researches of organic 
chemistry. Some resins such as copal, etc., which are only slightly 
acted upon by the liquid, dissolve readily in the vapour at its point of 
condensation, hence its probable utility for varnish purposes. A cheap 
polish and furniture paste have long been made with naphtha, and also 
a cheap varnish with gum dammar. But in this direction the light 
spirit procured during the distillation of petroleum, etc., for illuminat- 
ing oils, promises to be of great service. The presence of these light 
oils is detrimental to the goodness of the heavier oils used for illumina- 
tion, inasmuch as the presence of the former is the cause of the ex- 
plosibility often possessed by the latter. Obtained during rectification 
they were at first looked upon as little more than waste products, but 
lately have been introduced into commerce under the name of turpen- 
tine substitute, turpentole, etc. The recent high price of turpentine 
has caused a great demand for the article as a substitute in preparing 
paints, common varnishes, etc. 

Benzole is one interesting point in the passage of coal to colour, and 
is dependent upon the peculiar action which nitric acid exercises upon 
it, having as its result the production of Nitro-Benzole ; other chemical 
agents convert this fluid into Aniline, the basis of the larger part of the 



292 THE TECHNOLOGY OP SOME OF 

beautiful coal-tar dyes (Technologist, vol. ii. p. 428). Having the 
peculiar odour as well as flavour of oil of bitter almonds, nitro-benzole 
forms an efficient substitute for that substance both as a flavouring and 
perfume, and is often sold for such purposes under the name of essence 
of mirbane. For culinary uses nitro-benzole has the great advantage of 
being innocuous whilst the oil of bitter almonds is a deadly poison* Its 
chief application as a perfume is in soap-making, and for this purpose 
it is found to be better adapted than the true oil. 

Both Benzole and Naphtha are highly inflammable, burn with a dull, 
smoky flame, but in a properly constructed lamp they yield on com- 
bustion a cheap and brilliant light. Some years ago naphtha was ex- 
tensively used, being burnt in a lamp of similar construction to the 
paraffine lamps, or in a state of vapour as Holliday's lamp. But on 
account of the extreme volatility of naphtha, and the property which 
the vapour has of forming an explosive mixture with atmospheric air, 
leading to serious accidents, the use of this substance is completely 
superseded by the various paraffine oils, except in the instance of the 
flamingandsmokylightused at our markets and fairs : mixed with alcohol, 
naphtha constitutes an efficient burning fluid, and is largely used on the 
Continent where spirit is cheap. Some such compound has, I believe, 
lately been proposed to take the place of oil for lighting railway car- 
riages, the liquid being burnt in a state of vapour by an appropriate 
arrangement. 

Ordinary coal gas when transmitted through naphtha or benzole 
receives a considerable addition to its illuminating powers. Mr. Lowe 
upwards of twenty years ago first suggested and patented this method. 
He passed coal gas through a rectangular box containing trays of 
naphtha ; in passing over it the gas became impregnated with the hydro- 
carbon. He calculated that 1,000 cubic feet of naphthalised gas 
were equal in illuminating power to 2,000 cubic feet of ordinary gas, and 
that the saving to the consumer by adopting his process was twenty-five 
per cent. Within the last year or two this plan has been adapted to 
many of the London street lamps, and has been made a subject of 
special investigation by Dr. Letheby. He says, for this purpose the 
naphtha must be colourless and of a sp. gr. not less than 0-830, and 
not more than 0'860, and should yield 70 per cent, of volatile naphtha at 
266°, and 20 per cent, at 302°. This gives continuously eight grains 
of hydro-carbon to each cubic foot of gas, and raises the illumi- 
nating power 60 per cent, over the unnaphthalised. A company 
has lately been established in this country to carry on the naphtha- 
lising of gas as well as to burn it in a state of vapour mixed 
with air, under the name of the atmospheric light. The latter plan of 
lighting was tried some years ago in America and abandoned, I believe, 
on account of its impracticability. The plan is to drive a current of air by 

* That nitro-benzole in food is innocuous is questionable from several recent 
oases that have come before the public. —Editor. 



THE PRODUCTS OF THE DISTILLATION OF COAL. 293 

means of machinery (that used in America was the motive-power of a 
descending weight) through a vessel of the hydro -carbon, kept slightly 
warm to assist evaporation ; the air saturated with the vapour is then 
burnt as gas. It is by no means probable that this light will, as it is 
stated, supersede coal gas, for below a certain temperature the air will 
not carry sufficient vapour to furnish a good light, and in cold weather 
the benzole condenses in the pipes, and the liquid itself requires the 
application of heat. 

Inspired in a state of vapour benzole possesses anaesthetic properties, 
and, like chloroform, produces insensibility to pain ; but it has not 
come into general use for this purpose, unpleasant symptoms having 
displayed themselves on several occasions in those who have taken it. 
It has been employed medically with success as an external application 
in some affections of the skin ; for itch I have found benzole an effectual 
and speedy remedy. 

On many occasions and for many reasons the detection of benzole is 
frequently a matter of importance. Dr. Hofmann has furnished us with 
a ready method of detecting it. The liquid to be examined is warmed 
in a test-tube with fuming nitric acid, it is then diluted with water, 
and shaken up with ether, which dissolves the nitro-benzole formed. 
The ethereal solution is separated by a pipette and mixed with an equal 
volume of alcohol and hydrochloric acid, and granulated zinc is then 
added. After five minutes the mixture is saturated with potass and 
shaken up with ether and the ethereal solution being evaporated on a 
watch-glass, the addition of a drop of a solution of chloride of lime 
strikes the purple colour indicative of aniline. 

Carbolic Acid (C 12 H 5 0, H 0), called also Phenol and Phenylic 
acid is another important product of the distillation of coal. When 
those portions of the acid of coal-tar which distil between 300° and 
400° are mixed with a hot solution of potash, a crystalline mass results, 
which is resolved by water into a light oil and heavy alkaline liquid, 
when the latter is neutralized by hydrochloric acid, the impure carbolic 
acid separates as a light oil. This is purified by the action of chloride 
of calcium and distillation, exposed to a low temperature, and the 
crystals formed drained from the mother liquor and carefully preserved 
from air. The crystals are colourless and deliquescent, fuse at 95° and 
pass into vapour at 370° Carbolic acid has an odour of creosote, in fact 
a great deal of the creosote met with in commerce is only carbolic acid 
more or less impure. It is one great cause of the offensive odour of 
some coal oils. 

The disinfecting power of coal-tar has long been known, a property 
which is due to the carbolic acid. It belongs to that class of colytics 
known as antiseptics, whose action is to prevent putrefaction by arrest- 
ing it in a singular way, without destroying the organic matter, but at 
the same time do not allow decay to go on. Injected into the bodies 
of animals, it preserves them unaltered in contact with the air, and 



294 THE TECHNOLOGY OP SOME OP 

M. Lemaire says that a human body can be preserved with less than fifty 
centimes of it. The best mode of using it as a disinfectant is a mixture 
of sulphite of lime and carbolate of lime ; this constitutes " M'Dougall's 
disinfecting powder." In such a combination the carbolic acid prevents 
p atrefaction, and the sulphurous acid acts as an ordinary disinfectant, 
according to Schonbein, in the act of taking one part of oxygen to itself 
converts another portion into ozone, which produces the disinfecting 
result. The manufacture of disinfectants has now become a regular and 
large one, and is carried on by Mr. M'Dougall, near Oldham. He uses 
the powder to prevent decomposition in stables, cow-houses, or in any 
accumulations of putrescible matter, and generally for the prevention of 
decomposition in manures. The solution is employed in dissecting- 
rooms for the destruction of the noxious smell. A liquid is also pre- 
pared with carbolic acid and lime water, which is applied to destroy the 
bad effects of sewers, and acts by stopping the generation of gases in 
sewer water, or in any accumulation of animal refuse. The liquid is 
likewise adapted to prevent the decomposition of meat brought to 
market, or of dead animals. 

Carbolic acid has considerable power of producing colour, and 
by the action of various chemical agents upon it, valuable blue, 
red, and yellow dyes have been made. This property may be 
shown by dipping a piece of deal wood in carbolic acid and then 
into nitric acid, when it acquires a blue colour ; mixed with 
ammonia and chloride of lime carbolic acid becomes blue, whilst if 
mixed with sulphuric acid and added to perchloride of iron, the 
liquid assumes^a purple hue. Mixed with lime and exposed to the air, 
it yields rosolic acid, and a rich red colour is produced. An interesting 
circumstance connected with this fact was mentioned by Mr. Calvert at 
the Meeting of the British Association at Aberdeen, showing the value 
of science to commerce. It was noticed that large quantities of the 
calico sent to India became of a rose colour, and therefore unmarketable, 
thereby both in the cost of shipping and injury of the article entailing a 
heavy loss to the manufacturer. Mr. Calvert investigated the matter, 
and found that the staining was due to rosolate of lime, the formation of 
which he traced to the following cause. The bales of cotton were pro- 
tected from wet by a waterproof felt, in the manufacture of which a 
solution of gutta percha in impure coal naphtha had been used. Under 
the influence of the warm and damp atmosphere of India, the carbolic 
acid became volatilized, and coming into contact with the lime in the 
calico, was converted into rosolate of lime. The discovery of the cause 
in this manner prevented any similar accident again happening, Eosolic 
acid is produced by the action of oxalic and sulphuric acids on carbolic 
acid, and constitutes one of the dyes mentioned as attainable from the 
latter substance. This action gives rise to the production of a beautiful 
red solution, but by reason of the alteration which light produced upon 
it could not for a long time be made available as a dye ; another ob- 



THE PRODUCTS OF THE DISTILLATION OP COAL. 295 

stacle was the impossibility of fixing it to constitute a fast colour. 
Lately these difficulties have been overcome by Guinon, who by combin- 
ing this substance with ammonia, has produced a beautiful permanent dye, 
used largely for printing muslins, and known under the name of peonine. 
That the introduction of nitrogen in this manner endows non-azotised 
vegetable substances with a power of fixation, and likens them in this 
respect to animal substances, is a highly interesting scientific fact. The 
yellow dye afforded by carbolic acid is the result of the action of nitric 
acid upon it, and its conversion into Picric acid, which is deposited in 
yellow crystals. Picric acid is also known under the names of Carbazotic 
acid and Nitrophenic acid, and was introduced for dyeing purposes about 
six years ago by Messrs. Guinon, Marnas, and Bonny, of Lyons. The colour- 
ing property is very considerable, one part of the acid in 300,000 parts 
of water communicates a yellow tinge to the liquid. All animal fabrics 
are dyed with facility of a brilliant yellow and fast colour, one part 
of picric acid in water with a little sulphuric acid gives 1,000 times 
its weight of silk a moderate yellow colour. Acted upon by the pro - 
toxide of iron, a red dye (picramic acid) is the result, whilst with oxide 
of copper it gives a yellow green dye. The blue dye, Azuline, is pre- 
pared by the action of Aniline on Peonine. On account of the property 
which picric acid has, of forming sparingly soluble salts with potash, it 
is used as a test with that alkali. Its well marked colour and bitter 
taste has caused it to be employed for mixing with some poisonous sub- 
stances for the purpose of preventing accidents. Picric acid has medici- 
nal properties, having anti-periodic powers similar to quinine. One 
great impediment to its administration exists in the fact that a yellow 
colour of the skin is produced in those to whom it is administered. 

Mr. Bethell has proposed with great advantage the employment of 
oil of tar as a method of preserving wood and preventing decay in 
timber ; this power is in a great measure due to the carbolic acid of 
the oil. The protection is due to the prevention of absorption of mois- 
ture, to the coagulation of the albumen, to the general prevention of 
decomposition, and is at the same time so noxious to animal and vege- 
table life, that the attacks of insects are repelled, and the growth and 
propagation of fungi prevented. The mode of application consists in 
placing the timber in strong closed cylinders under pressure, similar to 
a steam boiler ; a vacuum is produced by an air-pump, and the hydro- 
carbon forced into the wood by a pressure of 1501bs. on the square inch. 
As much as 181b. have been forced into a cubic foot. When a quantity 
equal to 101b. to each cubic foot has been forced in, the process is com- 
plete. Railway sleepers prepared in this manner have been in use for 
twenty years, and at the end of that time found comparatively sound. 
It is said that by this process the common and softer woods, such as 
Scotch fir, are rendered as durable and firm as the best oak. The gene- 
ral use of this method of preserving wood on a large scale resolves itself 
into a question of cost. 



2Ub THE TECHNOLOGY OF SOME OP 

Dr. Ashby, in the ' Mechanics' Magazine,' gives an entirely new ap- 
plication for carbolic acid, and thinks that it would be found useful in 
grinding, tiling, boring, or sawing in metal work, on account of possess- 
ing that which he calls " pro-frictional powers," as opposed to the 
" anti-frictional powers " of oil, which keeps surfaces asunder by the 
interposition of a thin fine film, whilst carbolic acid seems to bring 
them together. The medicinal properties of carbolic acid have been 
lately highly spoken of in diarrhoea, and in obstinate vomiting, 
and in the proportion of one part to seven of water, has been 
used with great success as a local application to fetid, ill-conditioned 
ulcers, and speedily cures some skin diseases. It is said to be an effec- 
tual remedy for the foot-rot in sheep. 

Naphthaline (C20 H s ) is another product of the distillation of coal, 
and in cold weather condenses in the pipes in such quantities, that it has 
been called the gas-maker's nuisance. When pure it is a beautiful white 
crystalline substance, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether. 
By the action of the strong acids, especially the nitric, a large number 
of substances of the highest interest to the chemist are produced. At 
present no economic application has been found for naphthaline, which 
the large quantity capable of being procured with facility renders very 
desirable, it is true that by the action of various reagents, purple, violet, 
yellow, shades of red and blue can be produced, yet on account of their 
fugitive nature and incapability of being fixed so far, they are not com- 
mercially successful for dyeing purposes. 

Paraffine (C'20 H20) is a solid crystalline substance existing in small 
quantity in coal tar, but obtained for commercial purposes from the resi- 
duum of the distillations carried on for the manufacture of illuminating 
oils. After the lamp oil is separated, a heavy oil is left ; this being 
submitted to a temperature of 30°, the paraffine solidifies, and is removed 
by pressure, the liquid oil being used for lubricating machinery, &c. 
After this separation the crude paraffine is purified by being submitted to 
the action of sulphuric acid and soda alternately, and then appears like 
spermaceti, being both tasteless and inodorous. The striking chemical 
character of paraffine is the indisposition it possesses to combine with 
other substances, and a power of resisting the action of the most powerful 
reagents. Nitric and sulphuric acids do not affect it at ordinary tempera- 
tures ; the same is the case with the alkalies, chlorine, &c. The fat oils, the 
essential oils, and ether dissolve it readily, alcohol sparingly. Chemically 
it is solid defiant gas, a fact which causes it to burn with a most bril- 
liant, white, and clear flame. This latter property, coupled with a beau- 
tiful appearance and remarkable transparency, constitutes it a formi- 
dable opponent to wax and spermaceti in the manufacture of candles, 
over both of which it possesses considerable advautages in regard to 
transparency, high temperature of fusion, great illuminating power and 
freedom from grease. The transparency enables the manufacturer to 
produce coloured candles of paraffine with a quantity of colouring matter 



THE PRODUCTS OF THE DISTILLATION OP COAL. 297 

so small, that the burning properties are not interfered with by the in- 
troduction of a large quantity of incombustible materials found to be 
required with wax, &c. The coloured candles tinted, red, mauve, violet, 
crimson, &c, by the coal-tar dyes, and produced by the Messrs. Field 
in various designs, are really beautiful objects. The temperature at 
which this substance becomes fluid varies with the source from which it 
is obtained; that from Boghead coal fuses at 114°, that from Bitumen 
at 110°, whilst the paraffine from Rangoon tar requires a heat of 140° 
before it melts. A high melting point is an important matter in candle 
making ; for under such circumstances the well which is formed at the base 
of the wick during burning, containing a supply of liquid matter ready to be 
drawn up by the wick for combustion, is preserved intact, and " gutter- 
ing " obviated. Paraffine candles burn with a clear, white, smokeless 
flame. According to Dr. Letheby, weight for weight, the illuminating 
power is 22 per cent, greater than sperm, 40 per ent. greater than wax, 
46 per cent, greater than stearine, and 58 per cent, greater than compo- 
site ; or to estimate it in another way, the light produced by 98lb. of 
paraffine is equal to that of 1201b. of sperm, or 1381b. of wax, or 1441b. 
of stearine, or 1551b. of composite candles. Accirding to Dr. Frankland, 
the cost of light in relation to other candles is, paraffine, 3s. 10d.;_ sperm 
6s.8d.; wax, 7s. 2d. Paraffine is now extensively used to supply the plac e 
of sulphur in dipping matches, thus remedying the suffocating odour 
produced by the formation of sulphurous acid when a lucifer is ignited. 
After the separation of these important substances with such manifold 
applications and uses, Pitch is left as a residuum, but not as a waste 
product. A comparatively recent application of it is, the conversion of 
small, almost valueless, coal into an excellent kind of coke. The pitch 
is ground and mixed with seven or eight parts of coal, and put into a 
cokeing oven, the vapour of the pitch becoming decomposed, deposits its 
carbon on the coke in the process of burning, which increases greatly 
the product from a given quantity of coal. A manufacture of patent 
fuel from pitch is also carried on largely near the coal beds of Wales, by 
grinding and mixing it with small coal, heating together, and then by 
great pressure moulding it into bricks, when a compact mass is formed 
in some respects superior to coal. The other applications of pitch con- 
sist in its use for asphalting roads and roofs ; it is also employed in ship- 
building and in the preparation of lamp-black. 

Such, then, are the most important points in the technology of the 
destructive distillation of coal, and few subjects are more extensive or 
more interesting. Abstruse scientific researches have given these valu- 
able products to us, and made known and developed their wide applica- 
tion. The labours of Dr. Faraday into the nature of benzole may be 
looked upon as the starting point, and the further development is due 
to the industry of chemists of our own time. There is doubtless yet a 
mine of wealth to be explored, both in a scientific and commercial sense, 
capable of producing results probably as little expected, as at first was 
the appearance of our brilliant but well-known tar dyes. 

VOL. IV B B 



298 
OILS AND FATS. 

BY CAMPBELL MORFIT. 

Although some fatty bodies are very different from others in their 
chemical nature, and all of them differ from the essential oils, yet being 
often used in the same branch of manufacture indiscriminately, they 
may be embraced together as a class under the term Oleics. 

By far the larger proportion of oils and fats agree in being composed 
of a fat acid, united to a base called glycerine. The three principal acids 
are stearic, margaric, and oleic ; when stearate or margarate of glycerine 
predominate (the compound being called stearin or margarin), the fat is 
more solid, as tallow, suet, &c. ; when oleate of glycerine (called also 
olein) is in sufficient quantity, the fat is fluid or oily, as olive oil. The 
chemical connection between margaric acid, which is a solid crystalline 
fat, and vinegar or acetic acid, and the connection between acetic acid 
and common alcohol, are pointed out in an essay published in the 
' Journal of the Franklin Institute,' 1848. Now since formic, acetic, and 
valeric acids can be shown to be derived from wood-spirit, common 
alcohol, and fusel oil, which are their respective alcohols, we may infer 
that the higher fat acids have also their alcohols. The investigations of 
Brodie in wax seems to point out such alcohols and their acids. The 
general formula for this fat acid series, the most extended series yet 
developed in organic chemistry, is Cn H n O4, n being an even number. 
No well-defined connection has yet been established between other fat 
acids not belonging to this group. 

According to Georgey ('Ann. der Chem. und Pharm.' lxvi.), the 
butter of cocoa contains the following acids : 

Caproic C12H12O4 

Capryllic CieHieOi 

Capric C20H20O4 

Pichuric (lauric, laurostearic) . . . C24H24O4 

Myristic (probably) C28H2SO4 

Palmitic C32H32O4 

The cocinic acid of St. Evre is a mixture of capric and pichuric 
acids. 

Gerhardt and Laurent have endeavoured to prove (' Comptes Rendus,' 
1849) that the formula for stearic acid is C34H34O4 ; that margaric acid 
is an isomeric modification of it, and should be called metastearic acid. 

The train-oil of the Beaked Whale {Balcena rostrata) has recently 
been examined by Scharling (' Journ. of Prac. Chem.' xliii.), who gives it 
the formula CfeHeoO 4 - It consists principally of a liquid fat, free from 
glycerine, a minute portion of spermaceti, and traces of other fats. Its 
specific gravity is -8807 at 52°. It burns with a bright flame, and its 
illuminating power is in the ratio of 1.57 : 1 of common whale oil. It 
also barns slower and emits less smoke than the latter oil. 



OILS AND FATS. 299 

Mr. C. Watt, Sr. ('Newton's Journ.' 1848, and ' Ch. Gaz.' vi.), uses 
the following method for bleaching dark oils or tallow. To every half 
ton of oil, take ten pounds of bichromate of potassa. Powder the salt, 
dissolve it in four pints of hot water, stir, and carefully add fifteen 
pounds of sulphuric acid, and continue the stirring until complete solu- 
tion. This mixture is then thoroughly incorporated with the melted 
fat, previously separated from foreign matters by repose and decantation. 
The containing vessels should be of wood, and the temperature about 
130° F. When, after much agitation, the liquid fat assumes a light 
green colour, the bleaching is completed, four buckets of boiling 
water are then to be added, the whole stirred for five minutes, and 
left to repose for several hours, when it will be white and ready for 
use. 

Mr. Watts, Jr., proposes to recover the chromic acid ad infinitum, and 
thus render the process very economical, in manner as follows. Transfer 
the green chrome liquor, after the separation of the fat, to a tub, dilute 
it with water, and then add thick milk of lime until the sulphuric acid 
is nearly saturated ; leave to repose, decant the liquor from the sulphate 
of lime, and carefully add to it another portion of the cream of lime, 
until the precipitation of all the green oxide and the supernatant liquor 
is clear and colourless. Drain off this liquor, add fresh water, and, after 
settling, again decant. Eepeat this washing, then transfer the precipi- 
tate to a red-hot iron slab, and keep it constantly stirred until it changes 
to a yellow powder. The chromate of lime thus formed, if decomposed 
by sulphuric acid in slight excess, yields chromic acid as well suited for 
bleaching purposes as that from bichromate of potassa. 

A good oil-filter is said to be made of fine sand, charcoal, and 
gypsum ; the sand to retain substances suspended in it, charcoal to 
decolourize it, and plaster to remove water. (' Journ. de Chirn Med.' 
1846.) 

To decolourize raw linseed oil, a solution of two pounds of copperas 
in two and a half pounds of water is poured into a flask containing two 
pounds of linseed oil, and exposed to the sun for several weeks, during 
which it is frequently shaken. The oil is said to be rendered limpid and 
colourless, and may be drawn off by a siphon, or stoppered funnel. 

Many substitutes have been proposed for the more costly oil for 
lubricating machinery, but hitherto with only partial success. Mun- 
kittrick's patent (' Lond Journ.' xxxvi. 98) consists mainly in the addi- 
tion of caoutchouc to common grease, the former being softened by 
spirit of turpentine ; but he also uses other ingredients. For example : 
ten gallons of water being heated, one pound of glue and ten pounds of 
carbonate of soda are stirred in ; ten gallons of oil or grease are next 
added, whereby a quasi-soap is formed ; and lastly, four pounds of 
caoutchouc, softened by turpentine, are incorporated. 

Boudet (' Journ de Pharm.' and ' Lond. Pharm. Journ.' 1850), gives 
the following as the process by which the French liard, or lubricating 



300 OILS AND FATS. 

fluid is made. Add one pint of finely minced caoutchouc to fifty pints 
of rape oil, and heat until the mixture is complete. A very unctuous 
oil is thus formed, which remains fluid at freezing temperature, and does 
not clog the machines, but facilitates the motion of their parts. 

Heydenreick proposes (' Journ. de Connais. Utiles,' 1849) to distin- 
guish fat oils from each other by their odour when warmed, their colour 
by contact with oil of vitriol, and their specific gravities. By the first 
process the oil is heated in a porcelain capsule over a spirit-lamp, when 
the peculiar volatile odour of fish, linseed, and other oils may be 
detected, especially if compared in the same way with the unadulterated 
oils. For the acid test, from ten to fifteen drops of the oil are dropped 
upon a piece of glass, underlaid by white paper, and a drop of oil of 
vitriol is brought in contact with it by a glass rod. If it be rape-oil, 
a greenish-blue circle is formed around and at a short distance from the 
drop, while light yellowish-brown strias form towards the centre. The 
same takes place with oil of black mustard, but from twenty-five to 
thirty drops of the oil are recmired. With whale oil, the colour is red- 
dish, after twelve to fifteen minutes violet on the edge, and in two hours 
violet throughout. Olive oil gives a pale-yellow, passing into greenish- 
yellow. Linseed oil is at first dark reddish brown, and then black. 

The more solid fat, stearin, is separated from the more fluid olein by 
pressure, to make stearin-candles, or, the fats being decomposed, the 
more solid stearic acid is separated from buttery or fluid acids, to make 
stearic acid lights. Under this head we may embrace spermaceti and 
wax. There is but little novelty offered on any of these points. 

To separate the solid from the more fluid fat in palm oil, lard, &c, 
the fats are granulated and pressed cold in bags by a powerful hydraulic 
press, the olein which flows out being used for soap. The contents of 
the bags being again granulated, and pressed between warm plates of 
iron, the balance of the olein, with some margarin and stearin, is then 
removed. To remove colour from the stearin thus obtained, it is fused 
with a very little nitric acid. To remove still further all the olein, 
Morfit proposed mixing it with a little oil of turpentine, and then 
pressing. See Morfit's ' Chemistry Applied to the Manufacture of Soap 
and Candles.' According to Heintz (Ber. d. Berl. Acad.), stearin from 
mutton suet becomes transparent at 124° to 126°, but does not fuse 
before 144°. 

A process is described in the ' Rep. Pat. Inv.' Oct. 1850, for mixing 
some twenty to thirty per cent, of rosin with fatty bodies in the melted 
state, by adding sulphuric acid gradually, heating it from twelve to 
eighteen hours, so as to evolve sulphurous acid, and then submitting the 
dark-brown crystalline solid to distillation by heated steam. The solid 
and oily portions are then separated by pressure. 

To test for the presence of stearic acid, Geith pours over two drachms 
of wax, one ounce of lime-water, diluted with one ounce of water. If 
the acid be present, the liquid loses its alkalinity, and remains clear. 



CINCHONA CULTURE. 301 

Buclmer proposes fusibility and specific gravity as an approximate test 
of the presence of stearic acid, or tallow. Tallow fuses at 108°, yellow 
wax at 142°. (' Buchner's Rep.' xliv.) 

Our knowledge of the composition and alliances of the waxes has 
been much enlarged by Brodie's investigations of common beeswax and 
Chinese wax. He found common wax to consist of cerotic acid (formerly 
cerin), soluble in hot alcohol, of the composition C54H54O 4 , therefore of 
the fat acid series Cn H n 4 ; and of palmitate of meliss-ether (formerly 
myricin). By saponifying myricin he obtained palmitic acid and 
melissin, which last has the formula C60H1J2O2 (=C U H n x 2 2), or that 
of an alcohol. By the action of lime and potassa on melissin, he 
obtained the corresponding acid, melissic acid, C60H60O4. Upon exa- 
mining Chinese wax, he found it to consist chiefly of cerotate of cerote- 
ether, = CsiH^OjCo-iHssO 3 , for by saponification he obtained cerotic 
acid, C54H34O 4 , and cerotin (the alcohol) C54H56O 2 (C n Hn m 2O3).— 
(< Phil. Mag.' Sept. 18-18, ' Amer. Journ.' (2) vii. 427.) 



CINCHONA CULTURE, AND BOTANICAL OPERATIONS IN 
JAMAICA. 

BY NATHANIEL WILSON, ISLAND BOTANIST. 

The usual routine operations connected with the increase and disper- 
sion of plants have been successfully carried on, and a wide dissemina- 
tion of plants and seeds made during the past year. 

The public demand for useful plants continues to increase in proportion 
as their utility and suitability to the climate become known. 

Of this class I may specially mention spices and dyewoods, of which 
description I have distributed one thousand and fifty-two plants, well 
established in bamboo baskets previous to leaving the garden, so that no 
loss may or can occur but by careless attention of recipients ; and, I am 
happy to say, that in most instances the plants have been successfully 
established, and one of these, a nutmeg-tree, bore two thousand fruit 
during the current year, proving most incontestably that the plant is 
quite at home in this island. 

The product of these plants, in common with that of many others in- 
troduced from time to time, and but partially known, constitute valuable 
staples of other countries, and are no less eligible as articles of export 
from this colony, more particularly so when managed with that industry 
and skill bestowed on other and older staples. And if there is one class 
of plants better suited than another in this respect, for field culture, 
and for the habits and physical capacities of the peasantry, it is that of 
fibrous plants, for which too, with regard to the number of species, 



302 CINCHONA CULTURE AND 

strength, and quality of fibre, we stand unrivalled, as illustrated at the 
Great Exhibitions of London and Paris. Foremost among these, as 
herbaceous perennials, for colour, strength, and fineness of fibre, I may 
instance the genera Sanseviera and Bcehmeria, the former is known in 
India as bow-string hemp, and the latter as the far-famed Chinese 
grass cloth, or Rhea fibre of India. The finest samples of the latter, 
cleaned and prepared, are worth 1001. per ton in British markets. 
This plant was introduced here in 1854, and found to thrive in warm 
moist localities, with the vigour of our rankest weeds, spreading most 
rapidly ; still fibrous plants (I regret to say) are not yet recognised in field 
industry, and only serve as botanical novelties in gardens. This branch 
of agriculture is peculiarly suited for industrial and reformatory schools, 
and, in conjunction with other practical pursuits, might soon become self- 
supporting, while a knowledge of new staples, the plants producing 
them and mode of treatment, would rapidly diffuse itself over the 
island. 

The most important event in the history of this botanic garden for 
many years past, has been the introduction by seeds of the quinine-yield- 
ing Cinchona in the autumn of 1860. By the month of October in the 
following year I succeeded in rearing over four hundred healthy plants, 
quite ready for planting out ; but, unfortunately, the selection of a proper 
site for their final establishment was overlooked, and the consequences of 
subsequent treatment the plants had to undergo, proved the destruction 
of one half their number. However, being wishful to prove by every 
means in my power the result of the experiment of testing the adaptabi- 
lity of the plant (constitutional and climatic) for cultivation in the higher 
altitudes of this island, — finding the climate of Bath as the summer ap- 
proached by far too warm, — I had the whole of them removed in small 
pots to Cold Spring coffee plantation, the elevation being about four 
thousand feet, and placed under artificial treatment. I soon found the 
climate and soil of that locality to be all I could desire for the plants ; 
and as it afforded every facility for carrying out so valuable an experi- 
ment, I at once availed myself of it, and planted out in the coffee fields 
on the 16th November, 1861, several plants of each species, then about 
two or two-and-a-half inches in height. In twelve months after, a plant 
of the red bark {Cinchona succirubra) had attained to the height of forty- 
four inches, with leaves measuring thirteen and a half inches long, by 
eight and three quarter inches broad. The same plant, now two years 
old, measures six feet in height, with ten branches, having a circumfer- 
ence of stem at base of four and a half inches. The Cinchona nitida and 
Cinchona micrantha (gray barks) being of more slender habit of growth, 
have not made such rapid progress ; the highest has attained to five feet, 
with three branches. The leaves, however, are larger, and measure four- 
teen inches by ten. 

So far the experiment has proved eminently successful, and is 
placed beyond the shadow of a doubt by the most sceptical. Indeed it 



BOTANICAL OPERATIONS IN JAMAICA. 303 

would be difficult to find more healthy trees in the forests of that neigh- 
bourhood ; in about three or four years hence they may produce seeds. 
In the meantime they can be largely increased by cuttings and layers in 
the hands of a skilful propagator. During the months of August and 
September, 1862, the collection was again removed to Bath. 

The plants were at this time eighteen to twenty months old, a critical 
period for forest trees in flower-pots .under artificial treatment, and in a 
climate, too, so uncongenial for them as that of Bath, which would have 
soon terminated their Jives had they not soon afterwards (18th October) 
been planted out at Mount Essex, near Bath, at an altitude of two thon- 
sand feet, or little more. This site, as a temporary one, was had recourse 
to to save the plants alive, until a better one could be obtained ; and so 
far it has answered the purpose, for a majority of the plants are healthy, 
but have not made so fast progress as could have been desired. The soil 
is too loamy, and by far too stiff to admit of a free and rapid escape of 
the heavy rains which fall here in torrents during the greater part of the 
year ; the altitude is also too low for the Peruvian barks, and a few 
of the trees have died since they were planted. The red bark thrives at 
a much lower altitude, and being a more hardy tree, the plants are more 
healthy ; but as they are not yet too large for removal, I would strongly 
recommend its being done during the cool months, or as speedily as found 
to be practicable, to the site (if obtainable) which I had the honour of 
recently selecting and reporting upon to government. The entire eligi- 
bility of this site has been fully proved by the success attending the inte- 
resting experiment above-mentioned, being in the same neighbourhood, 
with the advantage of virgin soil, which the other had not. 

A. very important fact has now been established, viz. that the climate 
of our higher, and many of our intermediate mountains, is suited for the 
growth of the most valuable species of quinine-yielding plant, the Cin- 
chona succlrubra, and also a knowledge of the method of increasing the 
plants, and the soil best adapted for their full development, has been ob- 
tained. Another valuable discovery has lately been made in India 
respecting the febrifugal virtues of the leaves of the red-bark, as they 
fall from the tree ; an infusion of the leaves, in the dose of one fluid 
ounce, was administered to the first four cases of intermittent fever that 
occurred in the civil hospital of Darjeeling ; and in every case, the patients 
were cured without any other medicine whatever. 

The barks of Cinchona yield as large a per centage of quinine in India 
as they do in their native forests. These facts being established by prac- 
tical experiment, and brought to the knowledge of the world, cannot do 
otherwise than influence the cultivation of the plants immensely, con- 
ferring benefits in a domestic and commercial point of view of no ordi- 
nary importance ; and, whatever may be its destiny in this island, the 
experiment has arrived at that stage which will admit of no further delay 
of justice, in placing the plants in a proper clime, and under a system of 
management that will secure success in all practical operations connected 



304 INDUSTRIAL MUSEUMS IN THEIR 

with the plantation ; so that the plants may, in a short period, extend 
over the length and breadth of the island, and secure those advantages 
to the country which they are capable of conferring, when the experi- 
ment and energies of this institution shall have arrived at a happy 
result. 

Botanic Garden, Bath, Jamaica, Dec. 1863. 



INDUSTRIAL MUSEUMS IN THEIR RELATION TO 
COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 

BY THE LATE PROFESSOR GEORGE WILSON. 

The industrial museums of the country have not risen in obedience 
to any sudden romantic impulse of educational enthusiasts or hypothe- 
tical philosophers, but have slowly grown into a visible reality, and 
forced themselves on the notice of the practical intellects of the country. 
How this has been, a few words will explain. 

The long peace which followed Waterloo gave ns leisure to neglect 
war ; to apply the sciences to the useful arts ; and to interchange with 
our brethren of mankind on all sides, the important discoveries and 
inventions which they and we had severally achieved. "When the 
French Revolution awoke Europe from its perilous slumber, it awoke 
the philosopher as well as the soldier and statesman, and Watt's steam 
engines and Davy's voltaic batteries were fruits of the same energy 
which dethroned the Bourbons, and won Waterloo. When peace at 
length came, discovery followed discovery, and invention invention, 
with a rapidity such as the world never witnessed before. Four of 
those, partly discoveries, partly inventions — namely, steamships, rail- 
roads, locomotives, and electric telegraphs — the beginnings of which 
were long before the peace, but their practical evolution not till long 
after it, were of themselves sufficient to have necessitated industrial 
museums, by their effect in abridging space and time. Keats, the poet, 
in his Eve of St. Agnes, imagines with exquisite fancy the possibility 
of a full-blown rose becoming " a bud again." We have seen some- 
thing of the kind happen. The great globe has seemed before our 
eyes to contract into smaller dimensions, and all the cities on its sur- 
face to come closer together, and almost to look in at each other's 
windows. AVhen such things have occurred as the simultaneous 
announcement to every capital of Europe that Czar Nicholas was dead, 
■who has not felt as if the cities of the globe were visibly separated by 
no other barrier than the almost imperceptible wire-fence of the electric 
telegraph I 



RELATION TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 305 

The feeling of increased neighbourhood with the whole earth, which 
has thus been startlingly brought before us, grows familiar and even 
pleasant with every excursion we make. What a strange difference has 
"ome over the meaning of the words, "a day's journey," as signifying 
so much space traversed ! Think of the difference between even the 
shortest "sabbath day's journey," as measured across the Egyptian 
desert from the back of a camel, and the platform of a locomotive 
engine ; or across the Atlantic from the deck of a packet, and the 
paddle-box of an ocean steamer. We scarcely seem seated iu our express 
trains, for what by miles is a long journey, when we are called on to 
surrender our tickets ; and before we have time to forget the song to 
which the sailors hove the anchor on one side of the world, the outlook 
gazing on the other is heard shouting, " Land in sight." 

Our children may tire of swift progression, and cut the telegraph 
wires and cables, that they may meditate in peace, and undisturbed by 
news, realise the poet's " lodge in some vast wilderness." But for us 
in our present eager mood, express trains are but lagging steeds, and the 
failure of the Atlantic cable a bitter calamity. The seven league boots, 
the shoes of swiftness, and Fortunatus' wishing cap, which, under the 
names of steam-engine and telegraph, modern science has bestowed 
upon practical art, must, although they had been but solitary gifts, have 
altered all our commercial relations. The entire globe is now an open 
market-place and bazaar for every nation, and trading must proceed in 
a very different fashion from before. The great races of men will, 
doubtless, continue to work at different rates and in different ways, and 
we shall always probably be able to say of them, what Shakespeare's 
Rosalind says of individuals, " I'll tell you who time ambles withal, 
who time trots withal, who time gallops withal, and who he stands 
still -withal." But steam-engines and telegraphs are plainly persuading 
the whole world to keep in all senses the same time o'day, though what 
that time shall be is still uncertain. I may be allowed, in passing, to in- 
dulge the hope that our people will be content to go at the approved 
national pace of the trot. We have not as yet learned to amble grace- 
fully, and we cannot often afford to indulge, as w T e have recently been 
doing, in the expensive luxury of a headlong gallop. But this by the way. 
What I am earnest to urge as foremost in importance is, that the world 
opened up so widely to us, and our long separated brethren brought 
before us, face to face, could not but affect us strangeby, although 
all that world were an African desert, and all its inhabitants wild 
men practising rude aboriginal aits. Bat that world contains many 
a people, as wise at least as ourselves, and their industry, as well as 
ours, has been quickened by discoveries and inventions not less mar- 
vellous than those which are embodied in the steam-engine and electric 
telegraph. Within the period which divides ua from Waterloo, inclu- 
ding, however, as organically connected with it, all the years of this 
century, each of the older sciences has known a new birth, and on 
vol. iv. c c 



306 INDUSTRIAL MUSEUMS IS THEIR 

every side infant sciences of giant blood have grown before our eyes 
into a stately adolescence, which, but that we anticipate for them a 
protracted old age, we should style a grave maturity. Since 1800, great 
chemists have arisen in France, Germany, Italy, Scandinavia, England, 
America, who have shown us, to the wondrous extent He has permitted 
them to show, how God has weighed the mountains in scales, and the 
hills in a balance ; and how we, as His children, reading His laws 
impressed upon every thing He has made, may transmute air, earth, and 
sea, into all that the body needs, or the senses, the intellect, and the 
fancy require. Within the century great mechanicians have wrought 
with a faith in God's laws which has enabled them to remove moun- 
tains, to make hills valleys, and crooked places straight ; and though 
they themselves perhaps did not always care for that, many have in 
consequence run to and fro, and knowledge has increased. Within the 
century, great geologists have opened up for us, and deciphered the 
pages of that most ancient of books, in wdrich in primaeval lithography 
is written, ages before Job annormced it — " Surely there is a vein for 
silver, and a place for gold where they fine it. Iron is taken out of the 
earth, and brass is molten out of the stone." Within the century, great 
naturalists, patiently gazing with the eyes of genius when there was 
light sufficient for illumination ; and, when all was dark, feeling about 
with sensitive fingers, have caught the clues which lead into some of 
the innermost recesses of living nature, and have brought us throivgh 
what seemed hopeless labyrinths, face to face with the mysteries of 
organic life, and shown us how to make practical application of the 
open secret. 

I name no other class of philosophers. Those named may stand for 
all. Throughout this century each of the physical sciences, moving 
exultingly forward, has acted on all the other sciences, and been re- 
acted on by them ; and together they have conspired to give indus- 
trialists of every class a command over material nature, such as the 
most sanguine of our forefathers did not hope to see attained, even after 
the lapse of centuries. 

Side by side with all this, the moral earnestness of the community 
has increasingly deepened. The slave has been set free. The liberties 
of the people have been enlarged. The rights of conscience have 
been day by day more respected. Feelings of mutual respect and 
sympathy have been fostered among the different ranks of the nation, 
and among the different nations of the world ; and "the breasts of all 
thoughtful men have brimmed with gratefulness to God that he has 
so long heard and answered their prayer — " Give peace in our time, 
Lord !" 

The culmination of the star of peace, under which this progress 
was made, marked the close of the half -century. In 1851 the monarch 
of Modern Babylon wrote as did Nebuchadnezzar of old from his great 
city beside the Euphrates: — "Victoria, the Queen, unto all people, 



RELATION TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 307 

nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth, peace be multiplied 
unto you." And, at her august bidding, the nations gathered together 
within that wondrous Crystal Palace, which seen across the drifting thunder 
"clouds and bloody horizon that have too largely blotted out the clear 
sky since, appears rather a Midsummer Night's Dream woven by fairies, 
than a temple built by hands, on which with waking eyes we gazed. 
The Great Exhibition of 1851 was one of those cyclical blossomings of 
the mighty banyan tree of the nations which occur only at immense in- 
tervals. According to the older botanists, the aloe or agave flowers but 
once in a hundred years. Their successors think that they made the 
cycle too long ; for my purpose it is too short : but take it either way, 
1851 marked one of the aloe-flowerings of the human race, and of the 
fruits which followed that flowering, the Industrial Museum is one. I 
do not mean by this that but for the Great Exhibition we should not have 
had industrial museums. On the other hand, it would, I believe, have 
been born to us at any rate, only at a later period, and as the fruit of a 
lesser tree. In actual fact, however, it came to us through the out- 
burst of peaceful energy, which built and filled the Palace of 1851 ; and 
whilst we are indebted to a very few individuals for its local develop- 
ment, we must refer its birth, as well as that of the Crystal Palace 
itself, to a conviction, slowly reached and lying deep in the hearts of 
men, that industrial museums were a want of the age. 

In truth, to recal the former comparison, as the flowering of the 
aloe at the close of the hundred years (if that is its cycle) implies that 
the ninety-nine preceding ones have been spent in patiently amassing 
and elaborating materials for the crown of flowers which it wears on its 
hundredth birth-day ; so we must look upon the Palace of 1851, not as 
a Jonah's gourd which rose in a night and withered in a night, but as 
the quickly expanded flower of a trunk, strong and enduring, like that 
of a cedar of Lebanon centuries old. The mere summoning of the 
nations to Hyde Park in 1851 wauld have been of none effect had the. 
summons not been met half way by a counterpart longing for such a 
call. Natural philosophers are familiar with the phenomenon of still 
water, more than ice-cold remaining liquid and uncongealed, till it is 
shaken or disturbed, when it shoots in an instant into a forest of crystals. 
The crystalline forces were all the time struggling to assert themselves, 
and the slightest motion turned the balance in their favour. The long 
peace had calmed the world into a similar quiescence ; but the latent 
activities were longing for action, and the Prince Consort had scarcely 
spoken the words of invitation, before the glass and iron crystallised 
into a palace, and the nations, as if they had been intently waiting for 
the call, rose like one man, and piled their works under its graceful 
dome. 

It is in this ready acceptance of the invitation to London, and in the 
subsequent crowdings to the exhibitions of New York, Dublin, Paris, 
and Manchester, that I find the strongest arguments in favour of indus- 

c c 2 



308 INDUSTRIAL MUSEUMS IN THEIR 

trial museums. In support of this argument, I would also, but with 
qualification, refer to the erection of the Sydenham Palace, which, 
though eminently deserving of encouragement on many grounds, cares 
only in part for the Industrial Arts. It is further strengthened by a 
consideration of the circumstances which preceded the birth of those 
older, yet withal recent, museums in or near London ; that at Jermyn 
street, which originated in the fact of important minerals accumulating 
in the hands of the geological surveyors ; and that of Kew, which 
originated in the accumulation of equally important vegetable products 
in the hands of the Curator of Kew Gardens. Unless the authorities 
had thrown away the one class of objects and burned the other, they 
could not well have done otherwise than give them house-room. No 
sooner, however, had they done so than everyone saw that these collec- 
tions which had, as it were, come together of themselves, were of the 
greatest interest and value. Out of a similar conjuncture of circum- 
stances, arose the Museum of Irish Industry in Dublin. I might name 
other institutions, but these may suffice to prove the truth of the state- 
ment with which I commenced, that the other industrial museums of 
the country created themselves ; in other words, they were not the 
result of a priori view r s on the part of speculative founders, or sudden 
creations of government. You will not for a moment suppose that I 
mean to say that the museums referred to suddenly came into existence 
without human help. On the other hand, each of them owes its deve- 
lopment to the labours of many energetic men, who found these labours 
no light task. But it is most remarkable that alike Sir Henry de la 
Beche, in describing the origin of the Industrial Geological Museum in 
Jermyn street, London : Sir William Hooker, in describing the origin 
of the Industrial Botanical Museum at Kew ; and Sir liobert Kane, in 
describing the origin of the Industrial Museum at Dublin, state expli- 
citly, that it was because materials accumulated around them, not 
because they looked about for materials that their respective museums 
came into being. In no case, moreover, did government come to their 
assistance, till it was placed beyond doubt that, in possession or near 
prospect, specimens were largely available for each of these museums ; 
and in conformity with this, when government resolved to establish an 
Industrial Museum in Scotland, it made the collection of specimens the 
first thing, the building of a permanent museum the second. I dwell 
upon those points, because they are scarcely known to the general public 
whom you represent, and because I cannot but think that the indepen- 
dent origin of the three non-Scottish industrial museums affords a 
powerful threefold argument in favour of the value of such institutions, 
as things for which the time was ripe, and by neglecting which we shall 
certainly suffer. 

In no part of the empire has the value of museums, as important 
aids in practical education, been longer or more fully recognised than 
in Edinburgh, so that I may say that, with one consent, and having the 



RELATION TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 3")9 

interests of all Scotland in view, the whole of our public bodies have 
come forward to encourage the industrial museums. 

The Industrial Museum, like the College, the Court of Session, or 
the House of Commons, is at once a walled-in space, and an embodied 
idea or cluster of ideas. The walled-in space takes its character from 
the idea which it embodies, and that idea is fourfold. It includes the 
conception of — 

1. An ample exhibitional gallery, where the raw or workable and 
other materials of industrial ait, the tools and machines employed to 
modify these, and the finished products resulting from their modification, 
shall be displayed. 

2. A laboratory and workshop, where the qualities of industrial 
materials and products, and the effectiveness ot industrial apparatus and 
machines, may be investi gated. 

3. A library, where the special literature of industrial art .may be 
consulted. 

4. Systematic Lectures on the contents of the galleries, the investi- 
gations of the laboratory and workshop, and the records of the library, 
as illustrating the nature of Technology or industrial science. 

Let me suppose the industrial museum of the future already existent 
and realising to the full the idea just referred to. 

When that museum shall be erected, I will ask its architect to sculp- 
ture on its front an emblematical device, namely, a circle, to imply that 
the museum represents the industry of the whole world ; within th.3 
circle an equilateral triangle, the respective sides of which shall denote 
the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, from which industrial art 
gathers its materials ; within the triangle an open hand, as the symbol 
of the transforming forces which change those materials ; and in the 
palm of that hand an eye, selecting the materials which shall be trans- 
formed. Gazing through that eye, let us see what the industrial museum 
can do for commercial enterprise. 

L The commerce of the world deals, in the first place, very largely 
with mineral, vegetable, and animal substances, as related to industrial 
art, in three ways. 1. Many of them we style raw materials. The term 
is a very expressive one, as implying that they need to be cooked, and 
that they admit of being cooked. Originally applied to food, the mean- 
ing is not felt to be forced as used in relation to coal, to metallic ores, 
to sugar, to skins, or to other bodies, which can be changed, especially 
by chemical processes, from useless into useful substances. 2. "Whilst* 
however, we are all willing to regard coal as a raw material from which 
gas and naphtha are prepared, and skins as a raw material from which 
glue is elaborated, we should scarcely call marble the raw material of a 
statue, or linen the raw material of paper. The term genetic I feel to be 
too pedantic for general use, and the equivalent word parent is too vague. 
Let us say workable material, and we can include in a second division all 
those substances, such as wood, stone, gutta percha, which ore conver. 



310 INDUSTRIAL MUSEUMS IN THEIR 

tible, chiefly by mechanical treatment, into articles of higher utilitarian 
value. Take as examples the difference between sheep's wool and York- 
shire broadcloth, or between the silkworm's cocoon and imperial velvet. 

3. There is a third large class of substances, which are neither raw nor 
workable materials, but rather serve to modify both — such, for example, 
as the iodine and bromine which the photographer uses, the chlorine 
and alkalies applied by the bleacher, the colours used by the dyer, the 
oils employed by the leather-dresser. 

Now one-half at least of all the ships and waggons of the world are 
continually occupied in transporting from point to point over the earth's 
surface the raw, workable, and modifying materials of mineral, vege- 
table, and animal origin, on and with which our manufacturers exercise 
their skilL One great service accordingly which an industrial museum 
may render, is to enable those whom it concerns to detect and distin- 
guish from each other, the various important raw, workable, and modi- 
fying materials with which industrial art works. A collection, there- 
fore, of all the more prominent characteristic or typical utilitarian mate- 
rials, so arranged that the public might readily understand their nature, 
could not but be of signal service. Consider how the case stands at pre- 
sent. No systematic effort is made by our merchants to search the earth 
for its liberal treasures. The noblest, as men speak, and the vilest of 
things, gold aud guano, are stumbled on by chance, and gathered at 
haphazard ; and this whether they occur at our own door, or at our anti- 
podes. With a kind of mad patience we go submissively year after 
year to the same cotton land, and sugar land, or tea land. If it shall 
please Providence to make cotton, sugar, and tea plants grow elsewhere 
than in those lands, we of course shall go to the new regions, but we 
must wait till these are revealed. We are reckless and daring enough 
in unceasingly scouring strange lands and seas, but of what avail is all 
this if we only guess at the value of the strange objects which we en- 
counter ! Charles Dickens has, however, undesignedly, profoundly 
satirised this folly of ours in his account of Captain Cuttle's endeavour 
to keep the shop of his friend the philososophical-instrument maker. 
All went well till a customer inquired for a particular instrument. 
Whether it was one of the many strange pieces of apparatus consigned 
to his care, the captain did not know. And as his customer, on being 
asked if he would know what he wanted if he saw it, replied in the 
negative, the transaction came to an end. We are like the captain's cus- 
tomer. We go forth in hundreds every year, as pilgrims over the earth, 
to seek, as we say, our jortune, as if all the seeking were on our side, and 
we should certainly know our fortune if we saw it. And all the while 
it may be our fortune, like a lost bride, is seeking us, and too often, 
like Gabriel and Evangeline in Longfellow's sad story, we pass each 
other in the dark, and all unconscious of the fact, bid farewell for ever. 

How many of the young men who visit foreign countries or the 
colonies, bent on commercial enterprise, could tell gold from mica or 



RELATION TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 311 

pyrites, or diamonds from rock crystal, or platina ore from iron sand ? 
How many of them, if shown a white shining stone, would be aide 
to say whether it was quartz, limestone, alabaster, cryolite, felspar, ( r 
apatite ? The first they might afterwards discover was of no pecuniary 
value ; the second might be wrought as marble ; the third might carve 
into sculptures, and would at least burn into stucco ; the fourth is the 
choicest ore of the strange metal aluminium ; the fifth is to the potter, 
enamel-maker, and other industrialists, of the greatest value ; the 
sixth, mineral phosphate of lime, is at present the object of universal 
search among agriculturists. How many of the youths in question 
could ted whether the exudation from a tree was a gum, a sugar, a 
manna, a resin, a gum-resin, a camphor, a caoutchouc, or a gutta-percha ? 
How many could tell whether the white crust or hoar-frost-like effio- 
resenee on the soil was carbonate of soda, nitrate of potash, borax, or 
common salt, substances of immensely different money-values 1 How many 
could say whether the coloured juice or infusion of a particular plant 
or tree was a fugitive or permanent dye ? Whether a particular seed 
would yield oil or would not ! Whether the fibres of a plant were 
suitable or not for textile fabrics, for rop^s, and for paper-making? 
Whether a particular wood was soft or hard, lasting or destructible? 
Whether a particular rock would yield a good building stone or not? 
Whether the district they had travelled over was a limestone, granite, 
or sandstone formation ? Whether coal was likely to be found in it ? 
Whether it possessed any metals or metallic ores, or other precious 
minerals ? Whether water was likely to be plentiful all the year 
round ? and so on. Now, were it proposed to teach any single youth 
to distinguish with certainty, wherever he found them on the earth's 
surface, the various objects which have been referred to, you might ' 
well pronounce the endeavour madness. It is not necessary, however, 
that he should attempt this. 

The naturalists who accompany our exploring expeditions, are not 
trained to identify on the spot every remarkable mineral, vegetable, 
and animal they encounter. In truth, seeing that it is strange objects 
which they are specially sent to discover, it is impossible that they 
should be forewarned of these novelties. It is counted enough that they 
are amply qualified to detect and preserve all the rare things which 
come in their way. Of some of these they recognize the full significance 
at the time, but the majority they send or take home for careful investi- 
gation by themselves or others. Besides those purely scientific agents, 
a large class of travellers of all professions aid natural history solely by 
sending home the objects with which it is concerned. So important 
are the services of this class of naturalists to the cause of science, that 
under the auspices of Sir John Herschell, prompted by the Admiralty, 
a manual was drawn up some years ago by some of the ablest writers of 
the country, suitable for the guidance of all intelligent voyagers who 
may feel desirous to gather materials for our natural history museums 



312 INDUSTRIAL MUSEUMS IN THEIR 

whilst wandering in distant lands. In this volume instructions are 
given as to the objects worth collecting, and the observations worth 
making, by those amateurs for whom the work is intended. But natural 
history iucludes a much wider range of subjects than industrial art, and 
it should be as easy to instruct travellers how to serve the latter as the 
former : that it is even more easy, I think will appear from the follow- 
ing considerations. 

The raw (and other) materials of industrial art are not after all 
very numerous. Food, clothing, iuel, building-stones, mortars, timber, 
days, metallic ores, and some other minerals, drugs, vegetable extracts, 
dye-stuffs, manures, oils, acids, and alkalies, furm the chief material 
pabulum of intelligent industry. Now even, if we suppose a young man 
sent with a roving commission to search for all of those materials 
throughout the world, it would not be difficult to teach him how to 
recognise each one, at least to the extent of ascertaining to what class it 
belonged. It would of course be still more easy to equip him intel- 
lectually for a search for some of them. He could only learn by actually 
looking at, tasting, touching, and otherwise handling the typical repre- 
sentatives of the objects which he sought to gather ; but if he laid a 
foundation in this practical experience, he could afterwards in distant 
lands widely enlarge it, and be enabled by a guide-book or manual, both 
to refresh his memory and to extend his knowledge. Thus, in the matter 
of food, it can be shown ; M. Soyer and all the other culinary authorities 
concurring ; that the nutritious value of every edible vegetable, root, 
fruit, seed, or stem, can be ascertained sufficiently well for all great 
practical purposes, by resolving it, as it always can be resolved, into 
one class of substances represented by starch, gum, sugar ; and into 
another represented by the curd-like body called albumen or fibrin, 
which gives to wetted flour or dough its stickiness. Had this simple 
test been trusted and applied, Ireland would not have been decimated 
by the potato famine ; nor, were it believed in at home, would unwise 
mothers tantalise hungry infants with meagre arrowroot, or unwise 
farmers, attracted by its cheapness, diet their horses upon sago ; neither 
would mysterious noblemen advertise their restoration to health through 
assimilation of costly packets of Revalenta Arabica. 

Again as to fuel. No doubt it is a nice question, What is coal ? anr' 
somewhat hard to answer ; but there is no difficulty in ascertaining 
whether a strange body is combustible, and if so, whether it is easily 
kindled, burns long, burns brightly, gives off much or little smoke, 
yields a large cinder, and leaves little ash. 

As for cluthing materials, if they are of vegetable origin, the strength, 
tenacity, softness, lustre, colour, and durability of the textile fibres 
can be tested by simple and decisive means ; and the hair, wool, or fur 
of animals is not more difficult to gauge, so far as its textile and felting 
characters are concerned. The essentials of a good building-stune may 
be counted on the fingers of one hand, and although prolonged trial 



RELATION TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 313 

often reverses summary judgments upon mineral masses, we can always 
at least distinguish a bad from a very good stone, and appraise with 
some nicety the blocks from every quarry. 

The qualities of timber are not recondite or mysterious. As for the 
metals, the most valuable are the most easily detected. The softness, 
yellow lustre, abiding splendour, and insolubility of gold ; the quickly 
tarnished paleness of silver ; the liquid silveriness of mercury ; the ob- 
trusive density of platina ; the magnetic characters of iron ore ; the 
striking colour of ores of copper ; the prominent crystals of ores of lead, 
forbid their escape from keen eyes. Each, indeed, of the great classes 
of industrial materials have qualities with which any moderately 
sagacious, and sufficiently patient observer may soon become fa- 
miliar. 

In proof of this, look at the astonishing amount of information con- 
cerning the resources of a strange country which a single intelligent 
traveller can give us. The solitary example of Livingstone is sufficient 
for my purpose. He had far fewer advantages, before he left this country, 
as I who was his fellow student know well, than could be placed at the 
disposal of travellers now-a-days ; but he made himself as skilful as he 
could in the knowledge likely to be serviceable to him in Africa, and 
he turned it all to excellent account. 

Some of our industrialists have discovered the importance of system- 
atically employing trained agents abroad, and have profited by the dis- 
covery. Foremost among them are the horticulturists and florists of 
the country, who have long been in the habit of sending skilful practical 
botanists to distant regions to select and send home their rare and 
useful plants. All whom I address are familiar, I presume, with one or 
more of the works on China by Mr. Robert Fortune, and know how 
much he has done to introduce Chinese plants into this country, as well 
as into India. 

Recently, this example has been followed, in even a more interesting 
w T ay, by the great English firm, Price's Candle Company, who have 
published directions for the use of all visitants of distant lands who 
care to look out for plants yielding wax, butter, or oil, and desire to 
form on the spot some notion of their value, as sources of candle and 
lamp -fuel, and as elements of importance in the soap-manufactory. 

This example has in turn been followed by the energetic scientific 
officers and civilians in India, in all the Presidencies. One of those 
gentlemen in particular, Dr. A. Hunter of Madras, has drawn up rules 
for the selection and treatment of textile fibres from new plants found 
in the East, which would serve for the guidance of searchers for such 
in all parts of the world. 

Next to the horticulturists, in recognition of the principle under 
notice, are the metallurgists. The great metal merchants of Birmingham 
despatch over the world skilful mineralogists to seek for precious ores. 
One former assistant and friend of mine is at present in Spain on such 



314 INDUSTRIAL MUSRUMS IK THEIR 

a search ; another, who knows all the niines^of Northern Europe, has 
sailed to Chili on a similar errand. 

I may also refer here to the volume of ' Lectures on Gold,' published 
by the Government School of Mines in London a few years ago, as a 
guide to the multitudes of our countrymen flocking at that time to the 
gold fields of Australia. It illustrated the perfect possibility of equip- 
ping travellers intellectually for the reaping of that industrial harvest 
which awaits the sagacious in every land. Contrast with this the 
vast amount of time, labour, money, and energy, which have been 
wasted in vain attempts to discover by chance, or through glimpses of 
half-knowledge, the riches of unknown regions. Eags of iron pyrites 
have been sent home as gold-dust ; lumps of red oxide of iron, as the 
cinnabar ore of quicksilver ; pieces of flattened lead-shot, as grains of 
platina. Men have exchanged abroad heavy gold-dust for light dia- 
monds, alas ! too light ! for they proved, on reaching home, to be quartz 
crystals ; and single-witted knaves have felt so confident of the general 
ignorance, that sham nuggets, manufactured in Birmingham, have been 
sent out to the gold diggings, where they were scattered on Sunday 
mornings over exhausted mines about to be offered up for sale : entry 
immediate. 

Let any one, indeed, take a map, and mark upon it all of Europe, 
Asia, Africa, and America, which is still unexplored, and after reflect- 
ing upon the immensity of the area thus brought into view, ask himself 
how its material riches are to be ascertained, and he will not, I imagine, 
propose to leave them to be stumbled on by such chance visitors as may 
wander aimlessly and ignorantly through that region. 

I have spoken specially of distant lands, but he who does not know 
valuable objects at a distance, will as little recognise them at his own 
door ; nor need I remind you that around and between the two chief 
cities of Scotland, lie beds of iron-ore, building-stone, and gas-fuels, 
besides other minerals whose existence and value have been fully recog- 
nised only within the memory of living men, and these in most cases 
not past their prime. 

One great service, then, which an industrial museum may render to 
commercial enterprise, is the teaching of those about to be scattered over 
the world, how to recognise the important raw, working, and modifying 
materials of industrial art. Scotland has always, in virtue of being 
u Caledonia stern and wild," kept her poets who could live on a little 
oatmeal at home, and sent her hungry practical men abroad. At the pre- 
sent day, more than of old, from the bosom of almost every family, one 
or more sons are sent forth over land and sea. Surely, then, we should 
give them opportunity before they part from us, to make themselves 
familiar with the typical industrial materials of all countries, and after 
singing " Auld Lang Syne " for the last time with them, and before bid- 
ding them farewell, should place in their chests, beside the Bible and 
the volume of national songs, some brief treatise which might help them 



RELATION TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 315 

to know whether it is a fish or a serpent which is offered to their grasp, 
and to perceive that they are receiving bread, where they thought it waa 
a stone. 

II. The Home Industrial Museum, secondly, should be a place where 
the Eature and value of the unknown products of this country and of 
foreign countries might be ascertained and made public. Investigations 
into native products calculated to serve the entire nation have been pro- 
secuted in all the practical museums of the country since their establish- 
ment. I mention one or two. At the Museum of Economic Geology, 
London, an elaborate and most valuable series of researches on the steam 
coals of the navy, was made some years ago by Sir Henry De la Beche, 
and Dr. Lyon Playfair. An equally important series of analyses of 
the iron-orea of England has recently been completed under Dr. 
Percy of the same museum ; and Dr. Hoffmann and Mr. "Witt, who are 
also among its officers, have investigated at great length, the question — 
How far, without prejudice to the public health, the sewage of great 
towns may be rendered agriculturally useful ? Sir Robert Kane, Direc- 
tor of the Museum of Irish Industry, Dublin, has devoted an entire 
volume to the discussion of the Industrial resources of Ireland. Along 
with Dr. Sullivan, he has also made a detailed report on the modes in 
which the too abundant peat of his native country can be rendered use- 
ful ; and in the laboratory of this museum, the question of cultivating 
beet-root in Ireland as a source of sugar has been very fully considered. 
Similar investigations are continually in progress. 

As for foreign countries, every day ships bring to our great sea- 
ports important raw materials which, through the ignorance of brokers, 
are wasted or neglected. Samples of every strange raw material which 
passes through the Inland Revenue Office, should be sent to one or 
other, or all, of the industrial museums of the country, to be examined 
and reported on for the good of the community. It is not intended by 
this to come in between the importer and his profits, but only to sup- 
plement his ignorance or neglect of the value of what he has imported. 
But wdiatever may be thought of this proposition, none will probably 
deny that it would be of signal service to the mercantile public to 
be assured that whatever raw materials their correspondents or agents 
sent home, would be examined, if desired, by skilled adepts, and their 
commercial value proximately determined. If you only call to remem- 
brance the immense stimulus which commercial enterprise has received 
within but twenty years, from the discovery abroad of gutta percha, 
guano, gold, and nitrate of soda, besides many other bodies less familiar 
to the general public — you will perceive how essential it is that every 
possible workable material should be collected abroad, and carefully 
examined at home. 

III. Commercial enterprise is as much interested in sending finished 
products to a distance, as in bringing raw materials to its own 
door. The perfected results, accordingly, of industrial art, are as 



316 INDUSTRIAL MUSEUMS IN THEIR 

much the concern of an industrial museum, as the raw material from 
which they are elaborated ; and so also are the machines and tools 
needed for their elaboration, and in effecting the useful application of 
the elaborated products. 

A large portion, therefore, of the exhibitional galleries of the 
museum must be assigned — 1. To such finished products as wrought 
iron, steel, glass, porcelain, paper, leather, cotton, linen, woollen, and 
silken tissues, naphtha, sugar, sulphuric acid, soap, bleaching powder, 
lucifer matches, and the like. 2. To all the intermediate products 
which intervene between such products and their raw materials ; for 
example, between iron-ore and steel ; between sand and glass ; between 
clay and porcelain ; between rags and paper ; between skins and 
leather ; between cotton-wool, flax-fibre, merino-fleece, and cocoon-floss 
on the one hand, and chintz, linen-damask, broad-cloth, tartan, carpeting, 
and satin or velvet on the other ; between coals and naphtha ; cane-juice, 
and loaf-sugar ; sulphur and oil of vitriol ; palm-oil and soap ; com- 
mon stilt and bleaching powder ; burned bones and lucifer matches. 
3. To the tools, machines, and apparatus required for the conversion of 
raw materials into finished products, such as agricultural, mining, and 
paper-making machinery, furnaces, nulls, lathes, moulds, looms, gas- 
retorts, stills, planting presses, and the other engines of the graphic arts, 
and all the manipulative implements of handicraft trades. Many of the 
objects of this third division would of course be shown only in model, 
not of their actual size. 4. Besides maehines or instruments of the kind 
described, the object of which is to transform workable materials into 
wrought goods, a prominent place in the museum galleries must also be 
given to those forms of apparatus which are employed in the applica- 
tion to useful purposes of finished products, and in the exercise of what 
may be called the Dynamical Industrial Arts. Such instruments are 
pens, pencils, brushes, thermometers, barometers, compass-needles, 
lamps for burning solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, the batteries and 
other requisites for producing and maintaining the electric light, the 
whole machinery of the electric telegraph, the whole apparatus of the 
photographer, and much else. In this department, only the practical 
forms of those instruments which it includes would be shown ; such 
refined modifications of thermometer, barometer, electric machine, 
optical lens, and the like, as theory pronounces best for the purely 
scientific student, not falling within its province. 

On the one hand, it is important that the idea of the industrial 
museum should be fully and impartially carried out, and that every 
economic art should receive its just share of illustration. On the other, 
it would be culpable folly to collect the same objects in adjoining or 
neighbouring buildings, and thus needlessly multiply duplicates. The 
pre-eminently important art of medicine, for example, is so amply cared 
for by the University, the College of Surgeons, and the College of Phy- 
sicians, that it would not be necessary for the industrial museum to do 



RELATION TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 317 

more than supplement in certain directions those illustrations of medi- 
cine as an art which the medical museums in the city contain. Thus 
the forms of electrical machine most suitable for therapeutic use, the 
qualities of steel best fitted for .surgical instruments; the similar 
qualities of caoutchouc and gutta percha ; the varieties of distilling, 
and other pharmaceutical apparatus ; the different kinds of glass and 
porcelain vessels useful in the laboratory and surgery ; and some other 
things, would probably find a place in the museum, but the art of 
medicine as a whole would not be represented. 

In the same way, so long as the Royal Agricultural Society and 
Highland Society watch over the interests of agriculture ; the Royal 
Academy over those of the fine arts ; the Architectural Society over 
those which occupy the builder ; the Society of Antiquaries over 
the ancient progress of all the arts, the extent to which the in- 
dustrial museum will charge itself with illustrating the scope 
of agriculture as an art ; with collecting the pigments, marbles, 
bronzes, and other materials with which the painter and the sculp- 
tor work ; with the accumulation of building materials ; and with the 
acquisition of examples of the earlier and ruder stages of industrial 
processes, will to a great degree depend upon the limits which may 
hereafter be agreed to, as boun ling the domains of the different societies 
named. Each of these bodies has a central province peculiar to itself, 
on which, even if it were unoccupied, the industrial museum would 
not intrude. Each of them has also a border-land which the museum 
cannot help overlapping, as it has a border-land which they unavoidably 
overlap. The extent to which this mutual infringement shall take place 
must be matter of amicable compromise. In any case an ample area, 
entirely its own, will be left to each institution, and all will be gainers 
by a wise division of the debated land. 

Such a collection I have supposed, of raw and workable materials, 
modifying agents, transforming machinery, and finished products, 
would prove specially instructive— 1. To those ignorant of the capa- 
bilities of an industrial art, and solicitous to appreciate them ; and 2. 
To those desirous of ascertaining the imperfections of an industrial art 
with a view to improve it. To the latter only will I refer. The chief 
and ultimate aim of an industrial museum is the improvement of the 
useful arts, which cease to exist, or exist only as stunted dwarfs 
where they do not make progress. But it is not only from the ranks of 
experienced workers in an art, that its improvers always or perhaps most 
frequently come. 

We are accustomed to say that every man knows his own trade 
best, and to warn the shoemaker not to step beyond his last. Although, 
however, the improvement of particular arts must mainly be looked for 
from those who have inherited a special pecuniary as well as profes- 
sional interest in them, still we must not forget the effect of custom in 
rendering men indifferent to defects, or of age in making them impa- 



318 INDUSTRIAL MUSEUMS IN THEIR 

tient of change ; nor, on the other hand, must we overlook the influence 
ot novelty and curiosity in exciting inventive ingenuity. The great 
improvers of the arts are either their devoted followers or total. 
strangers to them ; the indifferent general public prove, when they 
offer advice, only ignorant intermeddlers. The Huntingdon brewer, 
called Oliver Cromwell, could teach a military trick or two to Prince 
Rupert and his cavaiiers. The Newcastle collier, George Stephenson, 
was so wonderful at engineering, that they would not make him a civil 
engineer. The gardener, John Paxton, because he knew nothing of 
architecture, became Sir John as the architect of the Crystal Palace. I 
am not certain, indeed, that the industrial arts have not been as much 
advanced by strangers as by acquaintances. 

At all events, one of the chief, and I confess unexpected, obstacles I 
encountered in seeking to fill the industrial museum with examples of 
art, is the too humble estimate which men form of their own callings. I 
cannot persuade a shoemaker that shoes are of interest to any but shoe- 
makers and the barefooted public, although he look? with eager curiosity 
at my collection of hats in all their stages. I tried in vain to induce a 
very intelligent glassmaker to send me certain specimens of glass, till I 
showed him a full series of illustrations of brush-making. His eyes 
brightened with interest, and he admired the ingenious and unsuspected 
devices which an art strange to him revealed. Well, said I, be sure the 
brush-maker will be as much interested in your glass as you are in his 
brushes, so send me what I ask. I cannot, accordingly, help inferring 
that a stranger's curiosity will often make up for his defective experience, 
and that the industrial museum would secure his services for all the arts 
it represented. 

But whether such services be rendered by experts or by novices, 
this at least is most certain, that not one of the great industrial arts can 
stand still. In proportion as they are flourishing, every day witnesses 
old processes altered and new ones introduced. 

When the duty upon common salt was removed, and our practical 
chemists began to make soda from it, they threw into the air all the 
muriatic acid evolved from the salt. Their neighbours complained of 
the acid fumes, and, at immense expense, the chemists built gigantic 
chimneys to send the vapours nearer the stars. By and by the price of 
sulphur, with which they cannot dispense, rose, and they changed the 
construction of their furnaces so as to burn iron pyrites in them. Then 
the price of soda fell, and they blew up or dispensed with their tall 
chimneys, u*ing instead great condensers, and converting all the ob- 
noxious vapours into chloride of lime, or bleaching powder. Then the 
value of bleaching-powder altered, and they took to producing the chlo- 
rine which it contains in a new way ; afterwards the oxide of manganese, 
which is needed for that manufacture, grew scarce, and a most ingenious 
method of recovering it and using it again was devised, and is in practice. 
Lastly, not satisfied with the quality of the soda they made, they had 



RELATION TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 319 

mounted their huge furnaces on axles, and make them revolve like barrel- 
churns roasting on spits, so as thoroughly to intermingle all the ingre- 
dients which, by their mutual action, produce the alkali. 

This is no solitary case. Some years ago they were trying in a 
London court of law, at the instance of the excise'the question : " What 
is paper V This is one of those subtle legal problems which — like that 
other, "What is metal?" argued between a road mender, a glass blower, 
and an iron founder, each of whom calls the material with which he deals 
metal — will multiply on our hands in virtue of the very progression of 
the arts which I am considering. Yet waiving the question, " What is 
paper?" the theory of paper-making is simpler than that of almost any 
other of the industrial arts, but how is it with its practice? For years I 
have at short intervals availed myself of the privilege of visiting the 
admirable paper-mills in our neighbourhood. At, every visit I find some 
great change ; since I saw several of them a few months ago, important 
alterations have been made, and are still making. When our venerable 
townsman, Mr. Alexander Cowan began paper-making, it was all made 
by hand, by a process so slow, that they can do now in hours what took 
weeks, sometimes months, before. Year after year everything has been 
altered. On the chemical side — new bleaching agents, new correctors of 
the evils of over bleaching, new sizes and ways of making sizes, new 
colouring matters, new modes of glazing. On the mechanical side — 
new machines for rag-cutting, washing, boiling, paper-weaving, sizing, 
drying, cutting, folding, stamping. One half the arrangements within 
my own remembrance are totally new, and above the horizon, newer and 
newest devices arise on every side. 

If it is so with a comparatively simple art, how must it be with the 
more complex ones. The hot blast is but one accompaniment and index 
of the improved manufacture of iron. The Sydenham Palace is but one 
mark of the improvements in glass-making. Coal gas is but one step in 
the improved use of fuel. The whole machinery of sugar-making is as 
novel as it is economical. Bread can be baked on an hour's notice by iron 
hands as cleanly as expeditious. Steam-engines, which almost seem intel- 
ligent, card, dye, and weave, whatever textile raw material you give them 
and by and by cut it and sew it, if required. 

Had we only, accordingly, the old industrial arts, thus for ever 
renewing themselves, the necessity tor keeping pace with them would be 
argument enough for an industrial museum, where their progress could 
be watched and studied by all. But besides those elder sons and servants 
of mercantile enterprise — who, like the eagle, seem to grow younger as 
they grow older — think of the infant arts which have been born in our 
own day, and are younger than most of us. Each of them, a Hercules 
in his cradle, has already strangled serpents, and has more than twelve 
labours before him. Railway-making, electro-metallurgy, electro-tele- 
graphy, and photography, may here represent those Titanic babes, who, 
already with mature faces, are bidding all men look to the new time-ball 



320 INDUSTRIAL MUSEUMS IN THEIR 

which they hive dropped before them, and see that their chronometers 
are set by that. 

IV. I have hitherto referred almost solely to the exbibitional galleries 
of the museum. To render, however, their contents useful to the public, 
they must be carefully classified, intelligibly labelled, and described at 
some length in suitable catalogues. The museum therefore must include 
■within its walls a laboratory and workshop, where the nature of unknown 
substances, and the powers of new machines, may be investigated, and a 
library where the literature of industrial science may be available for 
the guidance of the officers of the institution in classifying the contents 
of the museum. Further, an essential appendage of an industrial 
museum is a lecture-room, where detailed prelections may be given on 
the contents of the museum, and where, in addition, the various indus- 
trial arts may be expounded in relation to the laws and principles on 
which they are based, and may be illustrated not only by the objects in 
the exhibitional galleries, but by maps, diagrams, drawings, chemical 
and mechanical experiments, the exhibition on the small scale of manu- 
facturing processes, and of machines at work ; as well as through the 
medium of the other appliances employed in university and other class- 
rooms by teachers of the physical sciences. 

All the existing industrial museums, except that at Kew, are sup- 
plemented by laboratory, library, and lecture-room in the way mentioned. 
All three likewise have, from the first, been associated with the indus- 
trial museum of Scotland, which, moreover, is the only museum of the 
kind, or indeed institution in the country, having a special chair of 
Technology attached to it. 

V. Apart, however, from the importance of those supplementary in- 
stitutions in enabling the curators of the museum to render it more in- 
structive to the public, two of them, namely, the laboratory (including 
the workshop) and the library, may themselves be made directly ser- 
viceable to the community. 

The laboratories of the industrial museums, besides affording those 
in charge of the latter the means of examining substances of general 
economic interest, are at the service of the public in two ways : — 1. As 
schools of analytical chemistry ; where, for moderate fees, young men 
may learn the art of chemical analysis as applied to industrial objects. 
2. As analytical laboratories ; where likewise, for moderate fees, mer- 
chants or others may have confidential analyses made of substances whose 
composition they seek for their own guidance to know ; and where the 
officers of the museums may be consulted by those engaged in legal con- 
tests, or in other transactions where the services of scientific advisers are 
required. 

An engineering workshop, as distinguished from a chemical labora- 
tory, has not yet been fully recognised, so far as I am aware, as one of 
the complements of an industrial museum, but sooner or later I cannot 
doubt it will be. I indulge the hope also, that it may be made service- 



RELATION TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 321 

able to the general public, for the testing of mechanical inventions, 
as the laboratories are for the testing chemical products and manufac- 
tures. Certainly, whether in connection with industrial museums, or 
with other institutions, it is very desirable that ingenious workmen and 
others of limited means should be able, at a moderate cost, to ascertain 
confidentially the value of embryo inventions before expending labour, 
time, and money on their perhaps unwise elaboration. Meanwhile, 
however, I only name the workshop as a subsidiary appendage to the 
laboratory. 

VI. The libraries of our industrial museums, as at present organised, 
are chiefly intended for the officers of these institutions, including to 
some extent the students in daily attendance for each session. Nor is it 
necessary or desirable than an industrial museum should provide reading 
for the general public, which is, or, if it chooses, may be , well cared for 
in the way of libraries. But a collection of books on applied science in 
French, German, and English, including the records of the patent offices 
or similar institutions of the civilised countries of the world, geographi- 
cal, geological, and mining maps and sections, illustrated works on 
architecture, ship-building, and machinery, and the like, would greatly 
add to the utility of an industrial museum , if arranged in its library, so 
as to be accessible for reference and consultation'by practical men. Such 
a library, it cannot be doubted, would receive many donations, and in all 
likelihood would prove the least costly, though not the least useful, com- 
plement of the museum. 

Such, then, is the fourfold idea embodied in the galleries, labora- 
tory, library, and lecture-room, which together constitute an industrial 
museum. As the counterpart of this, the merchants of the world have 
a fourfold duty to discharge : — 

1. To gather workable materials from the ends of the earth. 

2. To send forth finished products, derived from those, to the four 
quarters of the heavens. 

3. To employ the most perfect mechanical and chemical appliances 
which can change the one into the other, and facilitate their transmission 
throughout the world. 

4. To encourage new arts and hope for still newer ones. 
Before I close, let me indulge in two brief moralitdngs. 

What are the ends of commercial enterprise ? I will name but two : 
— 1. The making of money. 2. The civilising of the world. 

Firstly, I suppose you will not blame me for saying that the immediate 
end is the making of money, or for adding, that this money-making seems 
to me one of the most honest, innocent, and pleasant of occupations. I 
am not fortified in this original opinion by remembrance of any passage 
in Adam Smith's ' Wealth of Nations,' which indeed I never read. 1 am 
thinking of a passage in one of the writings of the poet Southey, who, 
like myself, never lost the pleasure of money-making by having a surfeit 

VOL. IV. r> D 



322 INDUSTRIAL MUSEUMS AND THEIR 

of it. To " owe no man anything," and that it is to be " worse than an 
infidel " not to provide for his own household, are as certainly divine pre- 
cepts, as that " the love of money is the root of all evil," and that "hast- 
ing to be rich multiplieth sorrows." There is only the difference that a 
blessing goes with the first, and a curse with the last. Southey was right. 
Honestly earned wages are as true a quiddam honorarium, a gracious 
largesse, as any sum which the lawyer or physician, looking the other 
way, finds fall into his palm. To know that, by work of brain, or heart, 
or hand, or rather by all together, you have earned a penny, copper or 
golden as the case may be, which you may honestly expend on some law- 
ful want, in gratification of some innocent intellectual taste, or eesthetieal 
desire, for the carrying out of some moral purpose, or for the comfort of 
some beloved relative or friend, is one of the truest delights left to us, 
after the flush of early youth has passed away. 

And the necessity which lies upon every man, high and low, except 
the uncaught thief, to serve other men, and be paid by them as his task- 
masters, is not the least pleasant leaf of that Dulcamara, bitter-sweet, 
which Adam found growing everywhere beyond the gates of Eden. 
Honourable service is the only freedom which belongs to man, and the 
spirit of brotherly interest and sympathy never rises higher than between 
the noble master and the noble servant. 

Secondly, The museum which I have been commending to you is a 
museum of the industry of the world in relation to ourselves. It cannot 
be less than this ; and as this it will increase our civilization, and add 
-to our power to civilize the rest of the world. We have deserved well 
of the other nations of the globe as improvers of the industrial arts, 
but they also have deserved well of us. Tea, coffee, sugar, tobacco, 
opium, cinchona, cotton, caoutchouc, gutta-percha, guano, have all been 
bestowed upon us by distant tribes. The Chinese have taught us to 
weave silk, to make paper and porcelain. The Indians have shown us 
how to dye. The Venetians have given us the modern art of glass- 
making. Our soda process is originally a French invention. The im- 
provements introduced into the colonial manufacture of cane-sugar are 
largely borrowed from the processes introduced by the continental 
growers of the beet-root. There is not a single invention or discovery, 
indeed, not excepting even the steam-engine, of which we as a people 
can claim more than the lion's share ; and seeing that in our veins runs 
the mingled blood of I know not how many unlike races, it would be very 
strange if it were otherwise. 

To no one nation has been given the monopoly of genius, construc- 
tive skill, and practical sagacity. All our modern arts, such as photo- 
graphy and electro-metallurgy, have been rapidly developed by the 
combined activity of quick-witted men all over the globe. Take in special 
illustration of this two examples. The lucifer-match, although it was 
born late in our own day, has this peculiarity about it, that no one, dead 



RELATION TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 323 

or living, claims its invention. Although there is nothing God-like in its 
name, it is as much dissociated from a human inventor as those universal 
instruments of art, which the ancients held to be of divine origin. And 
the cause of this simply is, that it embodies the productions of so many 
countries, and the skill of so many men, and the thoughts of so many 
centuries, that no individual of any nation or epoch can call it 
his. 

The same remark applies to the electric telegraph. It belongs to no 
single man or nation. Volta the Italian, Oersted the Dane, Steinhill 
the German, Ampere the Frenchman, Faraday and Wheatstone of 
England, Bain and William Thomson of Scotland, Morse of the United 
States, are but a few among the many between whom the merit of 
establishing the telegraph must be, though unequally, divided. 

The inability, as all history shows, of any single nation to be suffi- 
cient for itself, and the teaching of the nations by each other, which each 
successive age sees carried further and further, furnish the sure and broad 
foundation of the mighty civilizing power of commercial enterprise. The 
vast ends which God has had in view in dividing the globe amongst races 
so different as those which, since the secular historic period, have occu- 
pied its surface, are to us but dimly apparent. Yet we seem able to read 
a purpose of slowly opening up the world more and more as the centuries 
flow on. Not to the Egyptian, the Assyrian, the Indian, the Hebrew, 
the Greek, or the Roman, but to men of our own day and generation, 
has the Ruler of All given the keys with which our Watts and Stephen- 
sons and Faradays have unlocked the barrier-gates of the world, and 
made over its surface one continuous highway. Surely, without cant or 
pretence, I may affirm that this is the sign of the times for you. If we 
refuse to interpret Chinese and other placards bearing the ambiguous 
statement, " No passage this way," and suffer only the announcement, 
"No admittance but on business," let us see, when admitted on that plea, 
that our business is a noble one. Once, like the raven from the Ark, 
we found in the days of war no rest in all the world for the sdes of our 
feet ; now, like Noah's dove, we may pluck the olive leaves of peace 
wherever we will. To civilize the world through commerce, and stretch 
forth the hands of brethren to all the nations of the globe, is a mighty 
work, which God has largely given to our nation to effect, and he has 
laid the duty specially and honourably on those represented by 
you. 

But why do I trouble you with my words 1 Was there not a parable 
spoken more than 1800 years ago, in answer to him who asked, " Who 
is my neighbour ? " Did not the lawyer, the physician — even the clergy- 
man — pass by him that had fallen among thieves, and leave the Samaritan 
merchant to interrupt his business journey, and help the unfortunate? Is 
it not curious to come across so minute a piece of ancient business- 
detail ; the pouring of oil and wine into the wounds ; the payment in 



324 THE CULTURE AND TRADE OF SUMACH. 

ready money to the innkeeper of as much as could be spared from the 
scantily-filled travelling purse ; the bond for further expenses which 
might be incurred by the sick man, and which the merchant should 
repay when he returned with the monies which he expected to receive 1 
And do not all nations since call that merchant the Good Samaritan ? 
Yes ! and the parable was spoken by Him who, with His divine hands, 
handled the carpenter's tools, and in thus honouring the humblest 
handicraft, left, us, as in all else, an example that we should follow His 
steps. 



THE CULTURE AND TRADE OF SUMACH. 

BY THE EDITOR. 

Sumach is an article of great importance to the Sicilians, as well as to 
ourselves and other countries, for dyeing and tanning purposes, for in 
many years our imports exceed 19,000 tons This article and sulphur 
are the main staples of Sicily. 

There are two species of sumach grown in Europe. 

1. The currier's sumach (Rhus coi'iaria, Linn.), so named by the an- 
cients from the bark and all the parts of the plant, owing to their astrin- 
gent character, serving to tan skins. Pliny (Book xxiv. cap. 11) speaks 
of the employment of this shrub for tanning, and it is also mentioned by 
Dioscorides. This species is found growing spontaneously in dry and 
stony ground in the south of France, Spain, Italy, the Levant, and 
Barbary. 

2. Fustic sumach (Rhus cotinus, Linn.). The leaves of this species are 
employed in manufactures for the same purposes as the former. The 
shrub is found growing on hillocks and arid soils in Switzerland, Italy, 
and the southern departments of France. 

In Algeria R. pentaphylla, an indigenous species, is used for tanning 
and dyeing ; and the powder of it was shown at the last International 
Exhibition. In North America several indigenous species are also used. 
The bark of the Virginia sumach, R. typhina, is powdered for tanning in 
the Northern States, and R. glabra in the Middle States. 

Professor Arnaudor (Technologist, vol. iii., p. 287), in an article on 
the Tanning Materials, &c. of Italy, has given some information on the 
trade in sumach, to which may be added with advantage the following 
further particulars. 

In Sicily they set the roots or small plants from two to three feet 
apart, not always in regular rows. They hoe it two or three times before 
the rains finish in May, and gather it in July and August. The leaves 



THE CULTURE AND TRADE OF SUMACH. 325 

are the only parts made use of. After being separated from the twigs by 
threshing or by treading oil with oxen or horses, the leaves are then 
ground to the state of fineness in which we see it in commerce, being 
passed first through sieves or bolting cloths, and afterwards put into 
bags of 160lbs. each. 

The proper season for planting the roots or plants is in November, 
December, and January. When the season is rainy the plants take root 
better. The root or stump is cut off from four to six inches above ground. 
The scions or sprouts spring up four to six out of each root ; and when 
at maturity, which in Sicily is July or August, they are all cut off at the 
stump and laid in small handfuls (not spread out much, as the sun will 
turn the leaves yellow) to dry — say for a day or two — great care being 
taken that no rain falls on them. 

Ihe leaves are ground in mills mostly by horse power, but water or 
steam power would be much cheaper and better. The perpendicular 
running stones weigh nearly 3,000 pounds ; they run double or single 
round an upright shaft. The nether or foundation stone is heavier and 
one-third larger in diameter than the running stones. The grinding sur- 
face of these latter is slightly rough, being occasionally touched with the 
pick or cold chisel. Hard granite stones answer ; in Sicily they use a 
volcanic stone which is as hard as marble. There follows round the run- 
ning stones a little piece of wood that keeps the leaves always under the 
stones. When ground fine enough it is sifted or bolted in a large air- 
tight room, with a door to enter and fill the bags. In Sicily the article 
is more or less adulterated with spurious stuff, such as other kinds of 
leaves, and an article called brucca, which resembles the juniper bush of 
North America, and has no value in itself. 

I believe the first year they do not cut off the sprouts. In the second 
and following years a curious freak of nature produces a single plant a 
foot or so distant from the original root, and this little sucker it is, which 
they usually make use of to transplant. 

The soil of Sicily generally is a limestone formation or a reddish soil. 
Sumach is cultivated in the valleys or level grounds, or on the sides of 
the mountains ; it requires no rain for two months before harvesting it. 
The soil is so fertile that the ground is not manured at all for sumach. 
The superiority of Sicilian sumach over that of other countries arises ap- 
parently from the mode of cultivation. All the leaves are the produc- 
tion of the sprouts that spring up from the stump every year. Being 
so young, the leaves are full of life when cut, and have not decayed like 
those of old trees. This with a dry climate in the latter part of the 
season, and the soil suiting the plant, gives it the high reputation it has 
all over Europe and America. 

In some parts of Naples, and in Sardinia, as well as Sicily, a great 
trade is carried on in sumach, and there are few arid hills in the latter 
island where this small shrub is not cultivated. At Palermo, especially, 



326 THE WILD RICE OP NORTH AMERICA. 

bags of sumach are at all times to be seen piled up destined for shipment 
to various places, chiefly to England and the United States, where 
there is a large consumption. It is to the trade in sumach that several 
merchants in Sicily owe their large fortunes. 

An infusion of sumach yields a fawn colour bordering on green. It is 
a substantive colour, but may be altered and improved by the judicious 
application of mordants. The principal use, however, of sumach in dye- 
ing is the production of black by means of the large quantity of gallic 
acid which it affords. 

In calico printing sumach affords with a mordant of tin a yellow 
colour ; with acetate of iron, weak or strong, a gray or black ; and with 
the sulphate of zinc, a brownish yellow. Sumach is much used in tanning 
for preparing the skins of sheep and goats for Turkey or Morocco leather. 
The odour of sumach is agreeable and penetrating. Davy found in 480 
parts of Sicilian sumach 78 parts of tannin. 

Under the name of tanner's sumach, and " sumac de Redon," in France 
the powdered leaves of Coriaria myrtifolia, from their astringent proper- 
ties, are occasionally used on the continent for tanning leather and dye- 
ing black, but this substance is much inferior to the powder obtained from 
the leaves of the Rhus. 



THE WILD RICE OF NORTH AMERICA (ZIZANIA 
AQUATIC A). 

The water-oats, or wild Indian rice, common in many parts of the 
North American continent, and we believe also in Russia, is a wholesome 
nourishing article of diet, which deserves to be better known than it is 
at present. 

The flower-stem comes up sheathed in a delicate green, membranous 
leaf, and displays the elegant awned flowers ; from these the anthers 
depend, of a delicate straw colour and purple, which have a most grace- 
ful effect waving in the wind. The upper or spiked part is the one 
that bears the seed. The green grassy leaves fall back from the stem, 
and float upon the surface when they are no longer needed to protect 
the seed. The plant grows in vast beds, in still waters, in a depth of 
from three to eight feet, where there is a great deposit of mud and sand. 
In many places, where there is little current, these beds increase so as 
materially to fill up the shallow lakes, and impede the progress of boats 
on their surface. 

The plant is usually six feet high or more, and has a panicle with 
male flowers above and female below. It has been found growing wild 
in the North "West Territory, in the lakes and streams all over the 



THE WILD RICE OP NORTH AMERICA. 327 

country. In Minnesota, Illinois, and many other American States, as 
well as Canada, it is common. 

When the rice begins to show the tender green blade above the 
water, the lakes seem to be studded with low verdant islands. It comes 
into flower in July and August. The leaves attain a great length, some 
have been measured of the great length of 11 to 13 feet. In the month 
of September, in Canada, in the North Western states, rather earlier, 
the grains are fully ripe and withered. It is so loosely enclosed between 
the bearded husks as to fall out at the slightest puff of wind, hence the 
harvest can only be continued for a few days after the maturity of the 
crop. The stalk and the branches or ears that have the seed, are de- 
scribed as resembling oats, both in appearance and manner of growing, 
the stalks being full of joints, and rising from two to four feet above 
the level of the water. 

The squaws collect the seed by paddling through the rice beds, and 
with a stick in one hand, and a sort of sharp-edged curved paddle in the 
other, striking the ripe heads down into the canoe, the ripe grain 
falling to the bottom. Many bushels are thus collected. An Indian 
squaw will gather from five to ten bushels per day. "Very great 
quantities grow on all the lakes in the Minnesota territory. The outlets 
and bays are filled with it. It is the main reliance of the Indians 
during the winter months, for their subsistence. The green rice is 
dried in the following manner in Canada. The Indians make an 
enclosure on a square area of dry ground, by sticking branches of pine 
or cedar close together, to form a sort of hedge. In the centre of this 
place they drive in forked sticks, in a square of several feet, across 
which they lay others, and on this rude frame they extend mats of 
bass or cedar, for the manufacture of which the Indian women are 
renowned. They light a fire beneath this frame, and when reduced to 
hot glowing embers, the rice is spread on the mats above the fire ; the 
green enclosure is to keep the heat from escaping ; the rice is kept 
stirred and turned with a wooden shovel or paddle, and after it is dried, 
the husk is winnowed from it in large open baskets shaken in the 
wind. 

Professor Randall, of Cincinnati, and General Veiplanck, late Com- 
missioner to the Chippewa Indians, consider it to be superior in taste, 
and far more nutritious than Southern rice. It is long, narrow, and of 
an olive-green colour outside. The kernels are larger, and its flavour 
is better ; for when boiled and stewed, and left to cool, it forms a con- 
sistent mass, like good wheat bread. Boiled like ordinary rice it is 
very palatable. The appearance, however, is not inviting, as the outer 
skin of the hulled rice is dark -coloured, though the inside is white as 
the Carolina kind. This may be owing to some difficulty in preserving 
it, and, probably, if more completely hulled the objection would dis- 
appear. 



328 THE TRADE IN LOGWOOD. 

The parched Indian rice is heated in pots over a slow fire, till it bursts 
and shows the white floury part within the dark skin. This sort is 
eaten by the Indians in their soups and stews, which are chiefly made 
of game, venison, and wild fowl ; and often also dry by handfuls, when 
on journeys, as the parched corn of the Israelites. The wild rice is sold 
in the stores of Canada at 10s. a bushel. The Indians sow it up in mats 
or coarse birch baskets to keep it. 

The gathering of wild rice is rarely practised by the settlers, whose 
time can be more profitably employed on their farms ; but we have 
thought the description of harvesting it might not be devoid of interest, 
since in men, who have gone exploring or " lumbering" on the shores of 
lonely lakes and rivers, far from the haunts of civilised man, have some- 
times been reduced to worse shifts than gathering wild rice to supply 
their wants. 



THE TRADE IN LOGWOOD. 

BY THE EDITOR. 



Of the annual imports of logwood — some 41,000 tons per annum 
of the value of 256,000Z. — the largest cmantity, more than one-third, 
now comes from the West India Islands, and about 6,000 tons each 
from Hayti, from Belize, and from the Northern Atlantic American 
ports. The tree which supplies it, the Hcematoxylon Campeachianum 
reaches fifty feet in height. The wood is hard and dense, having 
a greater specific gravity than water. The pinnate leaves are hand- 
some, of a fine dark glossy green colour ; the flowers are pea-shaped 
in fine yellow racemes. The trunk is cut into large logs ; the 
bark and alburnum, or white wood is chopped off; the dark-red 
inner wood being the only valuable portion. The value is in proportion 
to the size "of the logs, the largest being the most prized : but it is 
chiefly imported in short lengths. We chip or grind, and pack it in casks 
and bags ready for the dyers', hatters', and calico printers' use, who esteem 
it as affording the most durable, deep red and black dyes ; but before 
doing so it is generally conveyed in the state as imported to the manu- 
facturing towns, where it is frequently deposited and stacked on wharves 
for a great length of time before being ground or used. The wood being 
very haid, of a fine compact grain, is almost indestructible by the 
atmospheric influence. It was first introduced into England in the 
reign of Elizabeth, but as it afforded to the unskilful dyers of her time 
a fugitive colour it was not only prohibited from being used, under 
severe penalties, but was ordered to be burned wheresoever found, by a 



THE TRADE IN LOGWOOD. 329 

law passed in the 23rd year of her reign. At length, after a century of 
absurd prohibition it was allowed to be used. Alcohol extracts most of 
the active principles of this wood and forma a deep coloured tincture. 
The cutting, barking, and transport of logwood also known in the 
European market as Campechy wood (Palo de Campeche) is a branch 
of industry conducted in Yucatan. The tree is indigenous to the forests 
of Tabasco, to the lowlands, islands, and banks of rivers, and lagoons, 
and gives employment to very many, forming the principal article of 
foreign export from that State. 

Far from the laud producing it in abundance it begins to disappear. 
It is seldom met with near the mountains, although when planted on the 
highlands and hills it arrives at perfection. To procure it cutting 
establishments are formed in those places where it abounds, which are 
called " tintales," and a more or less considerable capital is employed 
in procuring hands, tools, boats, victuals, and other articles necessary to 
the undertaking. It is cut with the axe, and is a work of torment, for 
the low lands in which it grows are very marshy, and teem with mos- 
quitoes. However, it is the most lucrative for the labourer. For in- 
stance, in husbandry, say in the breeding of cattle, the labourer, if mar- 
ried, gets four dollars per month, and three if unmarried, besides the 
food necessary for his family. Whilst in the tintales every labourer 
whether married or single, is paid according to his labour, and as there 
is no overseer, as in cultivation, to take note of their work, each makes a 
separate delivery, keeping a daily account of weight and date in the 
" tintales," from which they cannot remove the wood until the 
floods. 

They employ themselves in cutting and stacking it, till the season 
approaches in which it is removed in small boats ; then each person 
barks and delivers by weight as much as he has cut, and this is divided 
into daily tasks (tareas), and the value of each tarea is placed to his credit. 
These tareas consisted formerly of 25 pieces, averaging nine inches in 
thickness, and weighing between ten and twelve Castilian quintals, or 
cwt. without the bark. This method is still in vogue in some establish- 
ments, but in others the tarea has been reduced to four or five light 
quintals barked and brought to the loading-place. It is calculated that 
when there is abundance of wood a man of mediocre strength can com- 
pass that amount of labour in a few hours. Some labourers are paid a 
real and a half (9|d.) for every quintal delivered within certain bounds ; 
these are called quintaleros, and their families are not maintained by the 
proprietor. But most commonly eight reals per tarea are paid, and that 
shows that the labour applied to this branch produces 150 per cent, 
more than the farm labour, supposing a man does not cut more than 
half a tarea a day, which, including the food he receives, amounts to 
five reals. The farm labourer only receives two, hence it is that logwood 
cutters look better and are more comfortable than the others, although 
VOL. IV. E E 



330 THE TRADE IN LOGWOOD. 

they work much harder, having the means of satisfying all their wants. 
The export of logwood in the last year of the Cauipeche settlement, 
1718, was no less than 5,863 tons. 

The Honduras logwood trade has not increased of late years, although 
the dye it yields is superior to that obtained from the wood cut in Jamaica 
and St. Domingo. The Honduras and Yucatan wood sells for Gl. 6s. to 
91 103. per ton, and the Jamaica and St. Domingo wood for 51. to 51. 10s. per 
ton ; this is a very different price from that which it realised in Dampier's 
days. He tells us that it then sold for 100Z. per ton, which, allowing for 
the difference in money, would be equal to nearly 200?. at the present 
day. The Jamaica and St. Domingo wood is used in the dyeing of car- 
pets and other coarse cloths, while the Central American is employed 
for dyeing all kinds of woollen, cotton, and silk fabrics. A considerable 
quantity of logwood is shipped from Honduras to Oporto (according to a 
piper by Chief Justice Temple in the 'Journal of the Society of Arts'), 
whence it comes to us as prime port wine, recommended by the factdty 
for its superior nutritious and astringent qualities. A large quantity of 
logwood is also exported to the United States. 

Captain Dampier, the celebrated navigator, who wrote an account of 
his voyage to the Bay of Honduras in the year 1674, gives some interest- 
ing details of the rise of the logwood trade. He thus describes the 
trees : — " They are much like our whitethorns in England, but generally 
a great deal bigger ; the rind of the young growing branches is white 
and smooth, with some prickles shooting forth here and there, so that 
an Englishman not knowing the difference, would take them for white- 
thorns, but the body and the old branches are blackish, the rind rougher, 
with few or no prickles. The leaves are small and shaped like the com- 
mon whitethorn leaf, of a palish green. We always chose to cut the old 
black-rinded trees, for these have less sap, and require but little pains 
to cut and chip them. The sap wood is white and the heart red ; the 
heart is much used for dyeing, therefore we chip off all the white sap 
till we come to the heart, and then it is fit to be transported to Europe. 
After it has been chipped a little while it turns black, and if it lies in 
the water it dyes it like ink, anil sometimes it has been used to write 
with. Some trees are five or six feet in circumference, and these we can 
scarce cut into logs small enough for a man's burden without great 
labour, and therefore we are forced to blow them up. It is a very pon- 
derous sort of wood, and burns very well, making a clear strong fire and 
very lasting. We always harden the steels of our fire-arms when they 
are faulty in a logwood fire, if we can get it." 

Logwood contains, according to Chevreul, a peculiar colouring prin- 
ciple, which he has termed hematin, and which may be obtained as 
follows : — On the watery extract of logwood digest alcohol for a day, 
filter the solution, evaporate gently again, and then leave the liquid at 
rest. Hematin is deposited in small crystals, which after washing 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES. 331 

with alcohol, are brilliant and of a reddish white colour. Their taste is 
bitter and astringent. 

Hem